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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Glycosylation, hypogammaglobulinemia, and resistance to viral infections.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Genetic defects in MOGS, the gene encoding mannosyl-oligosaccharide glucosidase (the first enzyme in the processing pathway of N-linked oligosaccharide), cause the rare congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIb (CDG-IIb), also known as MOGS-CDG. MOGS is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in the trimming of N-glycans. We evaluated two siblings with CDG-IIb who presented with multiple neurologic complications and a paradoxical immunologic phenotype characterized by severe hypogammaglobulinemia but limited clinical evidence of an infectious diathesis. A shortened immunoglobulin half-life was determined to be the mechanism underlying the hypogammaglobulinemia. Impaired viral replication and cellular entry may explain a decreased susceptibility to infections.
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Toxicity and biodistribution of the serotype 2 recombinant adeno-associated viral vector, encoding Aquaporin-1, after retroductal delivery to a single mouse parotid gland.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In preparation for testing the safety of using serotype 2 recombinant adeno-associated vector, encoding Aquaporin-1 to treat radiation-induced salivary gland damage in a phase 1 clinical trial, we conducted a 13 week GLP biodistribution and toxicology study using Balb/c mice. To best assess the safety of rAAV2hAQP1 as well as resemble clinical delivery, vector (10(8), 10(9), 10(10), or 4.4 × 10(10) vector particles/gland) or saline was delivered to the right parotid gland of mice via retroductal cannulation. Very mild surgically induced inflammation was caused by this procedure, seen in 3.6% of animals for the right parotid gland, and 5.3% for the left parotid gland. Long term distribution of vector appeared to be localized to the site of cannulation as well as the right and left draining submandibular lymph nodes at levels >50 copies/?g in some animals. As expected, there was a dose-related increase in neutralizing antibodies produced by day 29. Overall, animals appeared to thrive, with no differences in mean body weight, food or water consumption between groups. There were no significant adverse effects due to treatment noted by clinical chemistry and pathology evaluations. Hematology assessment of serum demonstrated very limited changes to the white blood cell, segmented neutrophils, and hematocrit levels and were concluded to not be vector-associated. Indicators for liver, kidney, cardiac functions and general tissue damage showed no changes due to treatment. All of these indicators suggest the treatment is clinically safe.
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Matriptase deletion initiates a Sjögren's syndrome-like disease in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of epithelial barrier disruption, caused by deficiency of the membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, on salivary gland function and the induction of autoimmunity in an animal model.
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The family Parvoviridae.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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A set of proposals to rationalize and extend the taxonomy of the family Parvoviridae is currently under review by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Viruses in this family infect a wide range of hosts, as reflected by the longstanding division into two subfamilies: the Parvovirinae, which contains viruses that infect vertebrate hosts, and the Densovirinae, encompassing viruses that infect arthropod hosts. Using a modified definition for classification into the family that no longer demands isolation as long as the biological context is strong, but does require a near-complete DNA sequence, 134 new viruses and virus variants were identified. The proposals introduce new species and genera into both subfamilies, resolve one misclassified species, and improve taxonomic clarity by employing a series of systematic changes. These include identifying a precise level of sequence similarity required for viruses to belong to the same genus and decreasing the level of sequence similarity required for viruses to belong to the same species. These steps will facilitate recognition of the major phylogenetic branches within genera and eliminate the confusion caused by the near-identity of species and viruses. Changes to taxon nomenclature will establish numbered, non-Latinized binomial names for species, indicating genus affiliation and host range rather than recapitulating virus names. Also, affixes will be included in the names of genera to clarify subfamily affiliation and reduce the ambiguity that results from the vernacular use of "parvovirus" and "densovirus" to denote multiple taxon levels.
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Structural insights into adeno-associated virus serotype 5.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) display differential cell binding, transduction, and antigenic characteristics specified by their capsid viral protein (VP) composition. Toward structure-function annotation, the crystal structure of AAV5, one of the most sequence diverse AAV serotypes, was determined to 3.45-? resolution. The AAV5 VP and capsid conserve topological features previously described for other AAVs but uniquely differ in the surface-exposed HI loop between ?H and ?I of the core ?-barrel motif and have pronounced conformational differences in two of the AAV surface variable regions (VRs), VR-IV and VR-VII. The HI loop is structurally conserved in other AAVs despite amino acid differences but is smaller in AAV5 due to an amino acid deletion. This HI loop is adjacent to VR-VII, which is largest in AAV5. The VR-IV, which forms the larger outermost finger-like loop contributing to the protrusions surrounding the icosahedral 3-fold axes of the AAVs, is shorter in AAV5, creating a smoother capsid surface topology. The HI loop plays a role in AAV capsid assembly and genome packaging, and VR-IV and VR-VII are associated with transduction and antigenic differences, respectively, between the AAVs. A comparison of interior capsid surface charge and volume of AAV5 to AAV2 and AAV4 showed a higher propensity of acidic residues but similar volumes, consistent with comparable DNA packaging capacities. This structure provided a three-dimensional (3D) template for functional annotation of the AAV5 capsid with respect to regions that confer assembly efficiency, dictate cellular transduction phenotypes, and control antigenicity.
