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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Randomized open-label pilot study of the influence of probiotics and the gut microbiome on toxic metal levels in tanzanian pregnant women and school children.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 10(10) CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool.
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Cryptosporidium prevalence and risk factors among mothers and infants 0 to 6 months in rural and semi-rural Northwest Tanzania: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Cryptosporidium epidemiology is poorly understood, but infection is suspected of contributing to childhood malnutrition and diarrhea-related mortality worldwide.
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Increased level of acute phase reactants in patients infected with modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Mwanza, Tanzania.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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There is increasing evidence to suggest that different Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages cause variations in the clinical presentation of tuberculosis (TB). Certain M. tuberculosis genotypes/lineages have been shown to be more likely to cause active TB in human populations from a distinct genetic ancestry. This study describes the genetic biodiversity of M. tuberculosis genotypes in Mwanza city, Tanzania and the clinical presentation of the disease caused by isolates of different lineages.
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Prevalence of human papillomavirus in adolescent girls before reported sexual debut.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut because they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. Little research has been done on HPV prevalence in girls who report not having passed sexual debut in high HPV-prevalence countries.
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Nutritional supplementation increases rifampin exposure among tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Nutritional supplementation to tuberculosis (TB) patients has been associated with increased weight and reduced mortality, but its effect on the pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is unknown. A cohort of 100 TB patients (58 men; median age, 35 [interquartile range {IQR}, 29 to 40] years, and median body mass index [BMI], 18.8 [17.3 to 19.9] kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive nutritional supplementation during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Rifampin plasma concentrations were determined after 1 week and 2 months of treatment. The effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, time on treatment, body weight, and SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype were examined using a population pharmacokinetic model. The model adjusted for body size via allometric scaling, accounted for clearance autoinduction, and detected an increase in bioavailability (+14%) for the patients in the continuation phase. HIV coinfection in patients not receiving the supplementation was found to decrease bioavailability by 21.8%, with a median maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) of 5.6 ?g/ml and 28.6 ?g · h/ml, respectively. HIV-coinfected patients on nutritional supplementation achieved higher Cmax and AUC0-24 values of 6.4 ?g/ml and 31.6 ?g · h/ml, respectively, and only 13.3% bioavailability reduction. No effect of the SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype was observed. In conclusion, nutritional supplementation during the first 2 months of TB treatment reduces the decrease in rifampin exposure observed in HIV-coinfected patients but does not affect exposure in HIV-uninfected patients. If confirmed in other studies, the use of defined nutritional supplementation in HIV-coinfected TB patients should be considered in TB control programs. (This study has the controlled trial registration number ISRCTN 16552219.).
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Diabetes is associated with lower tuberculosis antigen-specific interferon gamma release in Tanzanian tuberculosis patients and non-tuberculosis controls.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Diabetes is increasingly common in TB endemic regions and plays a role as a possible risk factor for increased progression from latent TB infection (LTBI) to active TB disease. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood, the immune system is weakened in diabetes patients and therefore the validity of interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) may be compromised. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between diabetes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen-specific interferon gamma (IFN-?) release in a TB endemic area among culture-confirmed TB patients and non-TB controls.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis: prevalence of alcohol use among young people in eastern Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of alcohol use among young people (age 15-24 years) in eastern Africa to estimate prevalence of alcohol use and determine the extent of use of standardised screening questionnaires in alcohol studies.
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Epidemiology of curable sexually transmitted infections among women at increased risk for HIV in northwestern Tanzania: inadequacy of syndromic management.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Curable, non-viral pathogens account for a significant burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and there is established evidence that STIs increase both HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the prevalence, trends, and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum, and the performance of syndromic management, among a cohort of women working in bars, hotels, and other food and recreational facilities near large-scale mines in northwestern Tanzania.
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The implementation of an external quality assurance method for point- of- care tests for HIV and syphilis in Tanzania.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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External quality assurance (EQA) programmes, which are routinely used in laboratories, have not been widely implemented for point-of- care tests (POCTs). A study was performed in ten health centres in Tanzania, to implement the use of dried blood spots (DBS) as an EQA method for HIV and syphilis (POCTs).
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Impact of malaria and helminth infections on immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in Tanzania.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Endemic malaria and helminth infections in sub-Saharan Africa can act as immunological modulators and impact responses to standard immunizations. We conducted a cohort study to measure the influence of malaria and helminth infections on the immunogenicity of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine.
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Detectable urogenital schistosome DNA and cervical abnormalities 6 months after single-dose praziquantel in women with Schistosoma haematobium infection.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We explored response to single-dose praziquantel therapy in a cohort of 33 women with Schistosoma haematobium infection in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. Women with S. haematobium infection confirmed both by eggs in urine and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) received single-dose praziquantel and treatment of concomitant sexually transmitted infections. Macroscopic cervical abnormalities were also quantified. After 6 months, microscopically detectable egg excretion was eliminated, but 8 of 33 women (24%) were persistently positive for S. haematobium by PCR, and 11 (33%) had cervical abnormalities potentially attributable to schistosomiasis. This suggests that praziquantel treatment more frequently than every 6 months may be necessary for complete elimination of the parasite and prevention of genital tissue pathology. This aggressive therapy may in turn play a key role decreasing HIV susceptibility in millions of people living in regions in which S. haematobium is endemic.
