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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a childhood leukemia international consortium study.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype.
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Racial comparison of receptor-defined breast cancer in southern african women: subtype prevalence and age-incidence analysis of nationwide cancer registry data.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Receptor-defined breast cancer proportions vary across Africa. They have important implications for survival prospects and research priorities.
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Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000 - 2006: A report from the South African national cancer registry.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry South Africa in 2000 - 2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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0379?Should we take major macro-economic and political developments into account when assessing long-term occupational exposures for epidemiological research?
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Recent analyses of long-term trends in respirable dust and quartz concentrations from the long term monitoring program of the European Industrial Minerals Association (IMA-Europe) Dust Monitoring Program (covering the years 2000-2013) showed striking downward temporal trends in exposure which came to a halt at around the year 2009. Careful analyses and discussion with occupational health and safety representatives pointed at a direct detrimental effect of the current economic crisis on measured concentrations. This observation led us to hypothesise that similar disruptions of downward temporal trends in occupational exposures might also be visible in other large databases with longitudinal exposure measurements.
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0373?Pooling case-control studies for enhanced evidence on occupational risk factors in lung cancer research - the SYNERGY project.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Explore quantitative exposure-response association for exposure to asbestos, crystalline silica, nickel, chromium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the general population; further study effects on specific cell types and potential interaction with smoking and co-occurring occupational exposures.
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0365?Challenges to occupational cancer epidemiology in Qatar.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Assess exposures to occupational carcinogens in Qatar
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Studying the impact of early life exposures to pesticides on the risk of testicular germ cell tumors during adulthood (TESTIS project): study protocol.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), the most common cancer in men aged 15 to 45 years, has doubled over the last 30 years in developed countries. Reasons remain unclear but a role of environmental factors, especially during critical periods of development, is strongly suspected. Reliable data on environmental exposure during this critical time period are sparse. Little is known on whether it could be a combined effect of early and later-life exposures.
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Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and brain tumor risks in the INTEROCC study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF) is a suspected risk factor for brain tumors, however the literature is inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether ELF in different time windows of exposure may be associated with specific histologic types of brain tumors. This study examines the association between ELF and brain tumors in the large-scale INTEROCC study.
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[Testicular germ cell tumours and early exposures to pesticides: The TESTEPERA pilot study].
Bull Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the most frequent cancer in men aged between 15 and 45 years. Current hypotheses are focusing on environmental exposures occurring during prenatal periods. However, very few studies have explored intra-uterine environmental exposure related to TGCT. TESTEPERA is a pilot case-control study aiming to determine the effectiveness of different recruitment approaches in the French context and to verify our ability to collect relevant data on their prenatal periods. Between 2011 and 2012, 150 male subjects were contacted in the Rhône-Alpes region (58 cases from a cancer center and 92 controls from a regional maternity). Participation rate varied from 33% for cases diagnosed in 2008 vs 68% for cases diagnosed in 2010. Participation rate of controls varied depending on modalities of contact (13% for face-to-face recruitment; 0% for contact by phone only; 50% for face-to-face contact with phone reminder). Data collection allowed precise job identification and geolocation of subjects' addresses. Precision of geolocation was dependent upon the level of urbanization (p < 0.001) but not on the time period (p = 0.52). Our results support the feasibility of a case-control study focusing on the relation between TGCT and environmental pesticide exposures during early and later life.
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Regional variations in German mesothelioma mortality rates: 2000–2010.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Germany has one of the highest age-adjusted mesothelioma mortality rates worldwide. As mesothelioma occurs ? 30 years after asbestos exposure, contemporary rates likely reflect exposures in the 1960-1970s. During this period, political division between West and East Germany led to differences regarding the import and consumption of asbestos. It is unclear whether mesothelioma rates also differ between these formerly separate countries which are now served by similar health and mortality reporting systems, thereby facilitating regional comparisons.
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Parental occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of childhood leukemia in the offspring: findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Maternal occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy and/or paternal occupational pesticide exposure around conception have been suggested to increase risk of leukemia in the offspring. With a view to providing insight in this area we pooled individual level data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC). Occupational data were harmonized to a compatible format. Pooled individual analyses were undertaken using unconditional logistic regression. Using exposure data from mothers of 8,236 cases, and 14,850 controls, and from fathers of 8,169 cases and 14,201 controls the odds ratio (OR) for maternal exposure during pregnancy and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78, 1.30] and for paternal exposure around conception 1.20 (95% 1.06, 1.38). For acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the OR for maternal exposure during pregnancy was 1.94 (CI 1.19, 3.18) and for paternal exposure around conception 0.91 (CI 0.66, 1.24.) based on data from 1,329 case and 12,141 control mothers, and 1,231 case and 11,383 control fathers. Our finding of a significantly increased risk of AML in the offspring with maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy is consistent with previous reports. We also found a slight increase in risk of ALL with paternal exposure around conception which appeared to be more evident in children diagnosed at the age of 5 years or more and those with T cell ALL which raises interesting questions on possible mechanisms.