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Association of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 With Exocrine Gland Dysfunction in Patients With Sjögrens Syndrome and in Mice.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Primary Sjögrens syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS.
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Capsid antibodies to different adeno-associated virus serotypes bind common regions.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Interactions between viruses and the host antibody immune response are critical in the development and control of disease, and antibodies are also known to interfere with the efficacy of viral vector-based gene delivery. The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) being developed as vectors for corrective human gene delivery have shown promise in clinical trials, but preexisting antibodies are detrimental to successful outcomes. However, the antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids remain poorly characterized. Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction were used to define the locations of epitopes to which monoclonal fragment antibodies (Fabs) against AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV6 bind. Pseudoatomic modeling showed that, in each serotype, Fabs bound to a limited number of sites near the protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes of the T=1 icosahedral capsids. For the closely related AAV1 and AAV6, a common Fab exhibited substoichiometric binding, with one Fab bound, on average, between two of the three protrusions as a consequence of steric crowding. The other AAV Fabs saturated the capsid and bound to the walls of all 60 protrusions, with the footprint for the AAV5 antibody extending toward the 5-fold axis. The angle of incidence for each bound Fab on the AAVs varied and resulted in significant differences in how much of each viral capsid surface was occluded beyond the Fab footprints. The AAV-antibody interactions showed a common set of footprints that overlapped some known receptor-binding sites and transduction determinants, thus suggesting potential mechanisms for virus neutralization by the antibodies.
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Recovery of radiation-induced dry eye and corneal damage by pretreatment with adenoviral vector-mediated transfer of erythropoietin to the salivary glands in mice.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Therapeutic doses of radiation (RTx) causes dry eye syndrome (DES), dry mouth, and as in other sicca syndromes, they are incurable. The aims of this work are as follows: (a) to evaluate a mouse model of DES induced by clinically relevant doses of radiation, and (b) to evaluate the protective effect of erythropoietin (Epo) in preventing DES. C3H female mice were subjected to five sessions of RTx, with or without pre-RTx retroductal administration of the AdLTR2EF1a-hEPO (AdEpo) vector in the salivary glands (SG), and compared with naïve controls at Day 10 (10d) (8?Gy fractions) and 56 days (56d) (6?Gy fractions) after RTx treatment. Mice were tested for changes in lacrimal glands (LG), tear secretion (phenol red thread), weight, hematocrit (Hct), and markers of inflammation, as well as microvessels and oxidative damage. Tear secretion was reduced in both RTx groups, compared to controls, by 10d. This was also seen at 56d in RTx but not AdEpo+RTx group. Hct was significantly higher in all AdEpo+RTx mice at 10d and 56d. Corneal epithelium was significantly thinner at 10d in the RTx group compared with AdEpo+RTx or the control mice. There was a significant reduction at 10d in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-R2 in LG in the RTx group that was prevented in the AdEpo+RTx group. In conclusion, RTx is able to induce DES in mice. AdEpo administration protected corneal epithelia and resulted in some recovery of LG function, supporting the value of further studies using gene therapy for extraglandular diseases.
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Oral vaccination with adeno-associated virus vectors expressing the Neu oncogene inhibits the growth of murine breast cancer.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have been used for therapeutic gene transfer. These vectors offer a number of advantages including resistance to the effects of pH, a broad cellular tropism, efficient gene transfer, persistence of gene expression, and little toxicity. AAV vectors; however, at high doses can induce humoral and cellular immune responses. While potentially problematic for replacement gene therapy, this effect may be advantageous for antitumor vaccination. We examined the activity of an oral and intramuscular antitumor vaccination using AAV serotypes 5 and 6 expressing a truncated neu oncogene in a neu-positive murine TUBO breast cancer model. Mice receiving a single oral administration of AAV5-neu or AAV6-neu demonstrated improved survival. Oral vaccination significantly improved survivals compared with intramuscular vaccination. Mice vaccinated with AAV6-neu survived longer than those treated with AAV5-neu. Vaccination with AAV5-neu or AAV6-neu induced both humoral and cellular immune responses against the NEU antigen. These responses were more robust in the mice undergoing oral vaccination compared with mice receiving the intramuscular vaccination. Protection from tumor was long lasting with 80% of the animals treated with oral AAV6-neu surviving a re-challenge with TUBO cells at 120 and 320 days post-vaccination. Further evaluation of AAV-based vectors as tumor vaccines is warranted.