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Risk factors for unplanned pregnancy among young women in Tanzania.
J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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With effective contraceptives available, unplanned pregnancies are preventable and educational interventions have been cited as a promising platform to increase contraceptive use through improving knowledge. However, results from trials of educational interventions have been disappointing. In order to effectively target future interventions, this study aimed to identify risk factors for unplanned pregnancy among young women in Mwanza, Tanzania.
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The costs of accessible quality assured syphilis diagnostics: informing quality systems for rapid syphilis tests in a Tanzanian setting.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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OBJECTIVES To determine the costs of Rapid Syphilis Test (RSTs) as compared with rapid plasma reagin (RPR) when implemented in a Tanzanian setting, and to determine the relative impact of a quality assurance (QA) system on the cost of RST implementation. METHODS The incremental costs for RPR and RST screening programmes in existing antenatal care settings in Geita District, Tanzania were collected for 9 months in subsequent years from nine health facilities that varied in size, remoteness and scope of antenatal services. The costs per woman tested and treated were estimated for each facility. A sensitivity analysis was constructed to determine the impact of parameter and model uncertainty.Findings In surveyed facilities, a total of 6362 women were tested with RSTs compared with 224 tested with RPR. The range of unit costs was $1.76-$3.13 per woman screened and $12.88-$32.67 per woman treated. Unit costs for the QA system came to $0.51 per woman tested, of which 50% were attributed to salaries and transport for project personnel. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that rapid syphilis diagnostics are very inexpensive in this setting and can overcome some critical barriers to ensuring universal access to syphilis testing and treatment. The additional costs for implementation of a quality system were found to be relatively small, and could be reduced through alterations to the programme design. Given the potential for a quality system to improve quality of diagnosis and care, we recommend that QA activities be incorporated into RST roll-out.
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Diabetes is a strong predictor of mortality during tuberculosis treatment: a prospective cohort study among tuberculosis patients from Mwanza, Tanzania.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment.
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Sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status are associated with body composition among tuberculosis patients in a deuterium dilution cross-sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Underweight is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, there is little information on determinants of body composition at TB treatment initiation in high-TB-burdened countries. This study aimed to determine factors associated with body composition at commencement of TB treatment in Mwanza, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2007 to 2008 among newly diagnosed TB patients. Fat and fat-free mass were determined using a deuterium dilution technique and fat and fat-free mass indices were computed. Correlates were assessed using multiple regression analysis. A total of 201 pulmonary TB patients were recruited; of these, 37.8% (76) were female, 51.7% (104) were HIV infected, 65.3% (126) had sputum-positive TB, and 24.4% (49) were current smokers. In multiple regressions analysis, males had a 2.2-kg/m(2) [(95% CI = 1.6, 2.9); P < 0.0001] lower fat mass index but 1.5 kg/m(2) [(95% CI = 0.9, 2.0); P < 0.0001] higher fat-free mass index compared with females. Sputum-positive TB was associated with a lower fat mass index among HIV-uninfected patients [-1.4 kg (95% CI = -2.5, -0.4); P = 0.006] but not among HIV-infected patients (P-interaction = 0.09). Current smokers had a 0.7-kg/m(2) [(95% CI = 0.02, 1.5); P = 0.045] lower fat mass index, but smoking did not affect fat-free mass. High socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with higher fat as well as fat-free mass. HIV infection, cluster of differentiation 4 count, and antiretroviral therapy were not correlates. Sex, smoking, and SES were associated with body composition of TB patients at treatment commencement. Prospective studies are needed to determine the role of these factors on weight gain, functional recovery, and survival during and after treatment.
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High prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus in a cohort of healthy young African female subjects.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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We measured the prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young female subjects recruited for a safety and immunogenicity trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in Tanzania.
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The development and validation of dried blood spots for external quality assurance of syphilis serology.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Syphilis causes up to 1,500,000 congenital syphilis cases annually. These could be prevented if all pregnant women were screened, and those with syphilis treated with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks gestation. In recent years, rapid point-of-care tests have allowed greater access to syphilis screening, especially in rural or remote areas, but the lack of quality assurance of rapid testing has been a concern. We determined the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) as specimens for quality assurance of syphilis serological assays.
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Deciphering the Complex Distribution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes among Different Cohorts in Northern Tanzania.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Increased understanding of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 is challenging but important in the development of an effective vaccine. We aimed to describe the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in northern Tanzania among women enrolled in studies preparing for HIV-1 prevention trials (hospitality facility-worker cohorts), and among men and women in an open cohort demographic surveillance system (Kisesa cohort).
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Vitamin D Status among Pulmonary TB Patients and Non-TB Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study from Mwanza, Tanzania.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Little is known about vitamin D status in low-income populations burdened with infectious diseases. Hence, there is a need for data on correlates of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25(OH)D) and its validity during infections.