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Stage at breast cancer diagnosis and distance from diagnostic hospital in a periurban setting: a South African public hospital case series of over 1,000 women.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Advanced stage at diagnosis contributes to low breast cancer survival rates in sub-Saharan Africa. Living far from health services is known to delay presentation, but the effect of residential distance to hospital, the radius at which this effect sets in and the women most affected have not been quantified. In a periurban South African setting, we examined the effect of a geographic information system (GIS)-measured straight-line distance, from a patient's residence to diagnostic hospital, on stage at diagnosis in 1,071 public-sector breast cancer patients diagnosed during 2006-2012. Generalized linear models were used to estimate risk ratios for late stage (stage III/IV vs. stage I/II) associated with distance, adjusting for year of diagnosis, age, race and socioeconomic indicators. Mean age of patients was 55 years, 90% were black African and diagnoses were at stages I (5%), II (41%), III (46%) and IV (8%). Sixty-two percent of patients with distances >20 km (n?=?338) had a late stage at diagnosis compared to 50% with distances <20 km (n?=?713, p?=?0.02). Risk of late stage at diagnosis was 1.25-fold higher (95% CI: 1.09, 1.42) per 30 km. Effects were pronounced in an underrepresented group of patients over age 70. This positive stage-distance association held to 40 km, and plateaued or slightly reversed in patients (9%) living beyond this distance. Studies of woman and the societal and healthcare-level influences on these delays and on the late stage at diagnosis distribution are needed to inform interventions to improve diagnostic stage and breast cancer survival in this and similar settings.
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Survival from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in West Germany: does socio-demographic background matter?
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Sex, age, immunophenotype and white blood cell count at diagnosis are well accepted predictors of survival from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children. Less is known about the relationship between socio-economic determinants and survival from paediatric ALL, studied here for the first time in German children.
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Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32-1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p?
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Parental occupational exposure and risk of childhood central nervous system tumors: a pooled analysis of case-control studies from Germany, France, and the UK.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To assess the risk of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors associated with parental occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), diesel motor exhaust (DME), asbestos, crystalline silica, and metals, which are established carcinogens in adults.
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Distance to high-voltage power lines and risk of childhood leukemia--an analysis of confounding by and interaction with other potential risk factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated whether there is an interaction between distance from residence at birth to nearest power line and domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution, respectively, in relation to childhood leukemia risk. Further, we investigated whether adjusting for potential confounders alters the association between distance to nearest power line and childhood leukemia. We included 1024 cases aged <15, diagnosed with leukemia during 1968-1991, from the Danish Cancer Registry and 2048 controls randomly selected from the Danish childhood population and individually matched by gender and year of birth. We used geographical information systems to determine the distance between residence at birth and the nearest 132-400 kV overhead power line. Concentrations of domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution (NOx at the front door) were estimated using validated models. We found a statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon regarding risk of childhood leukemia (p?=?0.01) when using the median radon level as cut-off point but not when using the 75th percentile (p?=?0.90). We found no evidence of an interaction between distance to nearest power line and traffic-related air pollution (p?=?0.73). We found almost no change in the estimated association between distance to power line and risk of childhood leukemia when adjusting for socioeconomic status of the municipality, urbanization, maternal age, birth order, domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution. The statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon was based on few exposed cases and controls and sensitive to the choice of exposure categorization and might, therefore, be due to chance.
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Effect Modification of the Association of Cumulative Exposure and Cancer Risk by Intensity of Exposure and Time Since Exposure Cessation: A Flexible Method Applied to Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer in the SYNERGY Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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The indiscriminate use of the cumulative exposure metric (the product of intensity and duration of exposure) might bias reported associations between exposure to hazardous agents and cancer risk. To assess the independent effects of duration and intensity of exposure on cancer risk, we explored effect modification of the association of cumulative exposure and cancer risk by intensity of exposure. We applied a flexible excess odds ratio model that is linear in cumulative exposure but potentially nonlinear in intensity of exposure to 15 case-control studies of cigarette smoking and lung cancer (1985-2009). Our model accommodated modification of the excess odds ratio per pack-year of cigarette smoking by time since smoking cessation among former smokers. We observed negative effect modification of the association of pack-years of cigarette smoking and lung cancer by intensity of cigarette smoke for persons who smoked more than 20-30 cigarettes per day. Patterns of effect modification were similar across individual studies and across major lung cancer subtypes. We observed strong negative effect modification by time since smoking cessation. Application of our method in this example of cigarette smoking and lung cancer demonstrated that reducing a complex exposure history to a metric such as cumulative exposure is too restrictive.
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Distance from residence to power line and risk of childhood leukemia: a population-based case-control study in Denmark.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Epidemiological studies have found an association between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and childhood leukemia. In 2005, a large British study showed an association between proximity of residence to high-voltage power lines and the risk of childhood leukemia. The association extended beyond distances at which the power line-induced magnetic fields exceed background levels, suggesting that the association was not explained by the magnetic field, but might be due to chance, bias, or other risk factors associated with proximity to power lines. Our aim was to conduct a comparable study in an independent setting (Denmark).