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Examining the cross-reactivity and neutralization mechanisms of a panel of mAbs against adeno-associated virus serotypes 1 and 5.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Neutralizing antibodies play a central role in the prevention and clearance of viral infections, but can be detrimental to the use of viral capsids for gene delivery. Antibodies present a major hurdle for ongoing clinical trials using adeno-associated viruses (AAVs); however, relatively little is known about the antigenic epitopes of most AAV serotypes or the mechanism(s) of antibody-mediated neutralization. We developed panels of AAV mAbs by repeatedly immunizing mice with AAV serotype 1 (AAV1) capsids, or by sequentially immunizing with AAV1 followed by AAV5 capsids, in order to examine the efficiency and mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization. The antibodies were not cross-reactive between heterologous AAV serotypes except for a low level of recognition of AAV1 capsids by the AAV5 antibodies, probably due to the initial immunization with AAV1. The neutralization efficiency of different IgGs varied and Fab fragments derived from these antibodies were generally poorly neutralizing. The antibodies appeared to display various alternative mechanisms of neutralization, which included inhibition of receptor-binding and interference with a post-attachment step.
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Intranasal administration of adeno-associated virus type 12 (AAV12) leads to transduction of the nasal epithelia and can initiate transgene-specific immune response.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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A critical aspect in defining the utility of a vector for gene therapy applications is the cell tropism and biodistribution of the vector. Adeno-associated virus type 12 (AAV12) has several unique biological and immunological properties that could be exploited for gene therapy purposes, including a unique cell surface receptor, transduction of epithelial cells, and limited neutralization by pooled human antibodies. However, little is known about its cell tropism and biodistribution in vivo. In vivo biodistribution studies with AAV12 vectors encoding a cytomegalovirus promoted luciferase transgene indicated preferential transduction of the nasal epithelia which was not observed with AAV2-based vectors. Expression peaked 2 weeks postadministration, before decreasing to a persistent level. The level of neutralizing antibodies (Nab) induced was sevenfold lower for AAV12 than for AAV2, an advantage for use in repeat administration. Furthermore, vectors encoding influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), an antigen which has previously been shown to induce immune protection against challenge, resulted in generation of both anti-A/NP antibodies and lung anti-A/NP T cells. Our findings suggest further evaluation of AAV12 as a vector for gene therapy and as a potential nasal vaccine.
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Mechanisms of translational regulation by a human eIF5-mimic protein.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2011
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The translation factor eIF5 is an important partner of eIF2, directly modulating its function in several critical steps. First, eIF5 binds eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex (TC), promoting its recruitment to 40S ribosomal subunits. Secondly, its GTPase activating function promotes eIF2 dissociation for ribosomal subunit joining. Finally, eIF5 GDP dissociation inhibition (GDI) activity can antagonize eIF2 reactivation by competing with the eIF2 guanine exchange factor (GEF), eIF2B. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of eIF5, a W2-type HEAT domain, mediates its interaction with eIF2. Here, we characterize a related human protein containing MA3- and W2-type HEAT domains, previously termed BZW2 and renamed here as eIF5-mimic protein 1 (5MP1). Human 5MP1 interacts with eIF2 and eIF3 and inhibits general and gene-specific translation in mammalian systems. We further test whether 5MP1 is a mimic or competitor of the GEF catalytic subunit eIF2B? or eIF5, using yeast as a model. Our results suggest that 5MP1 interacts with yeast eIF2 and promotes TC formation, but inhibits TC binding to the ribosome. Moreover, 5MP1 is not a GEF but a weak GDI for yeast eIF2. We propose that 5MP1 is a partial mimic and competitor of eIF5, interfering with the key steps by which eIF5 regulates eIF2 function.
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BAAV mediated GJB2 gene transfer restores gap junction coupling in cochlear organotypic cultures from deaf Cx26Sox10Cre mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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The deafness locus DFNB1 contains GJB2, the gene encoding connexin26 and GJB6, encoding connexin30, which appear to be coordinately regulated in the inner ear. In this work, we investigated the expression and function of connexin26 and connexin30 from postnatal day 5 to adult age in double transgenic Cx26(Sox10Cre) mice, which we obtained by crossing connexin26 floxed mice with a deleter Sox10-Cre line. Cx26(Sox10Cre) mice presented with complete connexin26 ablation in the epithelial gap junction network of the cochlea, whereas connexin30 expression was developmentally delayed; immunolabeling patterns for both connexins were normal in the cochlear lateral wall. In vivo electrophysiological measurements in Cx26(Sox10Cre) mice revealed profound hearing loss accompanied by reduction of endocochlear potential, and functional experiments performed in postnatal cochlear organotypic cultures showed impaired gap junction coupling. Transduction of these cultures with a bovine adeno associated virus vector restored connexin26 protein expression and rescued gap junction coupling. These results suggest that restoration of normal connexin levels by gene delivery via recombinant adeno associated virus could be a way to rescue hearing function in DFNB1 mouse models and, in future, lead to the development of therapeutic interventions in humans.