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The trade-off between accuracy and accessibility of syphilis screening assays.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The availability of rapid and sensitive methods to diagnose syphilis facilitates screening of pregnant women, which is one of the most cost-effective health interventions available. We have evaluated two screening methods in Tanzania: an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and a point-of-care test (POCT). We evaluated the performance of each test against the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) as the reference method, and the accessibility of testing in a rural district of Tanzania. The POCT was performed in the clinic on whole blood, while the other assays were performed on plasma in the laboratory. Samples were also tested by the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) test. With TPPA as reference assay, the sensitivity and specificity of EIA were 95.3% and 97.8%, and of the POCT were 59.6% and 99.4% respectively. The sensitivity of the POCT and EIA for active syphilis cases (TPPA positive and RPR titer ? 1/8) were 82% and 100% respectively. Only 15% of antenatal clinic attenders in this district visited a health facility with a laboratory capable of performing the EIA. Although it is less sensitive than EIA, its greater accessibility, and the fact that treatment can be given on the same day, means that the use of POCT would result in a higher proportion of women with syphilis receiving treatment than with the EIA in this district of Tanzania.
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The epidemiology of HIV and HSV-2 infections among women participating in microbicide and vaccine feasibility studies in Northern Tanzania.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To prepare for future HIV prevention trials, we conducted prospective cohort studies among women working in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania. We examined the prevalence and incidence of HIV and HSV-2, and associated risk factors.
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HIV Infection among Young People in Northwest Tanzania: The Role of Biological, Behavioural and Socio-Demographic Risk Factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Young people are at high risk of HIV and developing appropriate prevention programmes requires an understanding of the risk factors for HIV in this age group. We investigated factors associated with HIV among participants aged 15-30 years in a 2007-8 cross-sectional survey nested within a community-randomised trial of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention in 20 rural communities in northwest Tanzania.
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The prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection based on an interferon-? release assay: a cross-sectional survey among urban adults in Mwanza, Tanzania.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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One third of the worlds population is estimated to be latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI). Surveys of LTBI are rarely performed in resource poor TB high endemic countries like Tanzania although low-income countries harbor the largest burden of the worlds LTBI. The primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in household contacts of pulmonary TB cases and a group of apparently healthy neighborhood controls in an urban setting of such a country. Secondly we assessed potential impact of LTBI on inflammation by quantitating circulating levels of an acute phase reactant: alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in neighborhood controls.
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"Half plate of rice to a male casual sexual partner, full plate belongs to the husband": findings from a qualitative study on sexual behaviour in relation to HIV and AIDS in northern Tanzania.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities.
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Effect of micronutrient and probiotic fortified yogurt on immune-function of anti-retroviral therapy naive HIV patients.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving the immune-function of HIV patients.
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The effect of energy-protein supplementation on weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis HIV-co-infected patients: randomised controlled trial in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Undernutrition is common among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB+) patients. Micronutrient supplementation may improve treatment outcomes, but it is unclear whether additional energy-protein would be beneficial. The present study aimed to assess the effect of energy-protein supplementation on weight, body composition and handgrip strength against a background of high micronutrient intake during tuberculosis (TB) treatment. A total of 377 PTB+ patients co-infected with HIV were randomly allocated one or six biscuits daily for 60 d during TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and 2 and 5 months. There were no effects on any outcome at 2 months, but energy-protein supplementation was associated with a 1·3 (95 % CI - 0·1, 2·8) kg marginally significant gain in handgrip strength at 5 months. However, after 2 months, energy-protein supplementation led to a weight gain of 1·9 (95 % CI 0·1, 3·7) kg among patients with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts ? 350 cells/?l, but not among patients with low CD4 counts ( - 0·2 kg; 95 % CI - 1·3, 0·8, Pinteraction = 0·03). Similarly, at 5 months, energy-protein supplementation led to a 2·3 (95 % CI 0·6, 4·1) kg higher handgrip strength gain among patients with CD4 counts < 350 cells/?l, but not in those with high CD4 counts (Pinteraction = 0·04). In conclusion, energy-protein supplementation to PTB+ HIV-co-infected patients had no overall effects on weight and body composition, but was associated with marginally significant gain in handgrip strength. More research is needed to develop an effective supplement, before it is recommended to TB programmes.
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Policy environment and male circumcision for HIV prevention: findings from a situation analysis study in Tanzania.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to be effective against heterosexual acquisition of HIV infection and is being scaled up as an additional strategy against HIV in several countries of Africa. However, the policy environment (whether to formulate new specific policy on MC or adapts the existing ones); and the role of various stakeholders in the MC scale up process in Tanzania was unclear. We conducted this study as part of a situation analysis to understand the attitudes of policy makers and other key community and health authority decision makers towards MC, policy and regulatory environment, and the readiness of a health system to accommodate scaling up of MC services.
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Using research to influence sexual and reproductive health practice and implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa: a case-study analysis.
Health Res Policy Syst
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Research institutions and donor organizations are giving growing attention to how research evidence is communicated to influence policy. In the area of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV there is less weight given to understanding how evidence is successfully translated into practice. Policy issues in SRH can be controversial, influenced by political factors and shaped by context such as religion, ethnicity, gender and sexuality.
