Clinical laboratory immunology affects practically every aspect of medicine. Accordingly, appropriately trained, board-certified clinical laboratory immunologists are key contributors to the diagnosis and management of patients with various immune-mediated conditions. This review highlights the availability of postdoctoral level training programs for clinical laboratory immunology and identifies possible career tracks.
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) have been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Cloves possess antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, but their potential anticancer activity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects and biological mechanisms of ethyl acetate extract of cloves (EAEC) and the potential bioactive components responsible for its antitumor activity. The effects of EAEC on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis were investigated using human cancer cell lines. The molecular changes associated with the effects of EAEC were analyzed by Western blot and (qRT)-PCR analysis. The in vivo effect of EAEC and its bioactive component was investigated using the HT-29 tumor xenograft model. We identified oleanolic acid (OA) as one of the components of EAEC responsible for its antitumor activity. Both EAEC and OA display cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, EAEC was superior to OA and the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil at suppressing growth of colon tumor xenografts. EAEC promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with EAEC and OA selectively increased protein expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and ?-H2AX and downregulated expression of cell cycle-regulated proteins. Moreover, many of these changes were at the mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional regulation by EAEC treatment. Our results demonstrate that clove extract may represent a novel therapeutic herb for the treatment of colorectal cancer, and OA appears to be one of the bioactive components.
Protein kinase D (PKD) signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of DNA synthesis, proliferation, cell survival, adhesion, invasion/migration, motility, and angiogenesis. To date, relatively little is known about the potential role of PKD in the development and/or progression of human colorectal cancer. We evaluated the expression of different PKD isoforms in colorectal cancer and investigated the antitumor activity of PKD inhibitors against human colorectal cancer. PKD2 was the dominant isoform expressed in human colon cancer cells. PKD3 expression was also observed but PKD1 expression, at both the RNA and protein levels, was not detected. Suppression of PKD using the small molecule inhibitors CRT0066101 and kb-NB142-70 resulted in low micromolar in vitro antiproliferative activity against multiple human colorectal cancer cell lines. Drug treatment was associated with dose-dependent suppression of PKD2 activation. Incubation with CRT0066101 resulted in G(2)-M phase arrest and induction of apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Further studies showed that CRT0066101 treatment gave rise to a dose-dependent increase in expression of cleaved PARP and activated caspase-3, in addition to inhibition of AKT and ERK signaling, and suppression of NF-?B activity. Transfection of PKD2-targeted siRNAs resulted in similar effects on downstream pathways as observed with small molecule inhibitors. Daily administration of CRT0066101 resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth in HCT116 xenograft nude mice. Taken together, our studies show that PKD plays a significant role in mediating growth signaling in colorectal cancer and may represent a novel chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
It was hypothesized that acute postnatal Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) infection leads to leukopenia and lymphoid depletion of gut-associated lymphoid tissues similar to acute disease in calves. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the pathologic effects, viremia, viral shedding, and viral antigen deposition in 6-24-month-old, acutely infected alpacas following experimental infection with noncytopathic BVDV-1 subgenotype 1b (BVDV C0-6). The BVDV-1 isolate was obtained from a cria with naturally occurring persistent infection. Lymphocytopenia occurred 3-7 days postinfection, with a 50% reduction in peripheral lymphocytes in infected alpacas. Depletion of B-cell populations in gut-associated lymphoid tissues was evident microscopically. Populations of T cells in parafollicular zones and in nodular aggregates along the superficial submucosa remained intact. The BVDV antigen was deposited most consistently in submucosal gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues of ileum, proximal colon, and stomach compartment three. Viral antigen was more variably evident in other lymphoid tissues. Antigen distribution correlated well with histologic lesions in gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues, confirming the role of virus in lymphoid depletion. Nasal shedding was detected in all challenged alpacas on day 6 and in 4 out of 12 challenged alpacas on day 9. Viremia was present as early as day 3, and present in all challenged alpacas on days 5, 6, 7, and 9 postchallenge. Lymphocytopenia and depletion of gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues associated with acute BVDV-1 infection likely results in immune compromise and is expected to exacerbate concurrent infections even though uncomplicated BVDV-1 infection was clinically unapparent.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a radiotherapy modality that delivers highly conformal, ablative doses to a well-defined target. Here, using a semiquantitative multiplexed assay to analyze ATM and H2AX phosphorylation, we show that ATM kinase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is induced following SBRT. This observation of a systemic ATM kinase-dependent DNA damage response in the peripheral blood is unprecedented and promotes the use of ATM serine-1981 phosphorylation as a predictive biomarker for DNA damaging modalities and ATM inhibitors.
Lung transplantation is limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Acute cellular rejection (ACR) is a risk factor for allograft dysfunction; however, the role of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is not well characterized.
