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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
First report of an exophilic Anopheles arabiensis population in Bissau city, Guinea-Bissau: recent introduction or sampling bias?
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis exhibits greater behavioural and ecological plasticity than the other major vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which presents challenges for major control methods. This study reports for the first time the presence of An. arabiensis in Antula, a suburb of Bissau city, the capital of Guinea Bissau, where high levels of hybridization between Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae have been reported. Given that previous surveys in the area, based on indoor collections, did not sample An. arabiensis, the possibility of a recently introduced exophilic population was investigated.
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RIBS@UA: interface to collect and store respiratory data, a preliminary study.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The development of effective graphical user interfaces (GUIs) has been in an emergent demand in healthcare technologies, for assessing, managing and storing patients' clinical data. Nevertheless, specifically for respiratory care there is a lack of tools to produce a multimedia database, where the main respiratory clinical data can be available in a single repository. Therefore, this study reports on the development of a usable application to collect, organise and store respiratory-related data in a single multimedia database.
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Plasmodium falciparum infection rates for some Anopheles spp. from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.
F1000Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a sample of Anopheles gambiae s.s., A. melas and A. pharoensis collected in Guinea-Bissau during October and November 2009. The percentage of P. falciparum infected samples (10.2% overall) was comparable to earlier studies from other sites in Guinea-Bissau (9.6-12.4%). The majority of the specimens collected were identified as A. gambiae which had an individual infection rate of 12.6 % across collection sites. A small number of specimens of A. coluzzii, A. coluzzii x A. gambiae hybrids, A. melas and A. pharoensis were collected and had infection rates of 4.3%, 4.1%, 11.1% and 33.3% respectively. Despite being present in low numbers in indoor collections, the exophilic feeding behaviors of A. melas (N=18) and A. pharoensis (N=6) and high infection rates observed in this survey suggest falciparum-malaria transmission potential outside of the protection of bed nets.
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Asymmetric introgression between the M and S forms of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, maintains divergence despite extensive hybridization.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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The suggestion that genetic divergence can arise and/or be maintained in the face of gene flow has been contentious since first proposed. This controversy and a rarity of good examples have limited our understanding of this process. Partially reproductively isolated taxa have been highlighted as offering unique opportunities for identifying the mechanisms underlying divergence with gene flow. The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is widely regarded as consisting of two sympatric forms, thought by many to represent incipient species, the M and S molecular forms. However, there has been much debate about the extent of reproductive isolation between M and S, with one view positing that divergence may have arisen and is being maintained in the presence of gene flow, and the other proposing a more advanced speciation process with little realized gene flow because of low hybrid fitness. These hypotheses have been difficult to address because hybrids are typically rare (<1%). Here, we assess samples from an area of high hybridization and demonstrate that hybrids are fit and responsible for extensive introgression. Nonetheless, we show that strong divergent selection at a subset of loci combined with highly asymmetric introgression has enabled M and S to remain genetically differentiated despite extensive gene flow. We propose that the extent of reproductive isolation between M and S varies across West Africa resulting in a geographic mosaic of reproductive isolation; a finding which adds further complexity to our understanding of divergence in this taxon and which has considerable implications for transgenic control strategies.
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Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding management in Portugal: a multicentric prospective 1-year survey.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (ALGIB) is a common event, which consumes considerable human and economic resources. Its incidence is expected to rise in the coming years due to an increasing aging population.
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High GUD incidence in the early 20 century created a particularly permissive time window for the origin and initial spread of epidemic HIV strains.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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The processes that permitted a few SIV strains to emerge epidemically as HIV groups remain elusive. Paradigmatic theories propose factors that may have facilitated adaptation to the human host (e.g., unsafe injections), none of which provide a coherent explanation for the timing, geographical origin, and scarcity of epidemic HIV strains. Our updated molecular clock analyses established relatively narrow time intervals (roughly 1880-1940) for major SIV transfers to humans. Factors that could favor HIV emergence in this time frame may have been genital ulcer disease (GUD), resulting in high HIV-1 transmissibility (4-43%), largely exceeding parenteral transmissibility; lack of male circumcision increasing male HIV infection risk; and gender-skewed city growth increasing sexual promiscuity. We surveyed colonial medical literature reporting incidences of GUD for the relevant regions, concentrating on cities, suffering less reporting biases than rural areas. Coinciding in time with the origin of the major HIV groups, colonial cities showed intense GUD outbreaks with incidences 1.5-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than in mid 20(th) century. We surveyed ethnographic literature, and concluded that male circumcision frequencies were lower in early 20(th) century than nowadays, with low rates correlating spatially with the emergence of HIV groups. We developed computer simulations to model the early spread of HIV-1 group M in Kinshasa before, during and after the estimated origin of the virus, using parameters derived from the colonial literature. These confirmed that the early 20(th) century was particularly permissive for the emergence of HIV by heterosexual transmission. The strongest potential facilitating factor was high GUD levels. Remarkably, the direct effects of city population size and circumcision frequency seemed relatively small. Our results suggest that intense GUD in promiscuous urban communities was the main factor driving HIV emergence. Low circumcision rates may have played a role, probably by their indirect effects on GUD.
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Enhanced heterosexual transmission hypothesis for the origin of pandemic HIV-1.
Viruses
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HIV-1 M originated from SIVcpz endemic in chimpanzees from southeast Cameroon or neighboring areas, and it started to spread in the early 20th century. Here we examine the factors that may have contributed to simian-to-human transmission, local transmission between humans, and export to a city. The region had intense ape hunting, social disruption, commercial sex work, STDs, and traffic to/from Kinshasa in the period 1899-1923. Injection treatments increased sharply around 1930; however, their frequency among local patients was far lower than among modern groups experiencing parenteral HIV-1 outbreaks. Recent molecular datings of HIV-1 M fit better the period of maximal resource exploitation and trade links than the period of high injection intensity. We conclude that although local parenteral outbreaks might have occurred, these are unlikely to have caused massive transmission. World War I led to additional, and hitherto unrecognized, risks of HIV-1 emergence. We propose an Enhanced Heterosexual Transmission Hypothesis for the origin of HIV-1 M, featuring at the time and place of its origin a coincidence of favorable co-factors (ape hunting, social disruption, STDs, and mobility) for both cross-species transmission and heterosexual spread. Our hypothesis does not exclude a role for parenteral transmission in the initial viral adaptation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.