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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tachycardia-induced silencing of subcellular Ca2+ signaling in atrial myocytes.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by sustained high atrial activation rates and arrhythmogenic cellular Ca2+ signaling instability; however, it is not clear how a high atrial rate and Ca2+ instability may be related. Here, we characterized subcellular Ca2+ signaling after 5 days of high atrial rates in a rabbit model. While some changes were similar to those in persistent AF, we identified a distinct pattern of stabilized subcellular Ca2+ signaling. Ca2+ sparks, arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak, and SR Ca2+ content were largely unaltered. Based on computational analysis, these findings were consistent with a higher Ca2+ leak due to PKA-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca2+ channels (RyR2s), fewer RyR2s, and smaller RyR2 clusters in the SR. We determined that less Ca2+ release per [Ca2+]i transient, increased Ca2+ buffering strength, shortened action potentials, and reduced L-type Ca2+ current contribute to a stunning reduction of intracellular Na+ concentration following rapid atrial pacing. In both patients with AF and in our rabbit model, this silencing led to failed propagation of the [Ca2+]i signal to the myocyte center. We conclude that sustained high atrial rates alone silence Ca2+ signaling and do not produce Ca2+ signaling instability, consistent with an adaptive molecular and cellular response to atrial tachycardia.
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The microRNA-15 family inhibits the TGF?-pathway in the heart.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The overloaded heart remodels by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis, which contributes to the development of heart failure. Signalling via the TGF?-pathway is crucial for this remodelling. Here we tested the hypothesis that microRNAs in the overloaded heart regulate this remodelling process via inhibition of the TGF?-pathway.
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Faster cross-bridge detachment and increased tension cost in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with the R403Q MYH7 mutation.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The first mutation associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the R403Q mutation in the gene encoding ?-myosin heavy chain (?-MyHC). R403Q locates in the globular head of myosin (S1), responsible for interaction with actin, and thus motor function of myosin. Increased cross-bridge relaxation kinetics caused by the R403Q mutation might underlie increased energetic cost of tension generation; however, direct evidence is absent. Here we studied to what extent cross-bridge kinetics and energetics are related in single cardiac myofibrils and multicellular cardiac muscle strips of three HCM patients with the R403Q mutation and nine sarcomere mutation-negative HCM patients (HCMsmn). Expression of R403Q was on average 41 ± 4% of total MYH7 mRNA. Cross-bridge slow relaxation kinetics in single R403Q myofibrils was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than in HCMsmn myofibrils (0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.30 ± 0.02 s(-1), respectively). Moreover, compared to HCMsmn, tension cost was significantly higher in the muscle strips of the three R403Q patients (2.93 ± 0.25 and 1.78 ± 0.10 ?mol l(-1) s(-1) kN(-1) m(-2), respectively) which showed a positive linear correlation with relaxation kinetics in the corresponding myofibril preparations. This correlation suggests that faster cross-bridge relaxation kinetics results in an increase in energetic cost of tension generation in human HCM with the R403Q mutation compared to HCMsmn. Therefore, increased tension cost might contribute to HCM disease in patients carrying the R403Q mutation.
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Protein changes contributing to right ventricular cardiomyocyte diastolic dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function is impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Our previous study showed that elevated cardiomyocyte stiffness and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity underlie diastolic dysfunction in PAH. This study investigates protein modifications contributing to cellular diastolic dysfunction in PAH.
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FHL2 expression and variants in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Based on evidence that FHL2 (four and a half LIM domains protein 2) negatively regulates cardiac hypertrophy we tested whether FHL2 altered expression or variants could be associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). HCM is a myocardial disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and increased interstitial fibrosis and is mainly caused by mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins. FHL2 mRNA level, FHL2 protein level and I-band-binding density were lower in HCM patients than control individuals. Screening of 121 HCM patients without mutations in established disease genes identified 2 novel (T171M, V187L) and 4 known (R177Q, N226N, D268D, P273P) FHL2 variants in unrelated HCM families. We assessed the structural and functional consequences of the nonsynonymous substitutions after adeno-associated viral-mediated gene transfer in cardiac myocytes and in 3D-engineered heart tissue (EHT). Overexpression of FHL2 wild type or nonsynonymous substitutions in cardiac myocytes markedly down-regulated ?-skeletal actin and partially blunted hypertrophy induced by phenylephrine or endothelin-1. After gene transfer in EHTs, force and velocity of both contraction and relaxation were higher with T171M and V187L FHL2 variants than wild type under basal conditions. Finally, chronic phenylephrine stimulation depressed EHT function in all groups, but to a lower extent in T171M-transduced EHTs. These data suggest that (1) FHL2 is down-regulated in HCM, (2) both FHL2 wild type and variants partially protected phenylephrine- or endothelin-1-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes, and (3) FHL2 T171M and V187L nonsynonymous variants induced altered EHT contractility. These findings provide evidence that the 2 novel FHL2 variants could increase cardiac function in HCM.
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Functional Treatment or Cast Immobilization After Minimally Invasive Repair of an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Prospective, Randomized Trial.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Operative repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) reduces the risk of re-rupture and has therefore gained popularity as a standard treatment for ATR, especially in the young and physically active patient. There is ongoing controversy over the best surgical technique and postoperative treatment. In this prospective, randomized trial, we compared cast immobilization and functional treatment with early mobilization and weightbearing after using a minimally invasive surgical technique in patients with ATR.