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Assessment of the safety and biodistribution of a regulated AAV2 gene transfer vector after delivery to murine submandibular glands.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Clinical gene transfer holds promise for the treatment of many inherited and acquired disorders. A key consideration for all clinical gene transfer applications is the tight control of transgene expression. We have examined the safety and biodistribution of a serotype 2, recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vector that encodes a rapamycin-responsive chimeric transcription factor, which regulates the expression of a therapeutic transgene (human erythropoietin [hEpo]). The vector, AAV2-TF2.3w-hEpo (2.5 × 10(7)-2.5 × 10(10) particles), was administered once to a single submandibular gland of male and female mice and mediated hEpo expression in vivo following a rapamycin injection but not in its absence. Control (saline treated) and vector-treated animals maintained their weight, and consumed food and water, similarly. Vector delivery led to no significant toxicological effects as judged by hematology, clinical chemistry, and gross and microscopic pathology evaluations. On day 3 after vector delivery, vector copies were not only abundant in the targeted right submandibular gland but also detected in multiple other tissues. Vector was cleared from the targeted gland much more rapidly in female mice than in male mice. Overall, our results are consistent with the notion that administration of the AAV2-TF2.3w-hEpo vector to salivary glands posed no significant risk in mice.
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T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a receptor for Zaire Ebolavirus and Lake Victoria Marburgvirus.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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The glycoproteins (GP) of enveloped viruses facilitate entry into the host cell by interacting with specific cellular receptors. Despite extensive study, a cellular receptor for the deadly filoviruses Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus has yet to be identified and characterized. Here, we show that T-cell Ig and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) binds to the receptor binding domain of the Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein, and ectopic TIM-1 expression in poorly permissive cells enhances EBOV infection by 10- to 30-fold. Conversely, reduction of cell-surface expression of TIM-1 by RNAi decreased infection of highly permissive Vero cells. TIM-1 expression within the human body is broader than previously appreciated, with expression on mucosal epithelia from the trachea, cornea, and conjunctiva--tissues believed to be important during in vivo transmission of filoviruses. Recognition that TIM-1 serves as a receptor for filoviruses on these mucosal epithelial surfaces provides a mechanistic understanding of routes of entry into the human body via inhalation of aerosol particles or hand-to-eye contact. ARD5, a monoclonal antibody against the IgV domain of TIM-1, blocked EBOV binding and infection, suggesting that antibodies or small molecules directed against this cellular receptor may provide effective filovirus antivirals.
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Glucagon-like peptide-1 gene therapy.
Exp Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a small peptide component of the prohormone, proglucagon, that is produced in the gut. Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist originally isolated from the saliva of H. suspectum or Gila monster, is a peptide that shares sequence and functional homology with GLP-1. Both peptides have been demonstrated to stimulate insulin secretion, inhibit glucagon secretion, promote satiety and slow gastric emptying. As such, GLP-1 and Exendin-4 have become attractive pharmaceutical targets as an adjunctive therapy for individuals with type II diabetes mellitus, with several products currently available clinically. Herein we summarize the cell biology leading to GLP-1 production and secretion from intestinal L-cells and the endocrine functions of this peptide and Exendin-4 in humans. Additionally, gene therapeutic applications of GLP-1 and Exendin-4 are discussed with a focus on recent work using the salivary gland as a gene therapy target organ for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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Effect of soluble ICAM-1 on a Sjögrens syndrome-like phenotype in NOD mice is disease stage dependent.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in migration and co-stimulation of T and B cells. Membrane bound ICAM-1 is over expressed in the salivary glands (SG) of Sjögrens syndrome (SS) patients and has therefore been proposed as a potential therapeutic target. To test the utility of ICAM-1 as a therapeutic target, we used local gene therapy in Non Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice to express soluble (s)ICAM-1 to compete with membrane bound ICAM-1 for binding with its receptor. Therapy was given prior to and just after the influx of immune cells into the SG.
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Tyrosine kinase receptor Axl enhances entry of Zaire ebolavirus without direct interactions with the viral glycoprotein.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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In a bioinformatics-based screen for cellular genes that enhance Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) transduction, AXL mRNA expression strongly correlated with ZEBOV infection. A series of cell lines and primary cells were identified that require Axl for optimal ZEBOV entry. Using one of these cell lines, we identified ZEBOV entry events that are Axl-dependent. Interactions between ZEBOV-GP and the Axl ectodomain were not detected in immunoprecipitations and reduction of surface-expressed Axl by RNAi did not alter ZEBOV-GP binding, providing evidence that Axl does not serve as a receptor for the virus. However, RNAi knock down of Axl reduced ZEBOV pseudovirion internalization and ?-Axl antisera inhibited pseudovirion fusion with cellular membranes. Consistent with the importance of Axl for ZEBOV transduction, Axl transiently co-localized on the surface of cells with ZEBOV virus particles and was internalized during virion transduction. In total, these findings indicate that endosomal uptake of filoviruses is facilitated by Axl.