Following tooth extraction, socket grafts are commonly used to prevent incomplete healing and to optimize the bony site for implant placement (1). Many particulate, composite, and putty-like bone grafting materials either with or without a membrane have been used as socket grafts. This article introduces the layered socket grafting technique for socket grafting without the use of a membrane or primary closure. This technique uses a particulate anorganic bone mineral to graft the apices of sockets and then a composite material consisting of anorganic bovine bone mineral and collagen for the superior or crestal one-third of a socket or defect. When grafting sockets, the technique is fast and does not require the use of releasing flaps or primary closure and can also be used to manage large periapical defects.
Therapeutic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are composed of chemically modified nucleotides, which enhance RNA stability and increase affinity in Watson-Crick base pairing. However, the precise fate of such modified nucleotides once the siRNA is degraded within the cell is unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that deoxythymidine release from degraded siRNAs reversed the cytotoxicity of thymidylate synthase (TS)-targeted siRNAs and other TS inhibitor compounds. We hypothesized that siRNAs could be designed with specific nucleoside analogues that, once released, would enhance siRNA cytotoxicity. TS-targeted siRNAs were designed that contained 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine (FdU) moieties at various locations within the siRNA. After transfection, these siRNAs suppressed TS protein and messenger RNA expression with different efficiencies depending on the location of the FdU modification. FdU was rapidly released from the siRNA as evidenced by formation of the covalent inhibitory ternary complex formed between TS protein and the FdU metabolite, FdUMP. These modified siRNAs exhibited 10-100-fold greater cytotoxicity and induced multiple DNA damage repair and apoptotic pathways when compared with control siRNAs. The strategy of designing siRNA molecules that incorporate cytotoxic nucleosides represents a potentially novel drug development approach for the treatment of cancer and other human diseases.
A moderately halophilic actinomycetes strain, designated as WH26, was isolated from Weihai Solar Saltern in China. The identification of the strain WH26 was performed by its morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests as well as phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison. The results showed that the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene (1,677 bp) of the strain WH26 exhibited close similarity (97-99 %) with other Streptomyces 16S rRNA genes and the strain WH26 was identified to belong to the genus Streptomyces. An ethyl acetate extraction of Streptomyces sp. nov. WH26 demonstrated significant cellular toxicity. Two compounds, 8-O-methyltetrangulol and naphthomycin A were isolated from the extract via silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. These two compounds showed potent cytotoxic activity against several human tumor cell lines including A549, HeLa, BEL-7402 and HT-29. The present studies suggest that moderately halophilic actinomycetes may be a novel biological source for the discovery of anticancer agents.
The San Antonio District Dental Society serves approximately 850 dentists in a diverse, 14-county region of southwest Texas. San Antonio is a large metropolitan area, with a major medical center and dental school. The city is also a popular convention destination, regularly hosting the Texas Dental Association and more recently hosting the American Dental Association and the American Association of Dental Schools meetings. The rural and poor areas of the district have prompted the district to sponsor a full offering of outreach and community oral health services programs. The district is especially proud of its relationships with young dentists, including them in the societys monthly meetings and governance structure and maintaining an active mentoring program.
This prospective, cross-sectional study of HIV testing at two sexually transmitted infection clinics compares testing results from the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo fourth generation assay against the current standard of care in North Carolina (third generation enzyme immunoassay testing with western blot confirmation and reflex nucleic acid amplification testing of pooled seronegative samples). In this setting, the assay reported a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 99.9%, and a median turn-around time of 26.1 h.