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Gene-specific increase in the energetic cost of contraction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by thick filament mutations.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Disease mechanisms regarding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are largely unknown and disease onset varies. Sarcomere mutations might induce energy depletion for which until now there is no direct evidence at sarcomere level in human HCM. This study investigated if mutations in genes encoding myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) and myosin heavy chain (MYH7) underlie changes in the energetic cost of contraction in the development of human HCM disease.
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In-vivo T1 cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), autopsy studies revealed both increased focal and diffuse deposition of collagen fibers. Late gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE) detects focal fibrosis, but is unable to depict interstitial fibrosis. We hypothesized that with T1 mapping, which is employed to determine the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV), can detect diffuse interstitial fibrosis in HCM patients.
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Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites Ser42/44 decreases Ca(2+)-sensitivity and blunts enhanced length-dependent activation in response to protein kinase A in human cardiomyocytes.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of troponin I (cTnI) at Ser42/44 is increased in heart failure. While studies in rodents demonstrated that PKC-mediated Ser42/44 phosphorylation decreases maximal force and ATPase activity, PKC incubation of human cardiomyocytes did not affect maximal force. We investigated whether Ser42/44 pseudo-phosphorylation affects force development and ATPase activity using troponin exchange in human myocardium. Additionally, we studied if pseudo-phosphorylated Ser42/44 modulates length-dependent activation of force, which is regulated by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated cTnI-Ser23/24 phosphorylation. Isometric force was measured in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes exchanged with human recombinant wild-type troponin or troponin mutated at Ser42/44 or Ser23/24 into aspartic acid (D) or alanine (A) to mimic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. In troponin-exchanged donor cardiomyocytes experiments were repeated after PKA incubation. ATPase activity was measured in troponin-exchanged cardiac muscle strips. Compared to wild-type, 42D/44D decreased Ca(2+)-sensitivity without affecting maximal force in failing and donor cardiomyocytes. In donor myocardium, 42D/44D did not affect maximal ATPase activity or tension cost. Interestingly, 42D/44D blunted the length-dependent increase in Ca(2+)-sensitivity induced upon PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Since the drop in Ca(2+)-sensitivity at physiological Ca(2+)-concentrations is relatively large phosphorylation of Ser42/44 may result in a decrease of force and associated ATP utilization in the human heart.
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Length-dependent activation is modulated by cardiac troponin I bisphosphorylation at Ser23 and Ser24 but not by Thr143 phosphorylation.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Frank-Starling's law reflects the ability of the heart to adjust the force of its contraction to changes in ventricular filling, a property based on length-dependent myofilament activation (LDA). The threonine at amino acid 143 of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is prerequisite for the length-dependent increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity. Thr143 is a known target of protein kinase C (PKC) whose activity is increased in cardiac disease. Thr143 phosphorylation may modulate length-dependent myofilament activation in failing hearts. Therefore, we investigated if pseudo-phosphorylation at Thr143 modulates length dependence of force using troponin exchange experiments in human cardiomyocytes. In addition, we studied effects of protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated cTnI phosphorylation at Ser23/24, which has been reported to modulate LDA. Isometric force was measured at various Ca(2+) concentrations in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes exchanged with recombinant wild-type (WT) troponin or troponin mutated at the PKC site Thr143 or Ser23/24 into aspartic acid (D) or alanine (A) to mimic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. In troponin-exchanged donor cardiomyocytes experiments were repeated after incubation with exogenous PKA. Pseudo-phosphorylation of Thr143 increased myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity compared with WT without affecting LDA in failing and donor cardiomyocytes. Subsequent PKA treatment enhanced the length-dependent shift in Ca(2+) sensitivity after WT and 143D exchange. Exchange with Ser23/24 variants demonstrated that pseudo-phosphorylation of both Ser23 and Ser24 is needed to enhance the length-dependent increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity. cTnI pseudo-phosphorylation did not alter length-dependent changes in maximal force. Thus phosphorylation at Thr143 enhances myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity without affecting LDA, while Ser23/24 bisphosphorylation is needed to enhance the length-dependent increase in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity.
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Titin gene mutations are common in families with both peripartum cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) can be an initial manifestation of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We aimed to identify mutations in families that could underlie their PPCM and DCM.
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Sexual dimorphic response to exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated MYBPC3-targeted knock-in mice.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common genetic cardiac disorder, is frequently caused by mutations in MYBPC3, encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C). Moreover, HCM is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. Interestingly, SCD is more likely to occur in male than in female athletes. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to sex-specific differences are poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the effect of sex and exercise on functional properties of the heart and sarcomeres in mice carrying a MYBPC3 point mutation (G?>?A transition in exon 6) associated with human HCM. Echocardiography followed by isometric force measurements in left ventricular (LV) membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes was performed in wild-type (WT) and heterozygous (HET) knock-in mice of both sex (N?=?5 per group) in sedentary mice and mice that underwent an 8-week voluntary wheel-running exercise protocol. Isometric force measurements in single cardiomyocytes revealed a lower maximal force generation (F max) of the sarcomeres in male sedentary HET (13.0?±?1.1 kN/m(2)) compared to corresponding WT (18.4?±?1.8 kN/m(2)) male mice. Exercise induced a higher F max in HET male mice, while it did not affect HET females. Interestingly, a low cardiac troponin I bisphosphorylation, increased myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity, and LV hypertrophy were particularly observed in exercised HET females. In conclusion, in sedentary animals, contractile differences are seen between male and female HET mice. Male and female HET hearts adapted differently to a voluntary exercise protocol, indicating that physiological stimuli elicit a sexually dimorphic cardiac response in heterozygous MYBPC3-targeted knock-in mice.