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Lung cancer risk among hairdressers: a pooled analysis of case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 2010.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers were observed in large registry-based cohort studies from Scandinavia, but these studies could not adjust for smoking. Our objective was to evaluate the lung cancer risk among hairdressers while adjusting for smoking and other confounders in a pooled database of 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand between 1985 and 2010 (the Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies on the Joint Effects of Occupational Carcinogens in the Development of Lung Cancer). Lifetime occupational and smoking information was collected through interviews with 19,369 cases of lung cancer and 23,674 matched population or hospital controls. Overall, 170 cases and 167 controls had ever worked as hairdresser or barber. The odds ratios for lung cancer in women were 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.35) without adjustment for smoking and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.68) with adjustment for smoking; however, women employed before 1954 also experienced an increased lung cancer risk after adjustment for smoking (odds ratio = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.47). The odds ratios in male hairdressers/barbers were generally not elevated, except for an increased odds ratio for adenocarcinoma in long-term barbers (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.77). Our results suggest that the increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers are due to their smoking behavior; single elevated risk estimates should be interpreted with caution and need replication in other studies.
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Welding and lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Several epidemiologic studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among welders. We used the SYNERGY project database to assess welding as a risk factor for developing lung cancer. The database includes data on 15,483 male lung cancer cases and 18,388 male controls from 16 studies in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand conducted between 1985 and 2010. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between regular or occasional welding and lung cancer were estimated, with adjustment for smoking, age, study center, and employment in other occupations associated with lung cancer risk. Overall, 568 cases and 427 controls had ever worked as welders and had an odds ratio of developing lung cancer of 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.67) with the odds ratio increasing for longer duration of welding. In never and light smokers, the odds ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.79). The odds ratios were somewhat higher for squamous and small cell lung cancers than for adenocarcinoma. Another 1,994 cases and 1,930 controls had ever worked in occupations with occasional welding. Work in any of these occupations was associated with some elevation of risk, though not as much as observed in regular welders. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that welding is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.
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Testicular cancer incidence to rise by 25% by 2025 in Europe? Model-based predictions in 40 countries using population-based registry data.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Testicular cancer mainly affects White Caucasian populations, accounts for 1% of all male cancers, and is frequently the most common malignancy among young adult men. In light of the escalating rates of testicular cancer incidence in Europe, and in support of future planning to ensure optimal care of patients with what can be a curable disease, we predict the future burden in 40 European countries around 2025.
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Extended cancer mortality follow-up of a German rubber industry cohort.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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We extended follow-up of a cohort of German rubber industry workers (active or retired in 1981) by 9 years (1992 to 2000) to reassess previously observed cancer mortality risks.
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Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso/leg tumors were compared (IRR ratios) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma remained near unity. Among men, the IRR for melanoma of the head and neck was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 2.22) after a minimum 13-year follow-up, whereas the corresponding IRR for the torso and legs was 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.47), yielding an IRR ratio of 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users.
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Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective study.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Results from some retrospective studies suggest a possible increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma in users of mobile phones.
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Residential Distance to High-voltage Power Lines and Risk of Neurodegenerative Diseases: a Danish Population-based Case-Control Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between residential distance to high-voltage power lines and neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimers disease. A Swiss study previously found increased risk of Alzheimers disease for people living within 50 m of a power line. A register-based case-control study including all patients diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases during the years 1994-2010 was conducted among the entire adult population of Denmark. Using conditional logistic regression models, hazard ratios for ever living close to a power line in the time period 5-20 years before diagnosis were computed. The risks for developing dementia, Parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, and motor neuron disease were not increased in persons living within close vicinity of a power line. The risk of Alzheimers disease was not increased for ever living within 50 m of a power line (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.69, 1.56). No dose-response according to number of years of living within 50 m of a power line was observed, but there were weak indications of an increased risk for persons diagnosed by the age of 75 years. Overall, there was little support for an association between neurodegenerative disease and living close to power lines.
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Breast cancer characteristics and HIV among 1,092 women in Soweto, South Africa.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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In the low-income HIV-endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, malignancies related to HIV have long been recognized as a major public health problem. However, epithelial malignancies associated with older age, such as breast cancer, are also rising dramatically in those regions. We compared consecutive HIV-positive and -negative black women diagnosed with breast cancer at a large public hospital in Soweto, South Africa, on age, year of diagnosis, stage, grade, and receptor status, and grouped HIV-positive patients by CD4 cell counts. We computed prevalence ratios of the associations of HIV status and CD4 category with stage, grade, receptor status, and among the HIV-positive patients, receipt of ART, controlling for age and year of diagnosis. Of 1,092 patients, 765 were tested for HIV; 151 (19.7 %) tested positive, a prevalence similar to that in the source population. Although, HIV-positive patients were younger than HIV-negative patients (p < 0.001), HIV status was not associated with the tumor characteristics. Thirty-seven women (25.9 %) had CD4 cell counts <200 cells/?l. Patients in that severely immunocompromised group were older than those in the other groups (p = 0.01). This study is the first to analyze the association of HIV with breast cancer in a large sample. Based on similar HIV prevalence in our sample and the population of the hospitals catchment area, clinicians serving HIV-endemic communities should promote routine HIV testing of younger breast cancer patients and immediate treatment of those who test positive, prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. Research is needed on treatment and outcomes given HIV and low CD4 cell count.
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The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in children under 15 years of age; 80% are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 17% are acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Childhood leukemia shows further diversity based on cytogenetic and molecular characteristics, which may relate to distinct etiologies. Case-control studies conducted worldwide, particularly of ALL, have collected a wealth of data on potential risk factors and in some studies, biospecimens. There is growing evidence for the role of infectious/immunologic factors, fetal growth, and several environmental factors in the etiology of childhood ALL. The risk of childhood leukemia, like other complex diseases, is likely to be influenced both by independent and interactive effects of genes and environmental exposures. While some studies have analyzed the role of genetic variants, few have been sufficiently powered to investigate gene-environment interactions.