The total synthesis of a bis-cyclopropane analog of the antimitotic natural product (-)-disorazole C(1) was accomplished in 23 steps and 1.1% overall yield. A vinyl cyclopropane cross-metathesis reaction generated a key (E)-alkene segment of the target molecule. IC(50) determinations of (-)-CP(2)-disorazole C(1) in human colon cancer cell lines indicated low nanomolar cytotoxic properties. Accordingly, this synthetic bioisostere represents the first biologically active disorazole analog not containing a conjugated diene or polyene substructure element.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) disease rarely occurs in African Americans and risk factors for the disease in this population are unknown. Here, we genotyped MHC class II alleles and found that, among African Americans, those with proteinase 3-ANCA (PR3-ANCA) had 73.3-fold higher odds of having HLA-DRB1*15 alleles than community-based controls (OR 73.3; 95% CI 9.1 to 591). In addition, a disproportionate number of African American patients carried the DRB1*1501 allelic variant of Caucasian descent rather than the DRB1*1503 allelic variant of African descent. Among Caucasians, those with PR3-ANCA had 2.2-fold higher odds of carrying DRB1*1501 than controls (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0). A validation study supported by the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium confirmed the strong association between the DRB1*15 allele and PR3-ANCA disease, among African Americans. Furthermore, we found that DRB1*1501 protein binds with high affinity to amino acid sequences of sense-PR3, purportedly an antigenic epitope, and to the amino acid sequence complementary to this epitope in vitro. Peptides of sense-PR3 and complementary-PR3 also bound to TNF-?-induced surface expression of DRB1*1501 on peripheral neutrophils. Taken together, these data suggest HLA-DRB1*15 alleles contribute to the pathogenesis of PR3-ANCA disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common systemic autoimmune diseases. The presence of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) is better at discriminating RA patients and is also associated with significantly more disease activity compared to serum rheumatoid factor. In this study, we assessed two new automated second generation tests to detect the presence of anti-CCP antibodies in 226 serum samples submitted to the Clinical Immunology Laboratory for anti-CCP antibody testing. We compared CCP antibody results on these samples obtained using the ImmunoCAP 250 (Phadia) and the Architect i2000SR (Abbott Laboratories) instruments to our currently used CCP IgG third generation manual ELISA (Inova Diagnostics). One hundred and fifty-four samples were negative while 52 were positive by all three tests. Eighteen samples were negative by the automated tests but weakly/moderately positive by manual ELISA yielding an overall concordance of 79%. When we compared the discordant test results to patient diagnosis, we observed a better correlation with clinical RA diagnosis for the new automated tests compared to the manual ELISA. These two new anti-CCP antibody tests have the benefit of automation and may have better positive predictive value for the diagnosis of RA than our current manual ELISA.
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is important for maintaining the normal extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that the initiation of pancreatic fibrosis is dependent on the loss of PEDF. Pancreatic PEDF expression was assessed in wild-type mice fed either a control or ethanol diet using an intragastric feeding model. Pancreatitis responses were elicited with either a single episode or a repetitive cerulein-induced (50 ?g/kg, 6 hourly i.p. injections) protocol in wild-type and PEDF-null mice. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting were performed to assess fibrogenic responses. In wild-type animals, PEDF expression increased with pancreatitis and was more pronounced in mice fed ethanol. Compared with wild-type mice, ?-smooth muscle actin staining and expression levels of fibrogenic markers (eg, transforming growth factor-?1, platelet-derived growth factor, collagen I, and thrombospondin-1) were higher in PEDF-null mice at baseline. Sirius red staining revealed more fibrosis in PEDF-null versus wild-type pancreas 1 week after pancreatitis. Differences in tissue fibrosis resolved with longer recovery periods. PEDF overexpression suppressed thrombospondin-1 levels in vitro. Ethanol feeding and experimental pancreatitis increased PEDF expression in wild-type mice. PEDF-null mice, however, demonstrated enhanced early fibrotic responses compared with wild-type mice with pancreatitis. These findings indicate that PEDF acts as a compensatory antifibrotic cytokine in pancreatitis.
The importance of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in ABO-compatible liver transplantation is controversial. Here we report a prospective series of liver recipients with a preoperative positive crossmatch. To establish the diagnosis of AMR in liver recipients, the criteria described for kidney allografts were adopted. In approximately 10% of 197 liver transplants, we observed a positive T and B cell flow crossmatch before transplantation. Fifteen of 19 patients converted to negative crossmatches early after transplantation and displayed normal liver function while they were on routine immunosuppression. Four patients maintained positive crossmatches. Three of the 4 met the criteria for AMR and showed evidence of graft dysfunction, the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), morphological tissue destruction with positive C4d linear staining on the graft sinusoidal endothelium, and improved function with attempts to eliminate DSAs. A persistently positive crossmatch after liver transplantation may lead to early, severe AMR and liver failure. C4d staining in the liver sinusoidal endothelium should alert one to the possibility of AMR. In our experience, patients with a positive crossmatch should have it repeated at 2 weeks and, if it is positive, again at 3 to 5 weeks. Recipients with an unknown preoperative crossmatch who develop early cholestasis of unclear etiology should be crossmatched or tested for the presence of DSAs to evaluate for AMR.