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Contractile dysfunction of left ventricular cardiomyocytes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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After lung transplantation, increased left ventricular (LV) filling can lead to LV failure, increasing the risk of post-operative complications and mortality. LV dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a reduced LV ejection fraction and impaired diastolic function.
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Exercise training in adverse cardiac remodeling.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Cardiac remodeling in response to a myocardial infarction or chronic pressure-overload is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. In contrast, cardiac remodeling produced by regular physical exercise is associated with a decreased risk for heart failure. There is evidence that exercise training has a beneficial effect on disease progression and survival in patients with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, but concern has also been expressed that exercise training may aggravate pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Here we present studies from our laboratory into the effects of exercise training on pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice. The results indicate that even in the presence of a large infarct, exercise training exerts beneficial effects on the heart. These effects were mimicked in part by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) overexpression and abrogated by eNOS deficiency, demonstrating the importance of nitric oxide signaling in mediating the cardiac effects of exercise. Exercise prior to a myocardial infarction was also cardioprotective. In contrast, exercise tended to aggravate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the setting of pressure-overload produced by an aortic stenosis. These observations emphasize the critical importance of the underlying pathological stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, in determining the effects of exercise training. Future studies are needed to define the influence of exercise type, intensity and duration in different models and severities of pathological cardiac remodeling. Together such studies will aid in optimizing the therapy of exercise training in the setting of cardiovascular disease.
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Cardiac myosin-binding protein C: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations and structure-function relationships.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) research has been characterized by two waves. Initial interest was piqued by its discovery in 1973 as a contaminant of myosin preparations from skeletal muscle. The second wave started in 1995 by the discovery that mutations in the gene encoding cMyBP-C cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In this review, we will address what is known of cMyBP-Cs role as a regulator of contraction as well as its role in HCM.
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Right ventricular diastolic impairment in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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The role of right ventricular (RV) diastolic stiffness in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not well established. Therefore, we investigated the presence and possible underlying mechanisms of RV diastolic stiffness in PAH patients.
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High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T is an independent predictor of inhospital mortality in emergency department patients with suspected infection: a prospective observational derivation study.
Emerg Med J
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To assess the prognostic and discriminative accuracy of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) for prediction of inhospital mortality in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected infection.
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Preserved cross-bridge kinetics in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with MYBPC3 mutations.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene, encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) are frequent causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Previously, we have presented evidence for reduced cMyBP-C expression (haploinsufficiency), in patients with a truncation mutation in MYBPC3. In mice, lacking cMyBP-C cross-bridge kinetics was accelerated. In this study, we investigated whether cross-bridge kinetics was altered in myectomy samples from HCM patients harboring heterozygous MYBPC3 mutations (MYBPC3mut). Isometric force and the rate of force redevelopment (k tr) at different activating Ca(2+) concentrations were measured in mechanically isolated Triton-permeabilized cardiomyocytes from MYBPC3mut (n?=?18) and donor (n?=?7) tissue. Furthermore, the stretch activation response of cardiomyocytes was measured in tissue from eight MYBPC3mut patients and five donors to assess the rate of initial force relaxation (k 1) and the rate and magnitude of the transient increase in force (k 2 and P 3, respectively) after a rapid stretch. Maximal force development of the cardiomyocytes was reduced in MYBPC3mut (24.5?±?2.3 kN/m(2)) compared to donor (34.9?±?1.6 kN/m(2)). The rates of force redevelopment in MYBPC3mut and donor over a range of Ca(2+) concentrations were similar (k tr at maximal activation: 0.63?±?0.03 and 0.75?±?0.09 s(-1), respectively). Moreover, the stretch activation parameters did not differ significantly between MYBPC3mut and donor (k 1: 8.5±0.5 and 8.8?±?0.4 s(-1); k 2: 0.77?±?0.06 and 0.74?±?0.09 s(-1); P 3: 0.08?±?0.01 and 0.09?±?0.01, respectively). Incubation with protein kinase A accelerated k 1 in MYBPC3mut and donor to a similar extent. Our experiments indicate that, at the cMyBP-C expression levels in this patient group (63?±?6 % relative to donors), cross-bridge kinetics are preserved and that the depressed maximal force development is not explained by perturbation of cross-bridge kinetics.
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Posttranslational modifications of cardiac troponin T: an overview.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Cardiac troponin (cTn) is an important sarcomeric protein complex situated on the thin filament and is involved in the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. This regulation is primarily controlled by Ca(2+) binding to troponin C and in addition fine-tuned by the posttranslational modification of cTnI and cTnT. The vast majority of cTnT modifications involve the phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) or other kinases and the N-terminal cleavage by caspase and calpain. In vitro studies employing reconstituted detergent-skinned fiber bundles and cell culture generally show a detrimental effect of cTnT phosphorylation on muscle contraction, which is backed by some in vivo studies finding increased cTnT phosphorylation in heart failure, but contradicted by others. In addition, N-terminal cleavage of cTnT is thought to be another factor influencing cardiac contraction. Time-dependent degradation of cTnT has been observed in human serum upon myocardial infarction. These molecular changes might influence the immunoreactivity of cTnT in the clinical immunoassay and have consequences for the clinical interpretations of these measurements. No consensus has yet been reached on the occurrence and extent of these observations and their underlying processes are subject of intense scientific debate. This review will focus on discussing these modifications, their implications on physiology and disease and summarizes the complex interplays of different enzymes on the molecular forms of cTnT and their associated effects.