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Viral vector tropism for supporting cells in the developing murine cochlea.
Hear. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Gene-based therapeutics are being developed as novel treatments for genetic hearing loss. One roadblock to effective gene therapy is the identification of vectors which will safely deliver therapeutics to targeted cells. The cellular heterogeneity that exists within the cochlea makes viral tropism a vital consideration for effective inner ear gene therapy. There are compelling reasons to identify a viral vector with tropism for organ of Corti supporting cells. Supporting cells are the primary expression site of connexin 26 gap junction proteins that are mutated in the most common form of congenital genetic deafness (DFNB1). Supporting cells are also primary targets for inducing hair cell regeneration. Since many genetic forms of deafness are congenital it is necessary to administer gene transfer-based therapeutics prior to the onset of significant hearing loss. We have used transuterine microinjection of the fetal murine otocyst to investigate viral tropism in the developing inner ear. For the first time we have characterized viral tropism for supporting cells following in utero delivery to their progenitors. We report the inner ear tropism and potential ototoxicity of three previously untested vectors: early-generation adenovirus (Ad5.CMV.GFP), advanced-generation adenovirus (Adf.11D) and bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV.CMV.GFP). Adenovirus showed robust tropism for organ of Corti supporting cells throughout the cochlea but induced increased ABR thresholds indicating ototoxicity. BAAV also showed tropism for organ of Corti supporting cells, with preferential transduction toward the cochlear apex. Additionally, BAAV readily transduced spiral ganglion neurons. Importantly, the BAAV-injected ears exhibited normal hearing at 5 weeks of age when compared to non-injected ears. Our results support the use of BAAV for safe and efficient targeting of supporting cell progenitors in the developing murine inner ear.
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Location of immunization and interferon-? are central to induction of salivary gland dysfunction in Ro60 peptide immunized model of Sjögrens syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Anti-Ro antibodies can be found in the serum of the majority of patients with Sjögrens syndrome (SS). Immunization with a 60-kDa Ro peptide has been shown to induce SS-like symptoms in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate factors involved in salivary gland (SG) dysfunction after immunization and to test whether the induction of SS could be improved.
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Transduction, tropism, and biodistribution of AAV vectors in the lacrimal gland.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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The lacrimal gland (LG) delivers defensive and metabolic factors to the ocular surface. These functions may be disrupted in several diseases, and for most of them there is no cure. The aim of this study is to investigate conditions and limitations for using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors as gene transfer agents to LG.
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Pathogenic effect of interleukin-17A in induction of Sjögrens syndrome-like disease using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Sjögrens syndrome (SS) involves a chronic, progressive inflammation primarily of the salivary and lacrimal glands leading to decreased levels of saliva and tears resulting in dry mouth and dry eye diseases. Seminal findings regarding TH17 cell populations that secrete predominantly interleukin (IL)-17A have been shown to play an important role in an increasing number of autoimmune diseases, including SS. In the present study, we investigated the function of IL-17A on the development and onset of SS.
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IL17: potential therapeutic target in Sjögrens syndrome using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Sjögrens syndrome (SS) involves a chronic, progressive inflammation primarily of the salivary and lacrimal glands leading to decreased levels of saliva and tears that eventually result in dry mouth and dry eye diseases. T(H)17 cell populations secreting IL17A have been shown to have an important function in an increasing number of autoimmune diseases, including SS. In this study, we investigated the function of IL17A on SS development and onset. Adenovirus-5 vectors expressing either IL17R:fragment of crystallization (Fc) fusion protein or LacZ were injected through retrograde cannulation into the salivary glands of SS-susceptible (SS(S)) C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice between 6 and 8 weeks of age (a pre-disease stage) or 15 and 17 weeks of age (a diseased stage). The mice were subsequently characterized for their SS phenotypes. Mice cannulated with the Ad5-IL17R:Fc viral vector at either 7 or 16 weeks of age exhibited a rapid temporal, yet persistent, decrease in the levels of serum IL17 as well as the overall numbers of CD4+IL17+T cells present in their spleens. Disease profiling indicated that these mice showed decreased lymphocytic infiltrations of their salivary glands, normalization of their antinuclear antibodies repertoire, and increased saliva secretion. In contrast, mice cannulated with the control Ad5-LacZ viral vector did not exhibit similar changes and progressed to the overt disease stage. The capacity of the Ad5-IL17R:Fc-blocking factor to reduce SS pathology in SS(S) mice strongly suggests that IL17 is an important inflammatory cytokine in salivary gland dysfunction. Thus, therapeutic approach targeting IL17 may be effective in preventing glandular dysfunction.
