Flexible forefoot deformities, such as hallux varus, clawed hallux, hammer toes, and angular lesser toe deformities, can be treated effectively with tendon transfers. Based on the presentation of the flexible forefoot deformities, tendon transfers can be used as the primary treatment or as adjuncts to bony procedures when there are components of fixed deformities.
The older population is currently the fastest growing age group in the United States, and this trend is expected to continue for several decades. Older individuals, in general, have a higher disease burden compared with younger adults and are the major users of medications, yet premarketing drug clinical trials have often excluded them even for the drugs that have high utility in this age group. Extrapolation of clinical results from younger to older individuals does not provide adequate benefit-risk estimation, and the frequent need for dose adjustment in older patients from initially approved doses exemplifies the current lack of adequate clinical data in the elderly. Herein, we discuss the information gap for older individuals and the need for a better understanding of the effect of aging on drug responses. We also present cases for future directions, urging the implementation of improved clinical trial designs using new and emerging pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic methods to allow the provision of evidence-based individualized treatment to this high drug use group.
Augment Bone Graft, a fully synthetic bone graft material composed of recombinant human PDGF and a calcium phosphate matrix (rhPDGF/TCP), has been considered as a possible alternative to autogenous bone graft. Before proceeding with randomized control studies comparing rhPDGF/TCP to autograft bone, a human trial to assess efficacy and safety was required.
End-stage ankle arthritis should have an appropriate classification to assist surgeons in the management of end-stage ankle arthritis. Outcomes research also requires a classification system to stratify patients appropriately.
We contrasted the neuroanatomical substrates of sub-acute and chronic visuospatial deficits associated with different aspects of unilateral neglect using computed tomography scans acquired as part of routine clinical diagnosis. Voxel-wise statistical analyses were conducted on a group of 160 stroke patients scanned at a sub-acute stage. Lesion-deficit relationships were assessed across the whole brain, separately for grey and white matter. We assessed lesions that were associated with behavioural performance (i) at a sub-acute stage (within 3 months of the stroke) and (ii) at a chronic stage (after 9 months post stroke). Allocentric and egocentric neglect symptoms at the sub-acute stage were associated with lesions to dissociated regions within the frontal lobe, amongst other regions. However the frontal lesions were not associated with neglect at the chronic stage. On the other hand, lesions in the angular gyrus were associated with persistent allocentric neglect. In contrast, lesions within the superior temporal gyrus extending into the supramarginal gyrus, as well as lesions within the basal ganglia and insula, were associated with persistent egocentric neglect. Damage within the temporo-parietal junction was associated with both types of neglect at the sub-acute stage and 9 months later. Furthermore, white matter disconnections resulting from damage along the superior longitudinal fasciculus were associated with both types of neglect and critically related to both sub-acute and chronic deficits. Finally, there was a significant difference in the lesion volume between patients who recovered from neglect and patients with chronic deficits. The findings presented provide evidence that (i) the lesion location and lesion size can be used to successfully predict the outcome of neglect based on clinical CT scans, (ii) lesion location alone can serve as a critical predictor for persistent neglect symptoms, (iii) wide spread lesions are associated with neglect symptoms at the sub-acute stage but only some of these are critical for predicting whether neglect will become a chronic disorder and (iv) the severity of behavioural symptoms can be a useful predictor of recovery in the absence of neuroimaging findings on clinical scans. We discuss the implications for understanding the symptoms of the neglect syndrome, the recovery of function and the use of clinical scans to predict outcome.
We investigated spatial and temporal deficits following brain injury using the temporal order judgement (TOJ) task. Patients judged the order in which two letters appeared to the left and right of fixation. We measured the extent of any spatial bias and the temporal resolution of the decision. Temporal and spatial deficits on the TOJ task were significantly correlated. The spatial bias on the TOJ task was also correlated with the spatial bias on a neglect task and with unilateral deficits on an extinction task, but not with extinction itself. These spatial deficits were all associated with damage to contralateral temporoparietal cortex. In contrast, the temporal resolution of TOJs was linked specifically to deficits in processing multiple stimuli on the neglect and extinction tasks and to damage to the right parietal lobe and the cerebellum. These data suggest that spatial and temporal deficits on the TOJ task reflect different underlying processes.
Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the ankle and foot is an uncommon and often unexpected postoperative complication in patients with persistent pain and disability postprocedure. Artifacts from metallic implants may obscure characteristic imaging signs of AVN, and radiography and computer tomography are the mainstay imaging modalities of the postoperative ankle and foot. MRI and nuclear medicine imaging play an important complementary role in problem solving and excluding differential diagnostic considerations including infection, nonunion, occult fracture, and secondary osteoarthritis.This review article evaluates different imaging modalities and discusses characteristic sites of AVN of the ankle and foot in the postoperative setting including the distal tibia, talus, navicular, and first and lesser metatarsals. Radiologists play a key role in the initial diagnosis of postoperative AVN and the surveillance of temporal evolution and complications including articular collapse and fragmentation, thus influencing orthopedic management.
End-stage ankle arthritis is operatively treated with numerous designs of total ankle replacement and different techniques for ankle fusion. For superior comparison of these procedures, outcome research requires a classification system to stratify patients appropriately. A postoperative 4-type classification system was designed by 6 fellowship-trained foot and ankle surgeons. Four surgeons reviewed blinded patient profiles and radiographs on 2 occasions to determine the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the classification. Excellent interobserver reliability (? = .89) and intraobserver reproducibility (? = .87) were demonstrated for the postoperative classification system. In conclusion, the postoperative Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (COFAS) end-stage ankle arthritis classification system appears to be a valid tool to evaluate the outcome of patients operated for end-stage ankle arthritis.
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