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Mutations in MYH7 reduce the force generating capacity of sarcomeres in human familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), frequently caused by sarcomeric gene mutations, is characterized by cellular dysfunction and asymmetric left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. We studied whether cellular dysfunction is due to an intrinsic sarcomere defect or cardiomyocyte remodelling.
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Perturbed length-dependent activation in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with missense sarcomeric gene mutations.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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High-myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity has been proposed as a trigger of disease pathogenesis in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) on the basis of in vitro and transgenic mice studies. However, myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity depends on protein phosphorylation and muscle length, and at present, data in humans are scarce.
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MicroRNA transcriptome profiling in cardiac tissue of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with MYBPC3 mutations.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is predominantly caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. One of the most frequent affected genes is MYBPC3, which encodes the thick filament protein cardiac myosin binding protein C. Despite the prevalence of HCM, disease pathology and clinical outcome of sarcomeric mutations are largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) could play a role in the disease process. To determine which miRNAs were changed in expression, miRNA arrays were performed on heart tissue from HCM patients with a MYBPC3 mutation (n=6) and compared with hearts of non-failing donors (n=6). 532 out of 664 analyzed miRNAs were expressed in at least one heart sample. 13 miRNAs were differentially expressed in HCM compared with donors (at p<0.01, fold change ? 2). The genomic context of these differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that miR-204 (fold change 2.4 in HCM vs. donor) was located in an intron of the TRPM3 gene, encoding an aspecific cation channel involved in calcium entry. RT-PCR analysis revealed a trend towards TRPM3 upregulation in HCM compared with donor myocardium (fold change 2.3, p=0.078). In silico identification of mRNA targets of differentially expressed miRNAs showed a large proportion of genes involved in cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor signaling and we showed reduced phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I in the HCM myocardium when compared with donor. HCM patients with MYBPC3 mutations have a specific miRNA expression profile. Downstream mRNA targets reveal possible involvement in cardiac signaling pathways.
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The physiological role of cardiac cytoskeleton and its alterations in heart failure.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Cardiac muscle cells are equipped with specialized biochemical machineries for the rapid generation of force and movement central to the work generated by the heart. During each heart beat cardiac muscle cells perceive and experience changes in length and load, which reflect one of the fundamental principles of physiology known as the Frank-Starling law of the heart. Cardiac muscle cells are unique mechanical stretch sensors that allow the heart to increase cardiac output, and adjust it to new physiological and pathological situations. In the present review we discuss the mechano-sensory role of the cytoskeletal proteins with respect to their tight interaction with the sarcolemma and extracellular matrix. The role of contractile thick and thin filament proteins, the elastic protein titin, and their anchorage at the Z-disc and M-band, with associated proteins are reviewed in physiologic and pathologic conditions leading to heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé
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Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: functional effects of myosin mutation R723G in cardiomyocytes.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (FHC) is frequently caused by mutations in the ?-cardiac myosin heavy chain (?-MyHC). To identify changes in sarcomeric function triggered by such mutations, distinguishing mutation effects from other functional alterations of the myocardium is essential. We previously identified a direct effect of mutation R723G (MyHC723) on myosin function in slow Musculus soleus fibers. Here we investigate contractile features of left ventricular cardiomyocytes of FHC-patients with the same MyHC723-mutation and compare these to the soleus data. In mechanically isolated, triton-permeabilized MyHC723-cardiomyocytes, maximum force was significantly lower but calcium-sensitivity was unchanged compared to donor. Conversely, MyHC723-soleus fibers showed significantly higher maximum force and reduced calcium-sensitivity compared to controls. Protein phosphorylation, a potential myocardium specific modifying mechanism, might account for differences compared to soleus fibers. Analysis revealed reduced phosphorylation of troponin I and T, myosin-binding-protein C, and myosin-light-chain 2 in MyHC723-myocardium compared to donor. Saturation of protein-kinaseA phospho-sites led to comparable, i.e., reduced MyHC723-calcium-sensitivity in cardiomyocytes as in M. soleus fibers, while maximum force remained reduced. Myofibrillar disarray and lower density of myofibrils, however, largely account for reduced maximum force in MyHC723-cardiomyocytes. The changes seen when phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins in myocardium of affected patients is matched to control tissue suggest that the R723G mutation causes reduced Ca(++)-sensitivity in both cardiomyocytes and M. soleus fibers. In MyHC723-myocardium, however, hypophosphorylation can compensate for the reduced calcium-sensitivity, while maximum force generation, lowered by myofibrillar deficiency and disarray, remains impaired, and may only be compensated by hypertrophy.
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GSK3? phosphorylates newly identified site in the proline-alanine-rich region of cardiac myosin-binding protein C and alters cross-bridge cycling kinetics in human: short communication.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) regulates cross-bridge cycling kinetics and, thereby, fine-tunes the rate of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. Its effects on cardiac kinetics are modified by phosphorylation. Three phosphorylation sites (Ser275, Ser284, and Ser304) have been identified in vivo, all located in the cardiac-specific M-domain of cMyBP-C. However, recent work has shown that up to 4 phosphate groups are present in human cMyBP-C.
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PKC?-specific phosphorylation of the troponin complex in human myocardium: a functional and proteomics analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Protein kinase C? (PKC?) is one of the predominant PKC isoforms that phosphorylate cardiac troponin. PKC? is implicated in heart failure and serves as a potential therapeutic target, however, the exact consequences for contractile function in human myocardium are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PKC? phosphorylation of cardiac troponin (cTn) on myofilament function in human failing cardiomyocytes and to resolve the potential targets involved.