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Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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Btbd7 regulates epithelial cell dynamics and branching morphogenesis.
Science
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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During embryonic development, many organs form by extensive branching of epithelia through the formation of clefts and buds. In cleft formation, buds are delineated by the conversion of epithelial cell-cell adhesions to cell-matrix adhesions, but the mechanisms of cleft formation are not clear. We have identified Btbd7 as a dynamic regulator of branching morphogenesis. Btbd7 provides a mechanistic link between the extracellular matrix and cleft propagation through its highly focal expression leading to local regulation of Snail2 (Slug), E-cadherin, and epithelial cell motility. Inhibition experiments show that Btbd7 is required for branching of embryonic mammalian salivary glands and lungs. Hence, Btbd7 is a regulatory gene that promotes epithelial tissue remodeling and formation of branched organs.
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Epidermal growth factor receptor is a co-receptor for adeno-associated virus serotype 6.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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A key step in gene therapy is the efficient transfer of genes in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. To better understand the mechanism of adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV6) transduction, we used comparative gene analysis (CGA) combined with pathway visualization software to identify a positive correlation between AAV6 transduction and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Subsequent experiments suggested that EGFR is necessary for vector internalization and probably functions as a co-receptor for AAV6.
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BAAV transcytosis requires an interaction with beta-1-4 linked- glucosamine and gp96.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Cell surface carbohydrates play an important role in virus entry and intracellular trafficking. Bovine Adeno-Associated Virus (BAAV) uses plasma membrane gangliosides for transduction and infection. In addition, independent of the infectious pathway, BAAV also has the ability to pass through barrier epithelia and endothelia using a transcytosis pathway dependent upon the presence of cell surface carbohydrates. Thus, in order to better define the carbohydrate interactions that are necessary for BAAV infection or transcytosis, a glycan microarray composed of both natural and synthetic carbohydrates was probed with HA-tagged BAAV particles. This identified chitotriose, a trimer of beta-1-4-linked N-acetyl glucosamine, as having an interaction with BAAV. Competition experiments showed that the BAAV interaction with this carbohydrate is not necessary for infection but is instead important in the transcytosis pathway. The beta-1-4-linked N-acetyl glucosamine modification has been reported on gp96, a glycoprotein involved in the transcytosis of bacteria and toxins. Significantly, immunoprecipitation and competition experiments with an anti-gp96 antibody and a soluble form of gp96, respectively, showed this glycoprotein can also interact with BAAV to serve as a receptor for its transcytosis.
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Sites in the AAV5 capsid tolerant to deletions and tandem duplications.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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Gene therapy vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) have shown much promise in clinical trials for the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, the ability to manipulate and engineer the viral surface for enhanced efficiency is necessary to overcome such barriers as pre-existing immunity and transduction of non-target cells that currently limit AAV applications. Although single amino acid changes and peptide insertions at select sites have been explored previously, the tolerance of AAV to small deletions and tandem duplications of sequence has not been globally addressed. Here, we have generated a large, diverse library of >10(5) members containing deletions and tandem duplications throughout the viral capsid of AAV5. Four unique mutants were identified that maintain the ability to form viral particles, with one showing improved transduction on both 293T and BEAS-2B cells. This approach may find potential use for the generation of novel variants with improved and altered properties or in the identification of sites that are tolerant to insertions of targeting ligands.
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Interleukin-12 induces salivary gland dysfunction in transgenic mice, providing a new model of Sjögrens syndrome.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is elevated in the affected organs of patients with Sjögrens syndrome (SS). We have previously reported that overexpression of IL-12 in CBA mice leads to mononuclear infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands, as well as to expansion of bronchial lymphoid tissue and decreased mucociliary clearance. Because xerostomia is one of the most important clinical features in SS patients, our main objective in the current study was to evaluate salivary gland function in IL-12-transgenic mice. Our secondary objective was to further characterize this animal model and to determine if the changes observed in these mice are representative of those observed in patients with SS overall.
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Local expression of tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1:immunoglobulin G can induce salivary gland dysfunction in a murine model of Sjögrens syndrome.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2009
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Tumor necrosis factor is a pleiotropic cytokine with potent immune regulatory functions. Although tumor necrosis factor inhibitors have demonstrated great utility in treating other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, there are conflicting results in Sjögrens syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a locally expressed tumor necrosis factor inhibitor on the salivary gland function and histopathology in an animal model of Sjögrens syndrome.
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Development of a gene transfer-based treatment for radiation-induced salivary hypofunction.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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A significant long-term side effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancers is xerostomia, a dry mouth, due to salivary gland damage. Despite continuing efforts to eliminate this problem, many patients continue to suffer. This brief review describes our efforts to develop a gene transfer approach, employing the aquaporin-1 cDNA, to treat patients with existing radiation-induced salivary hypofunction. A Phase I/II clinical trial, using a recombinant adenoviral vector to mediate gene transfer, is currently underway.