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Environmental and occupational interventions for primary prevention of cancer: a cross-sectorial policy framework.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace.
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Fetal growth and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Positive associations have been reported between the measures of accelerated fetal growth and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We investigated this association by pooling individual-level data from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Two measures of fetal growth-weight-for-gestational-age and proportion of optimal birth weight (POBW)-were analysed. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and combined in fixed effects meta-analyses. Pooled analyses of all data were also undertaken using multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were undertaken when possible. Data on weight for gestational age were available for 7,348 cases and 12,489 controls from all 12 studies and POBW data were available for 1,680 cases and 3,139 controls from three studies. The summary ORs from the meta-analyses were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.36) for children who were large for gestational age relative to appropriate for gestational age, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.24) for a one-standard deviation increase in POBW. The pooled analyses produced similar results. The summary and pooled ORs for small-for-gestational-age children were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.92) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95), respectively. Results were consistent across subgroups defined by sex, ethnicity and immunophenotype, and when the analysis was restricted to children who did not have high birth weight. The evidence that accelerated fetal growth is associated with a modest increased risk of childhood ALL is strong and consistent with known biological mechanisms involving insulin-like growth factors. © 2013 UICC.
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Breast cancer receptor status and stage at diagnosis in over 1,200 consecutive public hospital patients in Soweto, South Africa: a case series.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Estimates of the proportion of estrogen receptor negative (ERN) and triple-negative (TRN) breast cancer from sub-Saharan Africa are variable and include high values. Large studies of receptor status conducted on non-archival tissue are lacking from this region.
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Occupational and environmental exposures associated with testicular germ cell tumours: systematic review of prenatal and life-long exposures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT.
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Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
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To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers.
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Exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood cancer: update of the epidemiological evidence.
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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There is an ongoing scientific controversy whether the observed association between exposure to residential extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and the risk of childhood leukaemia observed in epidemiological studies is causal or due to methodological shortcomings of those studies. Recent pooled analysis confirm results from previous studies, namely an approximately two-fold risk increase at ELF-MF exposures ?0.4 ?T, and demonstrate consistency of studies across countries, with different design, different methods of exposure assessment, and different systems of power transmission and distribution. On the other hand, recent pooled analyses for childhood brain tumour show little evidence for an association with ELF-MF, also at exposures ?0.4 ?T. Overall, the assessment that ELF-MF are a possible carcinogen and may cause childhood leukaemia remains valid. Ongoing research activities, mainly experimental and few new epidemiological studies, hopefully provide additional insight to bring clarity to a research area that has remained inconclusive.
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Predictors and overestimation of recalled mobile phone use among children and adolescents.
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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A growing body of literature addresses possible health effects of mobile phone use in children and adolescents by relying on the study participants retrospective reconstruction of mobile phone use. In this study, we used data from the international case-control study CEFALO to compare self-reported with objectively operator-recorded mobile phone use. The aim of the study was to assess predictors of level of mobile phone use as well as factors that are associated with overestimating own mobile phone use. For cumulative number and duration of calls as well as for time since first subscription we calculated the ratio of self-reported to operator-recorded mobile phone use. We used multiple linear regression models to assess possible predictors of the average number and duration of calls per day and logistic regression models to assess possible predictors of overestimation. The cumulative number and duration of calls as well as the time since first subscription of mobile phones were overestimated on average by the study participants. Likelihood to overestimate number and duration of calls was not significantly different for controls compared to cases (OR=1.1, 95%-CI: 0.5 to 2.5 and OR=1.9, 95%-CI: 0.85 to 4.3, respectively). However, likelihood to overestimate was associated with other health related factors such as age and sex. As a consequence, such factors act as confounders in studies relying solely on self-reported mobile phone use and have to be considered in the analysis.
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Mobile phone use and brain tumors in children and adolescents: a multicenter case-control study.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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It has been hypothesized that children and adolescents might be more vulnerable to possible health effects from mobile phone exposure than adults. We investigated whether mobile phone use is associated with brain tumor risk among children and adolescents.
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Long-term mobile phone use and the risk of vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ?11 years was not related to an increased vestibular schwannoma risk in men (relative risk estimate = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 1.46), and no vestibular schwannoma cases among long-term subscribers occurred in women versus 1.6 expected. Vestibular schwannomas did not occur more often on the right side of the head, although the majority of Danes reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma and possible diagnostic delay, further surveillance is indicated.
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Incidence of childhood central nervous system tumors in the Nordic countries.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The incidence rates of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the Nordic countries remain among the highest in the world. Large geographical and temporal variations in the incidence rates of CNS tumors have been reported. Increasing incidence rates would be a public health concern, as they might indicate increased exposure to environmental risk factors.
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Africas growing cancer burden: environmental and occupational contributions.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Primary prevention measures are needed for Africas cancer burden (715,000 new cases and 542,000 deaths in 2008), a burden projected to double by 2030 due to demographic changes alone. Control of cancer-causing infections and lifestyle-related carcinogens will play a significant role in prevention, but less often addressed are environmental and occupational contributions.