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Contractile dysfunction irrespective of the mutant protein in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with normal systolic function.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), typically characterized by asymmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy, frequently is caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins. We studied if changes in sarcomeric properties in HCM depend on the underlying protein mutation.
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Bisoprolol delays progression towards right heart failure in experimental pulmonary hypertension.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH), sympathetic adrenergic activity is highly elevated. Sympathetic overactivity is a compensatory mechanism at first, but might be detrimental for cardiac function in the long run. We therefore investigated whether chronic low-dose treatment with bisoprolol (a cardioselective ?-blocker) has beneficial effects on cardiac function in experimental PH.
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Carriers of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy MYBPC3 mutation are characterized by reduced myocardial efficiency in the absence of hypertrophy and microvascular dysfunction.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Next to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by microvascular dysfunction and reduced myocardial external efficiency (MEE). Insights into the presence of these abnormalities as early markers of disease are of clinical importance in risk stratification, and development of therapeutic approaches. Therefore, the aim was to investigate myocardial perfusion and energetics in genotype-positive, phenotype-negative HCM subjects (carriers).
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Cardiac myosin binding protein C phosphorylation in cardiac disease.
J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Perturbations in sarcomeric function may in part underlie systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the failing heart. Sarcomeric dysfunction has been ascribed to changes in phosphorylation status of sarcomeric proteins caused by an altered balance between intracellular kinases and phosphatases during the development of cardiac disease. In the present review we discuss changes in phosphorylation of the thick filament protein myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) reported in failing myocardium, with emphasis on phosphorylation changes observed in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in MYBPC3. Moreover, we will discuss assays which allow to distinguish between functional consequences of mutant sarcomeric proteins and (mal)adaptive changes in sarcomeric protein phosphorylation.
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Diabetes mellitus worsens diastolic left ventricular dysfunction in aortic stenosis through altered myocardial structure and cardiomyocyte stiffness.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Aortic stenosis (AS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequent comorbidities in aging populations. In heart failure, DM worsens diastolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, thereby adversely affecting symptoms and prognosis. Effects of DM on diastolic LV function were therefore assessed in aortic stenosis, and underlying myocardial mechanisms were identified.
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Protein phosphatase 2A affects myofilament contractility in non-failing but not in failing human myocardium.
J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Protein phosphatase (PP) type 2A is a multifunctional serine/threonine phosphatase that is involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. The PP2A core enzyme is a dimer, consisting of a catalytic C and a scaffolding A subunit, which is targeted to several cardiac proteins by a regulatory B subunit. At present, it is controversial whether PP2A and its subunits play a critical role in end-stage human heart failure. Here we report that the application of purified PP2AC significantly increased the Ca2+-sensitivity (?pCa50=0.05±0.01) of the contractile apparatus in isolated skinned myocytes of non-failing (NF) hearts. A higher phosphorylation of troponin I (cTnI) was found at protein kinase A sites (Ser23/24) in NF compared to failing myocardium. The basal Ca2+-responsiveness of myofilaments was enhanced in myocytes of ischemic (ICM, ?pCa50=0.10±0.03) and dilated (DCM, ?pCa50=0.06±0.04) cardiomyopathy compared to NF. However, in contrast to NF myocytes the treatment with PP2AC did not shift force-pCa relationships in failing myocytes. The higher basal Ca2+-sensitivity in failing myocytes coincided with a reduced protein expression of PP2AC in left ventricular tissue from patients suffering from ICM and DCM (by 50 and 56% compared to NF, respectively). However, PP2A activity was unchanged in failing hearts despite an increase of both total PP and PP1 activity. The expression of PP2AB56? was also decreased by 51 and 62% in ICM and DCM compared to NF, respectively. The phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser23/24 was reduced by 66 and 49% in ICM and DCM compared to NF hearts, respectively. Our results demonstrate that PP2A increases myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity in NF human hearts, most likely via cTnI dephosphorylation. This effect is not present in failing hearts, probably due to the lower baseline cTnI phosphorylation in failing compared to non-failing hearts.
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Transmural heterogeneity of myofilament function and sarcomeric protein phosphorylation in remodeled myocardium of pigs with a recent myocardial infarction.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Aim: Transmural differences in sarcomeric protein composition and function across the left ventricular (LV) wall have been reported. We studied in pigs sarcomeric function and protein phosphorylation in subepicardial (EPI) and subendocardial (ENDO) layers of remote LV myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI), induced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation. Methods: EPI and ENDO samples were taken 3?weeks after sham surgery (n?=?12) or induction of MI (n?=?12) at baseline (BL) and during ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) stimulation with dobutamine. Isometric force was measured in single cardiomyocytes at various [Ca(2+)] and 2.2??m sarcomere length. Results: In sham hearts, no significant transmural differences were observed in myofilament function or protein phosphorylation. Myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity was significantly higher in both EPI and ENDO of MI compared to sham hearts. Maximal force was significantly reduced in MI compared to sham, but solely in ENDO cells. A higher passive force was observed in MI hearts, but only in EPI cells. The proportion of stiff N2B isoform was higher in EPI than in ENDO in both sham and MI hearts, and a trend toward increased N2B-proportion appeared in MI EPI, but not MI Endo. Analysis of myofilament protein phosphorylation did not reveal significant transmural differences in phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C, desmin, troponin T, troponin I (cTnI), and myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2) both at BL and during ?AR stimulation with dobutamine infusion. A significant increase in MLC-2 phosphorylation was observed during dobutamine only in sham. In addition, the increase in cTnI phosphorylation upon dobutamine was twofold lower in MI than in sham. Conclusion: Myofilament dysfunction is present in both EPI and ENDO in post-MI remodeled myocardium, but shows a high degree of qualitative heterogeneity across the LV wall. These heterogeneous transmural changes in sarcomeric properties likely contribute differently to systolic vs. diastolic global LV dysfunction after MI.