The vacuolar-ATPase (v-ATPase) is a proton transporter found on many intracellular organelles and the plasma membrane (PM). The v-ATPase on PMs of cancer cells may contribute to their invasive properties in vitro. Its relevance to human cancer tissues remains unclear. We investigated whether the expression and cellular localization of v-ATPase corresponded to the stage of human pancreatic cancer, and its effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation in vitro. The intensity of v-ATPase staining increased significantly across the range of pancreatic histology from normal ducts to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanIN), and finally pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Low-grade PanIN lesions displayed polarized staining confined to the basal aspect of the cell in the majority (86%) of fields examined. High-grade PanIN lesions and PDAC showed intense and diffuse v-ATPase localization. In pancreatic cancer cells, PM-associated v-ATPase colocalized with cortactin, a component of the leading edge that helps direct MMP release. Blockade of the v-ATPase with concanamycin or short-hairpin RNA targeting the V?E subunit reduced MMP-9 activity; this effect was greatest in cells with prominent PM-associated v-ATPase. In cells with detectable MMP-2 activities, however, treatment with concanamycin markedly increased MMP-2s most activated forms. V-ATPase blockade inhibited functional migration and invasion in those cells with predominantly MMP-9 activity. These results indicate that human PDAC specimens show loss of v-ATPase polarity and increased expression that correlates with increasing invasive potential. Thus, v-ATPase selectively modulates specific MMPs that may be linked to an invasive cancer phenotype.
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are double-stranded RNAs that effectively inhibit expression of its complimentary target mRNA. Standard siRNAs contain two nucleotide overhangs on their 3 end. While these overhangs are usually comprised of deoxythymidines (dT), it has been shown that any nucleotide can be used on the 3 end without affecting RNAi silencing.
Raf-kinases include three major isoforms. Although the role of B-Raf in melanoma is well established, little is known about C-Raf. We studied effects of C-Raf knockdown in vitro and assessed expression of C-Raf in a large cohort of melanomas and nevi.
Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an osteoconductive and osteoinductive commercial biomaterial and approved medical device used in bone defects with a long track record of clinical use in diverse forms. True to its name and as an acid-extracted organic matrix from human bone sources, DBM retains much of the proteinaceous components native to bone, with small amounts of calcium-based solids, inorganic phosphates and some trace cell debris. Many of DBMs proteinaceous components (e.g., growth factors) are known to be potent osteogenic agents. Commercially sourced as putty, paste, sheets and flexible pieces, DBM provides a degradable matrix facilitating endogenous release of these compounds to the bone wound sites where it is surgically placed to fill bone defects, inducing new bone formation and accelerating healing. Given DBMs long clinical track record and commercial accessibility in standard forms and sources, opportunities to further develop and validate DBM as a versatile bone biomaterial in orthopedic repair and regenerative medicine contexts are attractive.
Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of tumor growth and metastasis. Identification of tumor angiogenic factors has been a critical component in understanding cancer biology and treatment. Intermedin (IMD) has been reported to promote angiogenesis in a rat ischemic model and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Our study sought to determine the role of IMD in human hepatocellular carcinoma tumor progression. High IMD mRNA expression levels were observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma tumors, even in early stage disease, by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma clinical samples demonstrated that the tumor regions were significantly more immunoreactive for IMD than adjacent benign liver. Inhibition of IMD expression using RNA interference reduced cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 and SNU-398 cells. Blockage of IMD signaling using either an antagonist peptide or a neutralizing antibody inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant induction of apoptosis, causing cleavage of caspase-8 and downregulation of Gli1 and Bcl2. Conversely, addition of IMD active peptide increased the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Thus, IMD might play an important role in cell proliferation and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our data suggests that IMD is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.
There is a paucity of data concerning the correlation of complement component 4d (C4d) staining in liver allografts and antibody-mediated rejection. Data about the location and character of C4d deposits in native and allograft liver tissues are inconsistent. We performed C4d immunofluorescence (IF) on 141 fresh-frozen liver allograft biopsy samples and native livers, documented the pattern of C4d IF staining, and correlated the findings with the presence of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSAs). A linear/granular sinusoidal pattern of C4d IF was noted in 18 of 28 biopsy samples obtained after transplantation from patients with positive crossmatch and detectable donor-specific alloantibody (pos-XM/DSA) findings. None of the 59 tested biopsy samples from patients with negative crossmatch and detectable donor-specific alloantibody (neg-XM/DSA) findings were C4d-positive (P < 0.001). No significant association was found between pos-XM/DSA and C4d IF staining in other nonsinusoidal liver compartments. To compare the results of sinusoidal C4d staining with IF and 2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques, C4d IHC was performed on 19 liver allograft biopsy samples in which a sinusoidal pattern of C4d IF had been noted. Sinusoidal C4d IHC findings were negative for 17 of the 19 biopsy samples; 2 showed weak and focal staining, and both patients had pos-XM/DSA findings. Portal vein endothelium staining was present in only 1 IF-stained biopsy sample (pos-XM/DSA) but in 11 IHC-stained biopsy samples (2 of the 11 samples had neg-XM/DSA findings). We conclude that sinusoidal C4d deposits detected by IF in frozen tissue samples from liver allograft recipients correlate with the presence of DSAs and an antibody-mediated alloresponse. These observations are similar to findings reported for other solid organ transplants and can provide relevant information for patient management. Further validation of IHC techniques for C4d detection in liver allograft tissue is required.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.