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Location of gliomas in relation to mobile telephone use: a case-case and case-specular analysis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The energy absorbed from the radio-frequency fields of mobile telephones depends strongly on distance from the source. The authors objective in this study was to evaluate whether gliomas occur preferentially in the areas of the brain having the highest radio-frequency exposure. The authors used 2 approaches: In a case-case analysis, tumor locations were compared with varying exposure levels; in a case-specular analysis, a hypothetical reference location was assigned for each glioma, and the distances from the actual and specular locations to the handset were compared. The study included 888 gliomas from 7 European countries (2000-2004), with tumor midpoints defined on a 3-dimensional grid based on radiologic images. The case-case analyses were carried out using unconditional logistic regression, whereas in the case-specular analysis, conditional logistic regression was used. In the case-case analyses, tumors were located closest to the source of exposure among never-regular and contralateral users, but not statistically significantly. In the case-specular analysis, the mean distances between exposure source and location were similar for cases and speculars. These results do not suggest that gliomas in mobile phone users are preferentially located in the parts of the brain with the highest radio-frequency fields from mobile phones.
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Analysis of three-dimensional SAR distributions emitted by mobile phones in an epidemiological perspective.
Bioelectromagnetics
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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The three-dimensional distribution of the specific absorption rate of energy (SAR) in phantom models was analysed to detect clusters of mobile phones producing similar spatial deposition of energy in the head. The clusters characteristics were described from the phones external features, frequency band and communication protocol. Compliance measurements with phones in cheek and tilt positions, and on the left and right side of a physical phantom were used. Phones used the Personal Digital Cellular (PDC), Code division multiple access One (CdmaOne), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) communication systems, in the 800, 900, 1500 and 1800 MHz bands. Each phones measurements were summarised by the half-ellipsoid in which the SAR values were above half the maximum value. Cluster analysis used the Partitioning Around Medoids algorithm. The dissimilarity measure was based on the overlap of the ellipsoids, and the Manhattan distance was used for robustness analysis. Within the 800?MHz frequency band, and in part within the 900?MHz and the 1800?MHz frequency bands, weak clustering was obtained for the handset shape (bar phone, flip with top and flip with central antennas), but only in specific positions (tilt or cheek). On measurements of 120 phones, the three-dimensional distribution of SAR in phantom models did not appear to be related to particular external phone characteristics or measurement characteristics, which could be used for refining the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency energy within the brain in epidemiological studies such as the Interphone.
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Determinants and stability over time of perception of health risks related to mobile phone base stations.
Int J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time.
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Alcohol drinking and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with focus on light-drinkers and never-smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an open issue, particularly among light alcohol drinkers, never-smokers, and Asian populations, in which some high-risk polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes are more prevalent. To address these issues, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using 40 case-control and 13 cohort studies that reported on the risk associated with alcohol drinking for at least three levels of consumption. In studies adjusted for age, sex, and tobacco smoking, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between light alcohol drinking (? 12.5 g/d) and risk of ESCC was 1.38 (1.14-1.67). The association was slightly stronger in Asian countries than in other populations. The adjusted RRs (95% CIs) were 2.62 (2.07-3.31) for moderate drinking (>12.5-<50 g/d) and 5.54 (3.92-7.28) for high alcohol intake (?50 g/d); the RRs were slightly higher in non-Asian populations. In prospective studies, the RR (95% CI) was 1.35 (0.92-1.98) for light, 2.15 (1.55-2.98) for moderate, and 3.35 (2.06-5.46) for high alcohol intakes; light drinking showed an association with ESCC in Asia (five studies) but not in other regions (three studies). Among never-smokers (nine studies), the RR (95% CI) was 0.74 (0.47-1.16) for light, 1.54 (1.09-2.17) for moderate, and 3.09 (1.75-5.46) for high intakes. This meta-analysis further corroborates the association of moderate and high alcohol intake with risk of ESCC and provides risk estimates based on multiple prospective studies. Light alcohol intake appears to be associated to ESCC mainly in studies in Asia, which suggests a possible role of genetic susceptibility factors.
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Height at diagnosis and birth-weight as risk factors for osteosarcoma.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Osteosarcoma typically occurs during puberty. Studies of the association between height and/or birth-weight and osteosarcoma are conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a large pooled analysis of height and birth-weight in osteosarcoma.
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Patient versus clinician symptom reporting: how accurate is the detection of distress in the oncologic after-care?