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Distinct mechanisms for diastolic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus and chronic pressure-overload.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Chronic pressure-overload and diabetes mellitus are two frequent disorders affecting the heart. We aimed to characterize myocardial structural and functional changes induced by both conditions. Pressure-overload was established in Wistar-han male rats by supra-renal aortic banding. Six-weeks later, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg,ip), resulting in four groups: SHAM, banding (BA), diabetic (DM) and diabetic-banding (DB). Six-weeks later, pressure-volume loops were obtained and left ventricular samples were collected to evaluate alterations in insulin signalling pathways, extracellular matrix as well as myofilament function and phosphorylation. Pressure-overload increased cardiomyocyte diameter (BA 22.0 ± 0.4 ?m, SHAM 18.2 ± 0.3 ?m) and myofilament maximal force (BA 25.7 ± 3.6 kN/m(2), SHAM 18.6 ± 1.4 kN/m(2)), Ca(2+) sensitivity (BA 5.56 ± 0.02, SHAM 5.50 ± 0.02) as well as MyBP-C, Akt and Erk phosphorylation, while decreasing rate of force redevelopment (K (tr); BA 14.9 ± 1.1 s(-1), SHAM 25.2 ± 1.5 s(-1)). At the extracellular matrix level, fibrosis (BA 10.8 ± 0.9%, SHAM 5.3 ± 0.6%), pro-MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities increased and, in vivo, relaxation was impaired (?; BA 14.0 ± 0.9 ms, SHAM 12.9 ± 0.4 ms). Diabetes increased cardiomyocyte diameter, fibrosis (DM 21.4 ± 0.4 ?m, 13.9 ± 1.8%, DB 20.6 ± 0.4 ?m, 13.8 ± 0.8%, respectively), myofilament Ca(2+)sensitivity (DM 5.57 ± 0.02, DB 5.57 ± 0.01), advanced glycation end-product deposition (DM 4.9 ± 0.6 score/mm(2), DB 5.1 ± 0.4 score/mm(2), SHAM 2.1 ± 0.3 score/mm(2)), and apoptosis, while decreasing K (tr) (DM 13.5 ± 1.9 s(-1), DB 15.2 ± 1.4 s(-1)), Akt phosphorylation and MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratios. Diabetic hearts were stiffer (higher end-diastolic-pressure: DM 7.0 ± 1.2 mmHg, DB 6.7 ± 0.7 mmHg, SHAM 5.3 ± 0.4 mmHg, steeper end-diastolic-pressure-volume relation: DM 0.59 ± 0.18, DB 0.83 ± 0.17, SHAM 0.41 ± 0.10), and hypo-contractile (decreased end-systolic-pressure-volume-relation). DB animals presented further pulmonary congestion (Lungs/body-weight: DB 5.23 ± 0.21 g/kg, SHAM 3.80 ± 0.14 g/kg) as this group combined overload-induced relaxation abnormalities and diabetes-induced stiffness. Diabetes mellitus and pressure overload led to distinct diastolic dysfunction phenotypes: while diabetes promoted myocardial stiffening, pressure overload impaired relaxation. The association of these damages accelerates the progression of diastolic heart failure progression in diabetic-banded animals.
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Diastolic myofilament dysfunction in the failing human heart.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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In recent years, it has become evident that heart failure is not solely due to reduced contractile performance of the heart muscle as impaired relaxation is evident in almost all heart failure patients. In more than half of all heart failure patients, diastolic dysfunction is the major cardiac deficit. These heart failure patients have normal (or preserved) left ventricular ejection fraction, but impaired diastolic function evident from increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Perturbations at the cellular level which cause impaired relaxation of the heart muscle involve changes in Ca(2+)-handling proteins, extracellular matrix components, and myofilament properties. The present review discusses the deficits in myofilament function observed in human heart failure and the most likely underlying causal protein changes. Moreover, the consequences of impaired myofilament function for in vivo diastolic dysfunction are discussed taking into account the reported changes in Ca(2+) handling.
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Exercise training does not improve cardiac function in compensated or decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy induced by aortic stenosis.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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There is ample evidence that regular exercise exerts beneficial effects on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, remodeling and dysfunction produced by ischemic heart disease or systemic hypertension. In contrast, the effects of exercise on pathological LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by LV outflow obstruction have not been studied to date. Consequently, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running in mice (which mitigates post-infarct LV dysfunction) on LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by mild (mTAC) and severe (sTAC) transverse aortic constriction. mTAC produced ~40% LV hypertrophy and increased myocardial expression of hypertrophy marker genes but did not affect LV function, SERCA2a protein levels, apoptosis or capillary density. Exercise had no effect on global LV hypertrophy and function in mTAC but increased interstitial collagen, and ANP expression. sTAC produced ~80% LV hypertrophy and further increased ANP expression and interstitial fibrosis and, in contrast with mTAC, also produced LV dilation, systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, apoptosis and capillary rarefaction and decreased SERCA2a and ryanodine receptor (RyR) protein levels. LV diastolic dysfunction was likely aggravated by elevated passive isometric force and Ca(2+)-sensitivity of myofilaments. Exercise training failed to mitigate the sTAC-induced LV hypertrophy and capillary rarefaction or the decreases in SERCA2a and RyR. Exercise attenuated the sTAC-induced increase in passive isometric force but did not affect myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and tended to aggravate interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, exercise had no effect on LV function in compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy produced by LV outflow obstruction, suggesting that the effect of exercise on pathologic LV hypertrophy and dysfunction depends critically on the underlying cause.