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Patterns of herpes simplex virus shedding over 1 month and the impact of acyclovir and HIV in HSV-2-seropositive women in Tanzania.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Few studies have examined the frequency and duration of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes HSV shedding patterns among a sample of HSV-2-seropositive women enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (acyclovir 400 mg twice a day) in Tanzania.
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Traditional male circumcision practices among the Kurya of North-eastern Tanzania and implications for national programmes.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS recommend male circumcision (MC) as an additional intervention against HIV infection. Various sub-Saharan African countries are at different stages of rolling out MC programmes. Despite initial fears, studies conducted among traditionally non-circumcising communities in Africa have shown that MC is widely accepted as a biomedical intervention. However, little is known on how traditionally circumcising communities where MC carries considerable social meaning and significance would respond to such programmes. This study was conducted among a traditionally circumcising community in Tarime district in Tanzania as part of a national situation analysis prior to initiating a national MC programme. It employed key informant interviews and focus group discussions for data collection. Results show that the Kurya ethnic group practice MC as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. Each clan organises its own circumcision ceremony, which takes place every even numbered years. Clan leaders and traditional circumcisers are central to its organisation. Among the Kurya, there is high regard for traditional MC as it is perceived as upholding cultural practice and identity. It also embodies notions of bravery since anaesthetics are not used. On the other hand, medical MC is not viewed as prestigious since anaesthetics are used to suppress pain. Social pressure for traditional MC is applied through ridiculing of those uncircumcised or circumcised at health facilities. In general, there are positive attitudes towards MC as it is perceived as enhancing personal hygiene and having a protective effect against sexually transmitted infections. For the success of nation-wide MC programmes, there is need to develop programmes that incorporate both clinical and sociocultural interests.
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Acceptability of medical male circumcision in the traditionally circumcising communities in Northern Tanzania.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Data from traditionally circumcising communities show that non-circumcised males and those circumcised in the medical settings are stigmatised. This is because traditional circumcision embodies local notions of bravery as anaesthetics are not used. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability of safe medical circumcision before the onset of sexual activity for HIV infection risk reduction in a traditionally circumcising community in Tanzania.
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Diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study from Mwanza, Tanzania.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Diabetes and TB are associated, and diabetes is increasingly common in low-income countries where tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic. However, the role of diabetes for TB has not been assessed in populations where HIV is prevalent.
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The long-term impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention: effect of dose and time since intervention exposure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Despite recent decreases in HIV incidence in many sub-Saharan African countries, there is little evidence that specific behavioural interventions have led to a reduction in HIV among young people. Further and wider-scale decreases in HIV require better understanding of when behaviour change occurs and why. The MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention has been implemented in rural Mwanza, Tanzania since 1999. A long-term evaluation in 2007/8 found that the intervention improved knowledge, attitudes to sex and some reported risk behaviours, but not HIV or HSV2 prevalence. The aim of this paper was to assess the differential impact of the intervention according to gender, age, marital status, number of years of exposure and time since last exposure to the intervention.
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Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age in Tanzanias Lake Victoria region.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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We conducted a community-based study of 457 women aged 18-50 years living in eight rural villages in northwest Tanzania. The prevalence of female urogenital schistosomiasis (FUS) was 5% overall but ranged from 0% to 11%. FUS was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-13.5) and younger age (OR = 5.5 and 95% CI = 1.2-26.3 for ages < 25 years and OR = 8.2 and 95% CI = 1.7-38.4 for ages 25-29 years compared with age > 35 years). Overall HIV prevalence was 5.9% but was 17% among women with FUS. We observed significant geographical clustering of schistosomiasis: northern villages near Lake Victoria had more Schistosoma mansoni infections (P < 0.0001), and southern villages farther from the lake had more S. haematobium (P = 0.002). Our data support the postulate that FUS may be a risk factor for HIV infection and may contribute to the extremely high rates of HIV among young women in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Effect of 25 weeks probiotic supplementation on immune function of HIV patients.
Gut Microbes
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Studies with a follow-up of < 8 weeks have indicated immune-preserving effects of yogurt probiotic supplementation among HIV patients. To evaluate the impact of 25 weeks use of probiotics, a randomized, double blind, controlled study was undertaken on 65 women who were naïve to anti-retroviral treatment.
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Daily multi-micronutrient supplementation during tuberculosis treatment increases weight and grip strength among HIV-uninfected but not HIV-infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB-) pulmonary TB were randomly allocated to receive a daily biscuit with or without multi-micronutrients for 60 d during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area, and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 mo. At 2 mo, the multi-micronutrient supplementation led to a higher handgrip gain (1.22 kg; 95% CI = 0.50, 1.94; P = 0.001) but had no effects on other outcomes. The effects of multi-micronutrient supplementation were modified by HIV infection (P-interaction = 0.002). Among HIV- patients, multi-micronutrient supplementation increased weight gain by 590 g (95% CI = -40, 1210; P = 0.07) and handgrip strength by 1.6 kg (95% CI = 0.78, 2.47; P < 0.001), whereas among HIV+ patients, it reduced weight gain by 1440 g (95% CI = 290, 2590; P = 0.002) and had no effect on handgrip strength (0.07 kg; 95% CI = -1.30, 1.46; P = 0.91). The reduced weight gain among HIV+ patients receiving multi-micronutrient supplementation seemed to be explained by a higher proportion of patients reporting fever. At 5 mo, the effects on weight were sustained, whereas there was no effect on handgrip strength. In conclusion, multi-micronutrient supplementation given as a biscuit is beneficial among HIV- PTB patients and may be recommended to TB programs. More research is needed to develop an effective supplement for HIV+ PTB patients.