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Objective: The high prevalence of psychosocial distress in cancer patients is well known. The objective of this study was to investigate the agreement between the self-report of patients and the detection of distress by the treating physicians. Methods: The participating patients were all enrolled in a structured 5-year after-care program in Palatinate, Germany. All tumor-free patients with a scheduled follow-up exam in a 3-month time frame were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding their psychosocial distress. The treating physicians participating in the program are family doctors or specialized physicians working in general practices. Their assessment of the patients distress is part of the program. Agreement was evaluated using the kappa statistic. Results: The levels of psychosocial distress were very high in the self-rating of 2642 patients. Low concordance was observed between the ratings of the patients and the physicians, with all kappa values below 0.1. Only about every 10th patient reporting weak to severe problems with depression or anxiety was identified as such. Detection of problems by physicians was somewhat better for female than male patients and highest among breast cancer patients. Conclusions: Overall the results of our study show that the need for psychosocial support extends past the acute treatment phase. The recognition of psychosocial distress in their patients seems to be extremely low in the outpatient, follow-on care phase. The application of an efficient rating method should become a routine part of the follow-up exams with physicians being trained to improve their abilities to detect the distress in the patient. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Spatial clustering of leukemia and type 1 diabetes in children in Denmark.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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It has been proposed that type 1 diabetes (T1D) and leukemia in children may cluster in space and time due to common spatially mediated etiologies. We investigated this hypothesis and clustering of both diseases separately in Danish children aged 0-14 years, using 1,168 leukemia cases diagnosed in the period 1980-2006, 2,443 T1D cases diagnosed 1996-2006, and population-based controls matched on age, gender, and time of diagnosis. Residential histories from birth to diagnosis were collected. For leukemia in ages 0-14 years, we found no evidence of clustering; we did find spatial clustering at time of diagnosis for children aged 2-6 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (observed/expected [95% confidence interval]: 1.35 [1.15-1.54]). T1D cases showed clustering at birth for ages 0-14 years; for ages 0-4 years at diagnosis, and when the residential history was accounted for. T1D cases clustered near leukemia cases particularly in the age group 2-6 years at diagnosis. Leukemia and T1D in this age group thus may share etiological factors mediated by geographic location. This suggests common environmental risk factors, with exposure to infections as first possible candidate, geographically localized exposure to agents that compromise development and/or response of the immune system being a second, and chance being a third.
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AGRICOH: a consortium of agricultural cohorts.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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AGRICOH is a recently formed consortium of agricultural cohort studies involving 22 cohorts from nine countries in five continents: South Africa (1), Canada (3), Costa Rica (2), USA (6), Republic of Korea (1), New Zealand (2), Denmark (1), France (3) and Norway (3). The aim of AGRICOH, initiated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is to promote and sustain collaboration and pooling of data to investigate the association between a wide range of agricultural exposures and a wide range of health outcomes, with a particular focus on associations that cannot easily be addressed in individual studies because of rare exposures (e.g., use of infrequently applied chemicals) or relatively rare outcomes (e.g., certain types of cancer, neurologic and auto-immune diseases). To facilitate future projects the need for data harmonization of selected variables is required and is underway. Altogether, AGRICOH provides excellent opportunities for studying cancer, respiratory, neurologic, and auto-immune diseases as well as reproductive and allergic disorders, injuries and overall mortality in association with a wide array of exposures, prominent among these the application of pesticides.
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Impact of random and systematic recall errors and selection bias in case--control studies on mobile phone use and brain tumors in adolescents (CEFALO study).
Bioelectromagnetics
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Whether the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for brain tumors in adolescents is currently being studied. Case--control studies investigating this possible relationship are prone to recall error and selection bias. We assessed the potential impact of random and systematic recall error and selection bias on odds ratios (ORs) by performing simulations based on real data from an ongoing case--control study of mobile phones and brain tumor risk in children and adolescents (CEFALO study). Simulations were conducted for two mobile phone exposure categories: regular and heavy use. Our choice of levels of recall error was guided by a validation study that compared objective network operator data with the self-reported amount of mobile phone use in CEFALO. In our validation study, cases overestimated their number of calls by 9% on average and controls by 34%. Cases also overestimated their duration of calls by 52% on average and controls by 163%. The participation rates in CEFALO were 83% for cases and 71% for controls. In a variety of scenarios, the combined impact of recall error and selection bias on the estimated ORs was complex. These simulations are useful for the interpretation of previous case-control studies on brain tumor and mobile phone use in adults as well as for the interpretation of future studies on adolescents.
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Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2010
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Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors (including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and mixed glioma). Data from 7 case-control studies (5 US and 2 Scandinavian) were pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for age group, gender, and study site. Data on 617 cases and 1260 controls were available for analyses. Using data from all 7 studies, history of allergies and/or asthma was associated with a decreased risk of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), and history of asthma only was associated with a decreased risk of oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). A family history of brain tumors was associated with an increased risk of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). Having had chicken pox was associated with a decreased risk of oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) in the US studies. Although there is some overlap in risk factors between oligodendroglial tumors and gliomas as a group, it is likely that additional factors specific to oligodendroglial tumors have yet to be identified. Large, multi-institution international studies will be necessary to better characterize these etiological risk factors.
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Sociodemographic factors and vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35 308 974 person-years under risk, with data accrued from 1993 to 2006. Complete ascertainment of cases was ensured by using population-based and clinical cancer registries. Information on sociodemographic indicators was obtained on an annually updated individual level from Statistics Denmark. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Linear regression models were used to examine the association between sociodemographic indicators and tumor size. We found that IRRs decreased gradually with decreasing level of education, with values of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49-0.78) for men and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.50-0.77) for women with a basic education compared with a higher education. Similar results were found for disposable income. Marital status was associated with a higher incidence of VS in men but not women; nonmarried men with a basic education had an IRR of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.23-0.50) compared with married men with a higher education. Lower incidence rates were also observed among unemployed or early-retirement pensioners, whereas there were no differences in incidence rates across the broad groups of occupations and across the types of districts. Sociodemographic indicators were not associated with the tumor size. The magnitude of the differences in incidence rates across the groups of different socioeconomic indicators suggests a high potential for earlier diagnosis of VS by improving the awareness of early symptoms.