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Increased left ventricular torsion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers with normal wall thickness.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Increased left ventricular (LV) torsion has been observed in patients with manifest familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and is thought to be caused by subendocardial dysfunction. We hypothesize that increased LV torsion is already present in healthy mutation carriers with normal wall thickness.
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Integrative Physiology 2.0: integration of systems biology into physiology and its application to cardiovascular homeostasis.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Since the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advent of the large scaled unbiased -omics techniques, the field of systems biology has emerged. Systems biology aims to move away from the traditional reductionist molecular approach, which focused on understanding the role of single genes or proteins, towards a more holistic approach by studying networks and interactions between individual components of networks. From a conceptual standpoint, systems biology elicits a back to the future experience for any integrative physiologist. However, many of the new techniques and modalities employed by systems biologists yield tremendous potential for integrative physiologists to expand their tool arsenal to (quantitatively) study complex biological processes, such as cardiac remodelling and heart failure, in a truly holistic fashion. We therefore advocate that systems biology should not become/stay a separate discipline with -omics as its playing field, but should be integrated into physiology to create Integrative Physiology 2.0.
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The development of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: from mutation to bedside.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a familial disorder characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of other cardiac or systemic disease likely to cause this hypertrophy. HCM is considered a disease of the sarcomere as most causal mutations are identified in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, although several other disorders have also been linked to the HCM phenotype. The clinical course of HCM is characterized by a large inter- and intrafamilial variability, ranging from severe symptomatic HCM to asymptomatic individuals. The general picture emerges that the underlying pathophysiology of HCM is complex and still scarcely clarified. Recent findings indicated that both functional and morphological (macroscopic and microscopic) changes of the HCM muscle are present before the occurrence of HCM phenotype. This review aims to provide an overview of the myocardial alterations that occur during the gradual process of wall thickening in HCM on a myofilament level, as well as the structural and functional abnormalities that can be observed in genetically affected individuals prior to the development of HCM with state of the art imaging techniques, such as tissue Doppler echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, present and future therapeutic options will be briefly discussed.
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More severe cellular phenotype in human idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy compared to ischemic heart disease.
J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Activation of the ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) pathway is the main mechanism of the heart to increase cardiac output via protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of cellular target proteins, and perturbations therein may contribute to cardiac dysfunction in heart failure. In the present study a comprehensive analysis was made of mediators of the ?AR pathway, myofilament properties and cardiac structure in patients with idiopathic (IDCM; n = 13) and ischemic (ISHD; n = 10) cardiomyopathy in comparison to non-failing hearts (donor; n = 10) for the following parameters: ?AR density, G-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 5, stimulatory and inhibitory G-proteins, phosphorylation of myofilament targets of PKA, protein phosphatase 1, phospholamban, SERCA2a and single myocyte contractility. All parameters exhibited the expected alterations of heart failure, but for most of them the extent of alteration was greater in IDCM than in ISHD. Histological analysis also revealed higher collagen in IDCM compared to ISHD. Alterations in the ?AR pathway are more pronounced in IDCM than in ISHD and may reflect sequential changes in cellular protein composition and function. Our data indicate that cellular dysfunction is more severe in IDCM than in ISHD.
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Enhanced myofilament responsiveness upon ?-adrenergic stimulation in post-infarct remodeled myocardium.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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Previously we showed that left ventricular (LV) responsiveness to exercise-induced increases in noradrenaline was blunted in pigs with a recent myocardial infarction (MI) [van der Velden et al. Circ Res. 2004], consistent with perturbed ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) signaling. Here we tested the hypothesis that abnormalities at the myofilament level underlie impaired LV responsiveness to catecholamines in MI. Myofilament function and protein composition were studied in remote LV biopsies taken at baseline and during dobutamine stimulation 3 weeks after MI or sham. Single permeabilized cardiomyocytes demonstrated reduced maximal force (F(max)) and higher Ca(2+)-sensitivity in MI compared to sham. F(max) did not change during dobutamine infusion in sham, but markedly increased in MI. Moreover, the dobutamine-induced decrease in Ca(2+)-sensitivity was significantly larger in MI than sham. Baseline phosphorylation assessed by phosphostaining of ?-AR target proteins myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) and troponin I (cTnI) in MI and sham was the same. However, the dobutamine-induced increase in overall cTnI phosphorylation and cTnI phosphorylation at protein kinase A (PKA)-sites (Ser23/24) was less in MI compared to sham. In contrast, the dobutamine-induced phosphorylation of cMyBP-C at Ser282 was preserved in MI, and coincided with increased autophosphorylation (at Thr282) of the cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII-?C). In conclusion, in post-infarct remodeled myocardium myofilament responsiveness to dobutamine is significantly enhanced despite the lower increase in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of cTnI. The increased myofilament responsiveness in MI may depend on the preserved cMyBP-C phosphorylation possibly resulting from increased CaMKII-?C activity and may help to maintain proper diastolic performance during exercise.