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The epidemiology of HIV among young people in sub-Saharan Africa: know your local epidemic and its implications for prevention.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
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Broad patterns of HIV epidemiology are frequently used to design generic HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania.
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Weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a matched cross-sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV status, anthropometric measurements and handgrip strength were determined. Deficits in weight, AFA, AMA and handgrip strength associated with PTB+ and HIV were estimated using multiple regression analysis. We recruited 355 pairs of PTB+ patients and controls. PTB+ was associated with deficits of 10.0kg (95% CI 7.3; 12.7) in weight and 6.8kg (95% CI 5.2; 8.3) in handgrip strength among females and 9.1kg (95% CI 7.3; 10.9) in weight and 6.8kg (95% CI 5.2; 8.4) in handgrip strength among males. In both sexes, PTB+ was associated with deficits in AFA and AMA. Among females, HIV was associated with deficits in AMA and handgrip strength, but the deficit in handgrip strength was larger among PTB+ patients (3.2kg 95% CI 1.3; 5.2) than controls (-1.6kg 95% CI -4.8; 1.5) (interaction, P=0.009). These findings suggest that deficits in weight and handgrip strength among patients starting TB treatment are severe. Thus, nutritional support may be necessary to ensure reversal of the deficits, and may improve treatment outcomes.
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A process evaluation of the scale up of a youth-friendly health services initiative in northern Tanzania.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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While there are a number of examples of successful small-scale, youth-friendly services interventions aimed at improving reproductive health service provision for young people, these projects are often short term and have low coverage. In order to have a significant, long-term impact, these initiatives must be implemented over a sustained period and on a large scale. We conducted a process evaluation of the 10-fold scale up of an evaluated youth-friendly services intervention in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, in order to identify key facilitating and inhibitory factors from both user and provider perspectives.
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Use of acyclovir for suppression of human immunodeficiency virus infection is not associated with genotypic evidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 resistance to acyclovir: analysis of specimens from three phase III trials.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease and is a cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. We analyzed specimens from three separate phase III trials of acyclovir (ACV) for prevention of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission to determine if failure of ACV to interrupt HIV acquisition and transmission was associated with genotypic ACV resistance. Acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) or placebo was provided to HSV-2-infected persons at risk of HIV-1 infection in the Mwanza and HPTN 039 trials and to persons dually infected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 who had an HIV-negative partner in the Partners in Prevention study. We extracted HSV DNA from genital ulcer swabs or cervicovaginal lavage fluids from 68 samples obtained from 64 participants randomized to ACV and sequenced the HSV-2 UL23 gene encoding thymidine kinase. The UL23 sequences were compared with published and unpublished data. Variants were observed in 38/1,128 (3.4%) nucleotide positions in the UL23 open reading frame, with 58% of these encoding amino acid changes. No deletions, insertions, or mutations known to be associated with resistance were detected. Thirty-one of the variants (81.5%) are newly reported, 15 of which code for amino acid changes. Overall, UL23 is highly polymorphic compared to other loci in HSV-2, but no drug resistance mutations were detected that could explain the failure to reduce HIV incidence or to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these studies.
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Scaling up a school-based sexual and reproductive health intervention in rural Tanzania: a process evaluation describing the implementation realities for the teachers.
Health Educ Res
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Little is known about the nature and mechanisms of factors that facilitate or inhibit the scale-up and subsequent implementation of school-based adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) interventions. We present process evaluation findings examining the factors that affected the 10-fold scale-up of such an intervention, focussing on teachers attitudes and experiences. Qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with teachers, head teachers, ward education coordinators and school committees from eight schools took place before, during and after intervention implementation. The results were triangulated with observations of training sessions and training questionnaires. The training was well implemented and led to some key improvements in teachers ASRH knowledge, attitudes and perceived self-efficacy, with substantial improvements in knowledge about reproductive biology and attitudes towards confidentiality. The trained teachers were more likely to consider ASRH a priority in schools and less likely to link teaching ASRH to the early initiation of sex than non-trained teachers. Facilitating factors included teacher enjoyment, their recognition of training benefits, the participatory teaching techniques, support from local government as well as the structured nature of the intervention. Challenges included differential participation by male and female teachers, limited availability of materials and high turnover of trained teachers.
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Deep sequencing of the vaginal microbiota of women with HIV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Women living with HIV and co-infected with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are at higher risk for transmitting HIV to a partner or newborn. It is poorly understood which bacterial communities constitute BV or the normal vaginal microbiota among this population and how the microbiota associated with BV responds to antibiotic treatment.