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Rho GTPases modulate entry of Ebola virus and vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped vectors.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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To explore mechanisms of entry for Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) pseudotyped virions, we used comparative gene analysis to identify genes whose expression correlated with viral transduction. Candidate genes were identified by using EBOV GP pseudotyped virions to transduce human tumor cell lines that had previously been characterized by cDNA microarray. Transduction profiles for each of these cell lines were generated, and a significant positive correlation was observed between RhoC expression and permissivity for EBOV vector transduction. This correlation was not specific for EBOV vector alone as RhoC also correlated highly with transduction of vesicular stomatitis virus GP (VSVG) pseudotyped vector. Levels of RhoC protein in EBOV and VSV permissive and nonpermissive cells were consistent with the cDNA gene array findings. Additionally, vector transduction was elevated in cells that expressed high levels of endogenous RhoC but not RhoA. RhoB and RhoC overexpression significantly increased EBOV GP and VSVG pseudotyped vector transduction but had minimal effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) GP pseudotyped HIV or adeno-associated virus 2 vector entry, indicating that not all virus uptake was enhanced by expression of these molecules. RhoB and RhoC overexpression also significantly enhanced VSV infection. Similarly, overexpression of RhoC led to a significant increase in fusion of EBOV virus-like particles. Finally, ectopic expression of RhoC resulted in increased nonspecific endocytosis of fluorescent dextran and in formation of increased actin stress fibers compared to RhoA-transfected cells, suggesting that RhoC is enhancing macropinocytosis. In total, our studies implicate RhoB and RhoC in enhanced productive entry of some pseudovirions and suggest the involvement of actin-mediated macropinocytosis as a mechanism of uptake of EBOV GP and VSVG pseudotyped viral particles.
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Transduction of rat pancreatic islets with pseudotyped adeno-associated virus vectors.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type I diabetes mellitus, but current immunosuppressive strategies do not consistently provide long-term survival of transplanted islets. We are therefore investigating the use of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) as gene therapy vectors to transduce rat islets with immunosuppressive genes prior to transplantation into diabetic mice.
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Long-term transduction of miniature pig parotid glands using serotype 2 adeno-associated viral vectors.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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Previously, using an adenoviral vector, we showed that miniature pigs could provide a valuable and affordable large animal model for pre-clinical gene therapy studies to correct parotid gland radiation damage. However, adenoviral vectors lead to short-term transgene expression and, ideally, a more stable correction is required. In the present study, we examined the suitability of using a serotype 2 adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vector to mediate more stable gene transfer in the parotid glands of these animals.
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Local administration of soluble CD40:Fc to the salivary glands of non-obese diabetic mice does not ameliorate autoimmune inflammation.
PLoS ONE
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CD40-CD154 (CD40 ligand) interaction in the co-stimulatory pathway is involved in many (auto)immune processes and both molecules are upregulated in salivary glands of Sjögrens syndrome (SS) patients. Interference within the CD40 pathway has ameliorated (auto)inflammation in a number of disease models. To test the potential role of the CD40 pathway in loss of gland function and inflammation in SS, an inhibitor of CD40-CD154 interaction was overexpressed in the salivary glands (SGs) of a spontaneous murine model of SS; the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse.
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Early responses to adenoviral-mediated transfer of the aquaporin-1 cDNA for radiation-induced salivary hypofunction.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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No conventional therapy exists for salivary hypofunction in surviving head and neck cancer patients with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late grade 2-3 toxicity. We conducted a phase I clinical trial to test the safety and biologic efficacy of serotype 5, adenoviral-mediated aquaporin-1 cDNA transfer to a single previously irradiated parotid gland in 11 subjects using an open label, single-dose, dose-escalation design (AdhAQP1 vector; four dose tiers from 4.8 × 10(7) to 5.8 × 10(9) vector particles per gland). Treated subjects were followed at scheduled intervals. Multiple safety parameters were measured and biologic efficacy was evaluated with measurements of parotid salivary flow rate. Symptoms were assessed with a visual analog scale. All subjects tolerated vector delivery and study procedures well over the 42-d study period reported. No deaths, serious adverse events, or dose-limiting toxicities occurred. Generally, few adverse events occurred, and all were considered mild or moderate. No consistent changes were found in any clinical chemistry and hematology parameters measured. Objective responses were seen in six subjects, all at doses <5.8 × 10(9) vector particles per gland. Five of these six subjects also experienced subjective improvement in xerostomia. AdhAQP1 vector delivery to a single parotid gland was safe and transfer of the hAQP1 cDNA increased parotid flow and relieved symptoms in a subset of subjects.