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A precautionary public health protection strategy for the possible risk of childhood leukaemia from exposure to power frequency magnetic fields.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Epidemiological evidence showing a consistent association between the risk of childhood leukaemia and exposure to power frequency magnetic fields has been accumulating. This debate considers the additional precautionary intervention needed to manage this risk, when it exceeds the protection afforded by the exposure guidelines as recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.
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Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis of bladder cancer reveals an additive diagnostic value of FGFR3 mutations and hypermethylation events.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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The bladder cancer genome harbors numerous oncogenic mutations and aberrantly methylated gene promoters. The aim of our study was to generate a profile of these alterations and investigate their use as biomarkers in urine sediments for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer. We systematically screened FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, HRAS, NRAS and KRAS for mutations and quantitatively assessed the methylation status of APC, ARF, DBC1, INK4A, RARB, RASSF1A, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1 in a prospective series of tumor biopsies (N = 105) and urine samples (N = 113) from 118 bladder tumor patients. We also analyzed urine samples from 33 patients with noncancerous urinary lesions. A total of 95 oncogenic mutations and 189 hypermethylation events were detected in the 105 tumor biopsies. The total panel of markers provided a sensitivity of 93%, whereas mutation and methylation markers alone provided sensitivities of 72% and 70%, respectively. In urine samples, the sensitivity was 70% for all markers, 50% for mutation markers and 52% for methylation markers. FGFR3 mutations occurred more frequently in tumors with no methylation events than in tumors with one or more methylation events (78% vs. 33%; p < 0.0001). FGFR3 mutation in combination with three methylation markers (APC, RASSF1A and SFRP2) provided a sensitivity of 90% in tumors and 62% in urine with 100% specificity. These results suggest an inverse correlation between FGFR3 mutations and hypermethylation events, which may be used to improve noninvasive, DNA-based detection of bladder cancer.
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Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences.
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[Social inequality and incidence of and survival from cancer in Denmark--secondary publication].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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This register-based study describes social variations in cancer incidence and survival in 3.22 million Danish residents born 1925-1973 and aged >or= 30 years. We followed up for cancer incidence in 1994-2003 and for survival in 1994-2006, yielding 147,973 cancers. The incidence increased with lower education and income, especially for tobacco- and other lifestyle-related cancers. Social inequality in the prognosis of most cancers was observed, with poorer relative survival related to fewer advantages, often most pronounced in the first year after diagnosis.
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Maternal use of antibiotics and cancer in the offspring: results of a case-control study in Germany.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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As previous results were inconsistent, we assessed the association between maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy or 3 months before conception and childhood cancer in the offspring in a large case-control study in Germany.
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Fetal growth, preterm birth, neonatal stress and risk for CNS tumors in children: a Nordic population- and register-based case-control study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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The peak incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in childhood indicates that intrauterine or neonatal characteristics are potential risk factors or symptoms of early onset of disease.
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Spatial clustering and space-time clusters of leukemia among children in Germany, 1987-2007.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Leukemia is the most frequent malignancy in children under the age of 15 years. The question of whether childhood leukemia has a tendency for clustering or forms clusters has been studied for several decades. The environmental risk factor discussed most often is infection, which might result in spatial clustering and space-time clusters. The German Childhood Cancer Registry provided data on 11,946 children with leukemia diagnosed during 1987-2007, as classified in the International Classification for Childhood Cancer (third edition), aggregated by municipality. We used the Potthoff-Whittinghill model to test for a general trend for clustering and the spatial scan statistic to search for localized clusters. No evidence of global clustering was found, neither for the whole study population nor in sub-groups by age, period or population density, or for different types of leukemia. A similar result was found for localized clusters. The analysis shows no evidence of a tendency to clustering, however, aggregation of data at the municipality level might have diluted small localized clusters. The results of this study do not provide support for the hypothesis of an infectious or a spatial environmental etiology of childhood leukemia.
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Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk.
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A nationwide population-based skin cancer screening in Germany: proceedings of the first meeting of the International Task Force on Skin Cancer Screening and Prevention (September 24 and 25, 2009).
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Skin cancer incidence is increasing worldwide in white populations and mortality rates have not declined throughout most of the world. An extraordinarily high proportion of at-risk individuals have yet to be screened for melanoma but guidelines from esteemed bodies do not currently endorse population-based screening. Evidence for the effectiveness of skin cancer screening is imperative. To this end, scientists in Germany have launched a nationwide skin cancer screening campaign. Herein, we review pilot screening data from Schleswig-Holstein, discuss the launch of the major new national initiative, review issues related to evaluation of that program, and propose seven recommendations from the International Task Force on Skin Cancer Screening and Prevention that was held in Hamburg, Germany, on September 24 and 25, 2009.
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Testicular germ cell cancer incidence in an immigration perspective, Denmark, 1978 to 2003.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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The incidence rate of testicular germ cell cancer in Denmark increased up to the 1990s to become among the highest in the world. Since recently rate stabilization was suggested, we determined whether it is due to an increasing number of immigrants at lower risk for this cancer.