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Infrequent detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii by PCR in oral wash specimens from TB patients with or without HIV and healthy contacts in Tanzania.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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In tuberculosis (TB) endemic parts of the world, patients with pulmonary symptoms are managed as "smear-negative TB patients" if they do not improve on a two-week presumptive, broad-spectrum course of antibiotic treatment even if they are TB microscopy smear negative. These patients are frequently HIV positive and have a higher mortality than smear-positive TB patients. Lack of access to diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia might be a contributing reason. We therefore assessed the prevalence of P. jirovecii by PCR in oral wash specimens among TB patients and healthy individuals in an HIV- and TB-endemic area of sub-Saharan Africa.
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Partnering to proceed: scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation.
Health Res Policy Syst
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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Little is known about how to implement promising small-scale projects to reduce reproductive ill health and HIV vulnerability in young people on a large scale. This evaluation documents and explains how a partnership between a non-governmental organization (NGO) and local government authorities (LGAs) influenced the LGA-led scale-up of an innovative NGO programme in the wider context of a new national multisectoral AIDS strategy.
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Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469). The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. Process evaluation in 1999-2002 showed high intervention quality and coverage. A 2001/2 intervention impact evaluation showed no impact on the primary outcomes of HIV seroincidence and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence but found substantial improvements in SRH knowledge, reported attitudes, and some reported sexual behaviours. It was postulated that the impact on "upstream" knowledge, attitude, and reported behaviour outcomes seen at the 3-year follow-up would, in the longer term, lead to a reduction in HIV and HSV-2 infection rates and other biological outcomes. A further impact evaluation survey in 2007/8 ( approximately 9 years post-intervention) tested this hypothesis.
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Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC) remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC) in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection.
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Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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There is little evidence from the developing world of the effect of scale-up on model adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) programmes. In this article, we document the effect of scaling up a school-based intervention (MEMA kwa Vijana) from 62 to 649 schools on the coverage and quality of implementation.
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Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 to prevent or cure bacterial vaginosis among women with HIV.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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To assess, among women with HIV, whether long-term oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 supplementation can prevent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and enhance the cure rate of metronidazole among those with BV.
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Long-term impact of acyclovir suppressive therapy on genital and plasma HIV RNA in Tanzanian women: a randomized controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppressive therapy reduces genital and plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA over periods up to 3 months, but the long-term effect is unknown.
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Association of schistosomiasis with false-positive HIV test results in an African adolescent population.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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This study was designed to investigate the factors associated with the high rate of false-positive test results observed with the 4th-generation Murex HIV Ag/Ab Combination EIA (enzyme immunoassay) within an adolescent and young-adult cohort in northwest Tanzania. (4th-generation assays by definition detect both HIV antigen and antibody.) The clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with false-positive HIV results were analyzed for 6,940 Tanzanian adolescents and young adults. A subsample of 284 Murex assay-negative and 240 false-positive serum samples were analyzed for immunological factors, including IgG antibodies to malaria and schistosoma parasites, heterophile antibodies, and rheumatoid factor (RF) titers. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). False-positive HIV test results were associated with evidence of other infections. False positivity was strongly associated with increasing levels of Schistosoma haematobium worm IgG1, with adolescents with optical densities in the top quartile being at the highest risk (adjusted OR=40.7, 95% CI=8.5 to 194.2 compared with the risk for those in the bottom quartile). False positivity was also significantly associated with increasing S. mansoni egg IgG1 titers and RF titers of >or=80 (adjusted OR=8.2, 95% CI=2.8 to 24.3). There was a significant negative association between Murex assay false positivity and the levels of S. mansoni worm IgG1 and IgG2 and Plasmodium falciparum IgG1 and IgG4. In Africa, endemic infections may affect the specificities of immunoassays for HIV infection. Caution should be used when the results of 4th-generation HIV test results are interpreted for African adolescent populations.
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A qualitative study of participant adherence in a randomized controlled trial of herpes suppressive therapy for HIV prevention in Tanzania.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Poor participant adherence to treatment may contribute to lack of impact in some biomedical HIV prevention trials. This qualitative study explored adherence in a randomized controlled trial of herpes suppressive therapy to reduce HIV acquisition and infectivity among 1305 Tanzanian women. The trial found participants completed 72% of visits on treatment; 52-56% of women on treatment had > or = 90% adherence by pill count estimate; and between six and nine months 30/86 (35%) of urine samples from acyclovir recipients tested acyclovir negative, and 7/86 (8%) from placebo recipients tested acyclovir positive. Twenty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted after 30 months with respondents randomly selected from "acyclovir negative" acyclovir recipients and "acyclovir positive" placebo recipients, or by preliminary pill count adherence categories ("under users," "good users," and "over users"). Almost all respondents reported appropriate adherence and positive trial attitudes, e.g., trusting staff, appreciating services, perceiving pills as beneficial. Fourteen understood placebo use, and six understood the trial purpose. Notably, 5/9 acyclovir recipients and 1/11 placebo recipients believed their pills had treated pre-existing sexually transmitted infections. Limited understanding did not negatively affect reported adherence. Reported adherence problems usually related to illness, travel, and/or family obligations (e.g., husbands disapproval). "Acyclovir positive" placebo recipients denied taking other participants pills. The IDIs also did not resolve discrepant reports of pill loss or theft. Biomedical HIV interventions often have strong behavioral components that require close attention during intervention development, trial design, and process and impact evaluation. This study identified topics which warrant further consideration, including: information reinforcement and comprehension assessment throughout a trial for long-term participant understanding; involving partners in adherence promotion activities; strategizing with participants to maintain adherence during familial illnesses or other crises; and close monitoring, identification, and follow-up of (1) individuals with discrepant biological tests, and (2) other sources of the treatment in the trial area. Methodological research is also needed to improve adherence measures.