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Gene therapy using IL-27 ameliorates Sjögrens syndrome-like autoimmune exocrinopathy.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Sjögrens syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by decreased salivary and lacrimal gland secretions, resulting in severe dry mouth and dry eyes. Recent studies have suggested that TH17 cells and its signature cytokine IL-17 are involved in the underlying pathogenic mechanisms leading to destructive inflammation and autoimmunity. In the present study, we examined whether IL-27, a natural inhibitor of TH17 activity, could down-regulate or reverse SjS in C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice, a model of primary-SjS. METHODS: Recombinant serotype 2 adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vectors expressing either IL-27 (rAAV2-IL27) or LacZ (rAAV2-LacZ) were injected into 6 or 14 week-old C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice. Changes in IL-27, IL-17, and IL-10 cytokine levels in peripheral blood were determined by ELISAs, while flow cytometry analyses were used to quantify cytokine-positive splenocytes. Histological assessment of salivary glands, anti-nuclear autoantibody (ANA) staining, and stimulated saliva flow rates were used to profile SjS disease severity. RESULTS: Mice systemically treated with intravenous rAAV2-IL27 injections at either 6 or 14 weeks of age exhibited long-term elevated levels of serum IL-27 with concomitantly reduced levels of IL-17 compared with sera from mice injected with rAAV2-LacZ or saline out to 20 weeks post-inoculation. Most importantly, disease profiles revealed that rAAV2-IL27 treatment had little effect on lymphocytic focus (LF) scores, but resulted in structural changes in LF, lower titers of ANAs with changes in staining patterns, and a less severe clinical disease as determined by saliva flow rates. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the concept that IL-27, when provided exogenously, can induce a suppressive effect on SjS development and thus may be an effective therapeutic agent for regulating TH17 pro-inflammatory activity in autoimmune diseases where the TH17 system has been shown to play an important role in their pathogenesis.
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Sustained exendin-4 secretion through gene therapy targeting salivary glands in two different rodent models of obesity/type 2 diabetes.
PLoS ONE
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Exendin-4 (Ex-4) is a Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), which requires daily subcutaneous administration. In T2DM patients, GLP-1 administration is reported to reduce glycaemia and HbA1c in association with a modest, but significant weight loss. The aim of present study was to characterize the site-specific profile and metabolic effects of Ex-4 levels expressed from salivary glands (SG) in vivo, following adeno-associated virus-mediated (AAV) gene therapy in two different animal models of obesity prone to impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM, specifically, Zucker fa/fa rats and high fed diet (HFD) mice. Following percutaneous injection of AAV5 into the salivary glands, biologically active Ex-4 was detected in the blood of both animal models and expression persisted in salivary gland ductal cell until the end of the study. In treated mice, Ex-4 levels averaged 138.9±42.3 pmol/L on week 6 and in treated rats, mean circulating Ex-4 levels were 238.2±72 pmol/L on week 4 and continued to increase through week 8. Expression of Ex-4 resulted in a significant decreased weight gain in both mice and rats, significant improvement in glycemic control and/or insulin sensitivity as well as visceral adipose tissue adipokine profile. In conclusion, these results suggest that sustained site-specific expression of Ex-4 following AAV5-mediated gene therapy is feasible and may be useful in the treatment of obesity as well as trigger improved metabolic profile.
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Mutation in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha inhibits adeno-associated virus type 5 transduction.
Virology
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Due to its non-pathogenic lifecycle, little is known about the cellular determinants of infection by adeno-associated virus (AAV). To identify these critical cellular factors, we took advantage of the gene transfer abilities of AAV in combination with a forward genetic selection to identify proteins critical for transduction by this virus. AAV serotype 5 (AAV5) vectors encoding the furin gene were used to transduce furin-deficient cells followed by selection with furin-dependent toxins. A population of cells specifically resistant to AAV5 transduction was identified and sequence analysis suggested all had a single amino acid mutation in the leader sequence of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) gene. Characterization of this mutation suggested it inhibited PDGFR? trafficking resulting in limited expression on the plasma membrane. Mutagenesis and transfection experiments confirmed the effect of this mutation on PDGFR? trafficking, and the AAV5 resistant phenotype could be rescued by transfection with wild type PDGFR?.
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Local delivery of AAV2-CTLA4IgG decreases sialadenitis and improves gland function in the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mouse model of Sjögrens syndrome.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
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Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a key negative costimulatory molecule that displays a wide range of anti-inflammatory properties and is currently approved to treat rheumatoid arthritis as a recombinant fusion protein (CTLA4IgG). To better understand the role of CTLA4IgG in primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS), we generated a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector serotype 2 (AAV2) expressing a chimera of mouse CTLA-4 fused with a human immunoglobulin (AAV2-CTLA4IgG) and observed the effect of this molecule in C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice, an animal model of pSS.
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