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Time trends in brain tumor incidence rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, 1974-2003.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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In Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, the use of mobile phones increased sharply in the mid-1990s; thus, time trends in brain tumor incidence after 1998 may provide information about possible tumor risks associated with mobile phone use. We investigated time trends in the incidence of glioma and meningioma in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1974 to 2003, using data from national cancer registries. We used joinpoint regression models to analyze the annual incidence rates of glioma and meningioma. During this period, 59,984 men and women aged 20-79 years were diagnosed with brain tumors in a population of 16 million adults. All statistical tests were two-sided. From 1974 to 2003, the incidence rate of glioma increased by 0.5% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2% to 0.8%) among men and by 0.2% per year (95% CI = -0.1% to 0.5%) among women and that of meningioma increased by 0.8% per year (95% CI = 0.4% to 1.3%) among men, and after the early 1990s, by 3.8% per year (95% CI = 3.2% to 4.4%) among women. No change in incidence trends were observed from 1998 to 2003, the time when possible associations between mobile phone use and cancer risk would be informative about an induction period of 5-10 years.
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Parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and childhood cancer: a German case-control study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2009
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Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The authors investigated, in a population-based case-control study in Germany, if children whose parents were exposed preconceptionally at work to ELF-MFs had an increased risk of developing cancer. Cases aged 0-14 years were ascertained from the German Childhood Cancer Registry. Controls were selected from local resident registration offices. The parental occupational history was recorded in questionnaires and telephone interviews, and preconceptional magnetic field exposure was estimated according to a job-exposure matrix. The analysis included 2,382 controls and 2,049 cases (846 children with acute leukemia, 159 children with non-Hodgkins lymphoma, 444 children with central nervous system tumors, and 600 children with other solid tumors). Frequency-matched conditional logistic regression models revealed no increased cancer risks in children whose fathers were occupationally exposed to magnetic fields above 0.2 microT. Additionally, there was no evidence for a risk increase at magnetic field levels exceeding 1 microT. Based on much smaller numbers, maternal occupational exposure was also not related to increased cancer risks. In this large case-control study, the risk of childhood cancer was not linked to preconceptional parental ELF-MF exposure.
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[Mobile phone use as a risk factor for affection of the central nerve system--secondary publication].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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In a large nationwide cohort study including 420,095 persons whose first mobile phone subscription was between 1982 and 1995, who were followed through 2003 for hospital contacts for a diagnosis of a central nervous system disease, we observed 10-20% more hospital contacts than expected for migraine and vertigo and 30-40% less hospital contacts than expected for dementia (Alzheimers disease, vascular and other dementia), Parkinsons disease and epilepsy among men. No associations were seen for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis or epilepsy in women.
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Lost in laterality: interpreting preferred side of the head during mobile phone use and risk of brain tumour associations.
Scand J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2009
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Due to the highly localized exposure from mobile phones, the preferred side of the head during their use is important information when investigating a possible link with brain tumour risk, but at the same time, error and bias hamper the assessment of this information in case-control studies. Current studies provide evidence of reporting bias insofar as cases appear to over-report the side of the head where the tumour occurred as the one that they preferred in the past when using mobile phones. More refined methods of analysis among only cases or prospective studies with an assessment of the laterality of mobile phone use before the diagnosis of disease are needed to evaluate whether associations seen in some studies are entirely due to reporting bias or a mixture of reporting bias and a causal effect.
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Electromagnetic fields and epidemiology: an overview inspired by the fourth course at the International School of Bioelectromagnetics.
Bioelectromagnetics
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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The fourth course at the International School of Bioelectromagnetics addressed various aspects of the epidemiology of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). In this overview, inspired by the lectures and the discussions among participants, we summarize current knowledge on exposure to EMF and disease risk, with emphasis on studies of use of mobile phones and brain tumours and exposure to power lines and childhood leukaemia. Sources of bias and error hamper straightforward conclusions in some areas and, in order to move forward, improvements in study design and exposure assessment are necessary. The scientific evidence available to date on possible long-term effects from exposure to ELF and RF fields is not strong enough to revise current protection limits based on the known acute effects of such exposures. Precautionary measures may be considered to reduce ELF exposure of children or exposure to RF during mobile phone use, keeping in mind that it is unclear whether they involve any preventive benefit. Possible health effects from mobile phone use in adults and in children should be investigated further by prospective epidemiological studies with improved exposure assessment and brain tumour incidence rates should be monitored. Further studies on the relation between childhood leukaemia and ELF magnetic fields would be worthwhile if they focus on heavily exposed groups and attempt to minimize possible selection bias. In conclusion, epidemiological studies conducted with appropriate diligence can play a key role in finding the answers.
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Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany.
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History of allergic disease and epilepsy and risk of glioma and meningioma (INTERPHONE study group, Germany).
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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The aim of the present analysis was to examine the association of a medical history of asthma, hay fever, eczema, or epilepsy with the risk of glioma and meningioma. Data of a German population-based case-control study included 381 meningioma cases, 366 glioma cases, and 1,494 controls. Participants histories of asthma, hay fever, eczema, and epilepsy and the respective ages at onset were asked during a personal interview. A small inverse association between allergic condition and both glioma (odds ratio: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.70-1.22) and meningioma (odd ratio: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.66-1.14) was found. For glioma, this inverse association was more pronounced in persons reporting to have asthma compared to other allergic conditions. The positive association between epilepsy and particularly glioma suggests that epilepsy is an early symptom of the disease. As the association was seen also for epilepsies occurring more than a decade before the diagnosis of glioma, this might indicate either an aetiological role of epilepsy, or a relatively long preclinical phase. In conclusion our study confirms previous findings of case control studies but not those from cohort studies. However, possible selection bias in case control studies might not explain the different results in its entirety.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.