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Are women who work in bars, guesthouses and similar facilities a suitable study population for vaginal microbicide trials in Africa?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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A feasibility study was conducted to investigate whether an occupational at-risk cohort of women in Mwanza, Tanzania are a suitable study population for future phase III vaginal microbicide trials.
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Microbicides development programme: engaging the community in the standard of care debate in a vaginal microbicide trial in Mwanza, Tanzania.
BMC Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2009
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HIV prevention research in resource-limited countries is associated with a variety of ethical dilemmas. Key amongst these is the question of what constitutes an appropriate standard of health care (SoC) for participants in HIV prevention trials. This paper describes a community-focused approach to develop a locally-appropriate SoC in the context of a phase III vaginal microbicide trial in Mwanza City, northwest Tanzania.
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Measurement and predictors of adherence in a trial of HSV suppressive therapy in Tanzania.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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This study estimates adherence and identifies predictors of good adherence among 1305 Tanzanian women participating in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy to reduce HIV incidence or genital HIV shedding. Women were randomised to acyclovir 400mg BD or placebo and followed every three months for 12-30 months. Adherence was assessed by tablet counts. Random urine samples, collected between 6 and 24 months, were tested for acyclovir. At 12, 24 and 30 month visits, 56%, 52% and 54% of women on treatment had adherence >or=90%, respectively. Factors independently associated with good adherence (taking >or=90% of tablets in the preceding 3-months) included older age, understanding trial concepts at enrolment, living >2 years in the screening site, receiving an unannounced tablet check visit, using oral contraception at screening, living in the same site and house as the previous visit, accessing VCT during the trial, recent malaria and not having a positive pregnancy test. Overall, 55% of urine samples from women randomised to acyclovir had detectable acyclovir. Additional, tailored adherence strategies may be needed for younger, more mobile women and those who have not used oral contraception, which may sensitise them to daily tablet-taking. Use of biomarkers may alert investigators to adherence problems.
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Risk factors for HIV incidence in women participating in an HSV suppressive treatment trial in Tanzania.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) of herpes simplex virus type 2 suppressive therapy with acyclovir 400 mg twice daily conducted among women in northwestern Tanzania reported a similar rate of HIV acquisition in both trial arms (Current Controlled Trials number ISRCTN35385041). Risk factors for HIV incidence were examined in the context of 3-monthly follow-up visits offering both voluntary counselling and testing and care for sexually transmitted infections.
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Suitability of simple human immunodeficiency virus rapid tests in clinical trials in community-based clinic settings.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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The suitability and accuracy of using simple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rapid (SR) tests in community-based clinics in northwest Tanzania were determined to assess eligibility for participation in clinical trials. The HIV rapid and ELISA test results for 789 women aged 16 to 54 who were screened for two clinical trials of HIV prevention were compared. Women were offered voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) at screening; those who accepted were tested with the Abbott Determine and Trinity Biotech Capillus SR tests in parallel. The results were confirmed by two parallel HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests (Abbott Murex HIV Ag/Ab combination and Vironostika Uniform II HIV Ag/Ab) to determine eligibility. Positive samples for any of the four assays were confirmed by a line immunoassay and p24 testing. The parallel SR tests had high concordance (96.2%) with the parallel ELISA algorithm. The sensitivities of the SR tests were 98.6% for Capillus (95% confidence interval [CI], 95.1 to 99.8%), 99.3% for Determine (95% CI, 96.2 to 100%), and 98.6% for the parallel SR (95% CI, 95.1 to 99.8%). The specificities were 99.7% for Capillus (95% CI, 98.9 to 100%), 99.7% for Determine (95% CI, 98.9 to 100%), and 100% for the parallel SR (95% CI, 99.4 to 100%). SR tests are suitable for use in community-based clinical research settings to assess eligibility both for trial participation and for the provision of on-site VCT services.
