An exploratory investigation was conducted to examine the implementation of the first self-run, communal-living setting based on the Oxford House model, in the United Kingdom (UK). A cross-sectional, mixed methods design was used to examine the Oxford House model's total abstinence approach to recovery from substance use disorders among residents (n = 7) living in the first Oxford House established in the UK. Several measures commonly used in addiction research and personal narratives were used to assess residents' response to Oxford House living. Findings suggest that the Oxford House model is a post-treatment intervention that meets the needs of individuals seeking an abstinence-based recovery from alcohol and/or drug dependence in the UK.
Research investigations on twelve-step groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) have addressed a number of resources associated with 12-step recovery. However, little is known about the role of wisdom, and whether aspects of 12-step participation might increase this resource among 12-step members. An exploratory analysis revealed that participants who reported having a "spiritual awakening" and considered themselves "members" of 12-step groups reported significantly higher levels of wisdom. Twelve-step meeting attendance was not significantly related to wisdom scores. Findings suggest certain aspects of 12-step involvement are associated with wisdom and may play a role in substance abuse recovery.
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables.
A comparative analysis of recovery resources (abstinence social support, abstinence self-efficacy) was conducted among two groups exiting inpatient treatment for substance use disorders: persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders and persons with substance use disorders. Both groups reported comparable levels of abstinence social support, but this resource was not significantly related to substance use among persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders. Although abstinence self-efficacy was significantly related to substance use, persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders reported significantly lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy than persons with substance use disorders. Findings suggest that persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders exit alcohol/drug treatment with lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy compared to their substance use disorder peers.
The present study investigated the prevalence of gambling behaviors among 71 individuals recovering from substance-dependent disorders and living in self-run recovery homes (Oxford Houses). Residents were given the South Oaks Gambling Screen to assess gambling behaviors and pathological gambling, and 19.7% of the sample was identified as having probable pathological gambling. These residents reported proportionately more involvement in a variety of gambling behaviors than other residents. Engagement in various gambling activities was consistent with previous investigations and suggested that self-run recovery homes such as Oxford Houses might be suitable referral sources for recovering persons who have comorbid gambling problems.
A longitudinal analysis was conducted among a U.S. national sample of persons affiliated with Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous living in self-run recovery homes (Oxford Houses). Categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities (i.e., having a sponsor, reading 12-step literature, doing service work, and calling other members for help) and averaged summary scores of involvement were examined in relation to abstinence and self-efficacy for abstinence. Participants who were categorically involved in all 12-step activities reported significantly higher levels of abstinence and self-efficacy for abstinence at 1 year compared with those who were less involved, whereas averaged summary scores of involvement were not a significant predictor of abstinence. Participants number of days in Oxford Houses, but not rates of 12-step meeting attendance, was significantly related to increased abstinence. Findings suggest that categorical involvement in a number of 12-step activities equip persons with substance use disorders with resources for ongoing recovery.
Criminal and aggressive behaviors are frequently observed among those recovering from substance abuse problems. In the present one-year longitudinal study, a national sample of residents from self-governed, communal living recovery homes for substance abuse completed baseline and follow-up measures of criminal and aggressive behavior. Results indicated that a length of stay of six months or longer was associated with lower levels of self-reported criminal and aggressive behaviors at the one-year follow-up. Environmental mechanisms proposed as influences for these outcomes, as well as treatment implications, are discussed.
A longitudinal analysis of 12-step involvement was conducted among a U.S. sample of patients exiting treatment for substance dependence. Categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities and summary scores of involvement from the Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale were examined in relation to continuous abstinence and aftercare (Oxford House or usual care) condition. Participants who were categorically involved in 12-step activities were significantly more likely to maintain continuous abstinence at 2 years compared with those who were less involved, predicting a greater likelihood of complete abstinence than summary scores of involvement. In addition, participants in the Oxford House condition were significantly more likely to remain continuously abstinent throughout the course of this randomized clinical trial. Findings suggest that categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities and communal-living settings such as Oxford Houses are independent factors associated with continuous abstinence from both alcohol and illicit drugs among substance dependent persons.
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