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Acute- phase response and iron status markers among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Fe status is difficult to assess in the presence of infections. To assess the role of the acute- phase response (APR) and other predictors of serum ferritin and transferrin receptor, we conducted a cross-sectional study among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in Mwanza, Tanzania. The acute- (serum ferritin) phase protein, serum alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and serum ferritin and serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured, and data on smoking, soil and alcohol intake, and infection status were collected. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the role of elevated serum ACT and other predictors of serum ferritin and serum sTfR. Of 655 patients, 81.2 % were sputum positive (PTB+) and 47.2 % HIV+. Mean serum ACT was 0.72 g/l, with 91.1 % above 0.4 g/l. Among females and males, respectively, geometric mean serum ferritin was 140.9 and 269.1 microg/l (P < 0.001), and mean serum sTfR 4.3 and 3.8 mg/l (P < 0.001). Serum sTfR was increased 0.5 mg/l and log serum ferritin increased linearly with serum ACT >0.4 g/l. PTB+ and HIV infection, alcohol drinking and smoking were the positive predictors of serum ferritin, and female sex, soil eating, Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection were the negative predictors. Similarly, smoking and HIV infection were the negative predictors of serum sTfR, and female sex, soil eating and PTB+ were the positive predictors. Serum ferritin and serum sTfR are affected by the APR, but may still provide information about Fe status. It may be possible to develop algorithms, based on the markers of the APR and Fe status, to assess the Fe status among the patients with tuberculosis or other infections eliciting an APR.
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The impact of HIV infection and CD4 cell count on the performance of an interferon gamma release assay in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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The performance of the tuberculosis specific Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) has not been sufficiently documented in tuberculosis- and HIV-endemic settings. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) in patients with culture confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a TB- and HIV-endemic population and the effect of HIV-infection and CD4 cell count on test performance.
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Negative effect of smoking on the performance of the QuantiFERON TB gold in tube test.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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False negative and indeterminate Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) results are a well documented problem. Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB) and to impair Interferon-gamma (IFN-?) responses to antigenic challenge, but the impact of smoking on IGRA performance is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on IGRA performance in TB patients in a low and high TB prevalence setting respectively.
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The impact of antenatal HIV diagnosis on postpartum childbearing desires in northern Tanzania: a mixed methods study.
Reprod Health Matters
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With the expansion of routine antenatal HIV testing, women are increasingly discovering they are HIV-positive during pregnancy. While several studies have examined the impact of HIV on childbearing in Africa, few have focused on the antenatal/postpartum period. Addressing this research gap will help tailor contraceptive counseling to HIV-positive womens needs. Our study measures how antenatal HIV diagnosis affects postpartum childbearing desires, adjusting for effects of HIV before diagnosis. A baseline survey on reproductive behavior was administered to 5,284 antenatal clients before they underwent routine HIV testing. Fifteen months later, a follow-up survey collected information on postpartum reproductive behavior from 2,162 women, and in-depth interviews with 25 women investigated attitudes toward HIV and childbearing. HIV diagnosis was associated with a long-term downward adjustment in childbearing desires, but not with changes in short-term postpartum desires. The qualitative interviews identified health concerns and nurses dissuasion as major factors discouraging childbearing post-diagnosis. At the same time, pronatalist social norms appeared to pressure women to continue childbearing. Given the potential for fertility desires to change following antenatal HIV diagnosis, contraceptive counseling should be provided on a continuum from antenatal through postpartum care, taking into account the conflicting pressures faced by HIV-positive women in relation to childbearing.
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Costs of delivering human papillomavirus vaccination to schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.
BMC Med
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Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program.
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Reasons for receiving or not receiving HPV vaccination in primary schoolgirls in Tanzania: a case control study.
PLoS ONE
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There are few data on factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the characteristics of receivers and non-receivers of HPV vaccination in Tanzania and identified reasons for not receiving the vaccine.
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Association of Schistosomiasis and HIV infection in Tanzania.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Animal and human studies suggest that Schistosoma mansoni infection may increase risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Therefore, we tested 345 reproductive age women in rural Tanzanian villages near Lake Victoria, where S. mansoni is hyperendemic, for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and schistosomiasis by circulating anodic antigen (CAA) serum assay. Over one-half (54%) had an active schistosome infection; 6% were HIV-seropositive. By univariate analysis, only schistosome infection predicted HIV infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval = [1.3-12.0], P = 0.015) and remained significant using multivariate analysis to control for age, STIs, and distance from the lake (OR = 6.2 [1.7-22.9], P = 0.006). HIV prevalence was higher among women with more intense schistosome infections (P = 0.005), and the median schistosome intensity was higher in HIV-infected than -uninfected women (400 versus 15 pg CAA/mL, P = 0.01). This finding suggests that S. mansoni infection may be a modifiable HIV risk factor that places millions of people worldwide at increased risk of HIV acquisition.
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The impact of antiretroviral therapy on adult mortality in rural Tanzania.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To describe the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on mortality rates among adults participating in an HIV community cohort study in north-west Tanzania.
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Trends in the uptake of voluntary counselling and testing for HIV in rural Tanzania in the context of the scale up of antiretroviral therapy.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To describe trends in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) use and to assess whether high-risk and infected individuals are receiving counselling and learning their HIV status in rural Tanzania.
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BCG protects against tuberculosis irrespective of HIV status: a matched case-control study in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Thorax
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While BCG vaccine protects against severe tuberculosis (TB) in children, its effect against adult TB is questionable. Furthermore, it is not known if HIV co-infection modifies the effect of BCG. Among 352 pairs of Tanzanian TB cases and matched controls, the BCG scar was associated with a reduced risk of TB (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7, p=0.005), irrespective of HIV status (interaction, p=0.623). BCG vaccination considerably reduced the risk of TB, both among individuals with and without HIV infection.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.