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Analysis of cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation in human heart muscle.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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A unique feature of MyBP-C in cardiac muscle is that it has multiple phosphorylation sites. MyBP-C phosphorylation, predominantly by PKA, plays an essential role in modulating contractility as part of the cellular response to ?-adrenergic stimulation. In vitro studies indicate MyBP-C can be phosphorylated at Serine 273, 282, 302 and 307 (mouse sequence) but little is known about the level of MyBP-C phosphorylation or the sites phosphorylated in heart muscle. Since current methodologies are limited in specificity and are not quantitative we have investigated the use of phosphate affinity SDS-PAGE together with a total anti MyBP-C antibody and a range of phosphorylation site-specific antibodies for the main sites (Ser-273, -282 and -302). With these newly developed methods we have been able to make a detailed quantitative analysis of MyBP-C phosphorylation in heart tissue in situ. We have found that MyBP-C is highly phosphorylated in non-failing human (donor) heart or mouse heart; tris and tetra-phosphorylated species predominate and less than 10% of MyBP-C is unphosphorylated (0, 9.3 ± 1%: 1P, 13.4 ± 2.7%: 2P, 10.5 ± 3.3%: 3P, 28.7 ± 3.7%: 4P, 36.4 ± 2.7%, n=21). Total phosphorylation was 2.7 ± 0.07 mol Pi/mol MyBP-C. In contrast in failing heart and in myectomy samples from HCM patients the majority of MyBP-C was unphosphorylated. Total phosphorylation levels were 23% of normal in failing heart myofibrils (0, 60.1 ± 2.8%: 1P, 27.8 ± 2.8%: 2P, 4.8 ± 2.0%: 3P, 3.7 ± 1.2%: 4P, 2.8 ± 1.3%, n=19) and 39% of normal in myectomy samples. The site-specific antibodies showed a distinctive distribution pattern of phosphorylation sites in the multiple phosphorylation level species. We found that phosphorylated Ser-273, Ser-282 and Ser-302 were all present in the 4P band of MyBP-C but none of them were significant in the 1P band, indicating that there must be at least one other site of MyBP-C phosphorylation in human heart. The pattern of phosphorylation at the three sites was not random, but indicated positive and negative interactions between the three sites. Phosphorylation at Ser-282 was not proportional to the number of sites available. The 2P band contained 302 but not 273; the 3P band contained 273 but not 302.
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Effects of chronic atrial fibrillation on active and passive force generation in human atrial myofibrils.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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Chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF) is associated with atrial contractile dysfunction. Sarcomere remodeling may contribute to this contractile disorder.
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How do hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations affect myocardial function in carriers with normal wall thickness? Assessment with cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Clinical data on myocardial function in HCM mutation carriers (carriers) is sparse but suggests that subtle functional abnormalities can be measured with tissue Doppler imaging before the development of overt hypertrophy. We aimed to confirm the presence of functional abnormalities using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and to investigate if sensitive functional assessment could be employed to identify carriers.
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Why does troponin I have so many phosphorylation sites? Fact and fancy.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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We discuss a current controversy regarding the relative role of phosphorylation sites on cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (Fig. 1) in physiological and patho-physiological cardiac function. Studies with mouse models and in vitro studies indicate that multi-site phosphorylations are involved in both control of maximum tension and sarcomeric responsiveness to Ca(2+). Thus one hypothesis is that cardiac function reflects a balance of cTnI phosphorylations and a tilt in this balance may be maladaptive in acquired and genetic disorders of the heart. Studies on human heart samples taken mainly at end-stage heart failure, and in depth proteomic analysis of human and rat heart samples demonstrate that Ser23/Ser24 are the major and perhaps the only sites likely to be relevant to control cardiac function. Thus functional significance of Ser23/Ser24 phosphorylation is taken as fact, whereas the function of some other sites is treated as fancy. Maybe the extremes will meet: in any case we both agree that further work needs to be carried out with relatively large mammals and with determination of the time course of changes in phosphorylation to identify transient modifications that may be relevant at a beat-to-beat basis. Moreover, we agree that the changes and effects of cTnI phosphorylation need to be fully integrated into the effects of other phosphorylations in the cardiac myocyte.
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Effect of troponin I Ser23/24 phosphorylation on Ca2+-sensitivity in human myocardium depends on the phosphorylation background.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Ser23/24 of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) causes a reduction in Ca(2+)-sensitivity of force development. This study aimed to determine whether the PKA-induced modulation of the Ca(2+)-sensitivity is solely due to cTnI phosphorylation or depends on the phosphorylation status of other sarcomeric proteins. Endogenous troponin (cTn) complex in donor cardiomyocytes was partially exchanged (up to 66+/-1%) with recombinant unphosphorylated human cTn and in failing cells similar exchange was achieved using PKA-(bis)phosphorylated cTn complex. Cardiomyocytes immersed in exchange solution without complex added served as controls. Partial exchange of unphosphorylated cTn complex in donor tissue significantly increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity (pCa(50)) to 5.50+/-0.02 relative to the donor control value (pCa(50)=5.43+/-0.04). Exchange in failing tissue with PKA-phosphorylated cTn complex did not change Ca(2+)-sensitivity relative to the failing control (pCa(50)=5.60+/-0.02). Subsequent treatment of the cardiomyocytes with the catalytic subunit of PKA significantly decreased Ca(2+)-sensitivity in donor and failing tissue. Analysis of phosphorylated cTnI species revealed the same distribution of un-, mono- and bis-phosphorylated cTnI in donor control and in failing tissue exchanged with PKA-phosphorylated cTn complex. Phosphorylation of myosin-binding protein-C in failing tissue was significantly lower compared to donor tissue. These differences in Ca(2+)-sensitivity in donor and failing cells, despite similar distribution of cTnI species, could be abolished by subsequent PKA-treatment and indicate that other targets of PKA are involved the reduction of Ca(2+)-sensitivity. Our findings suggest that the sarcomeric phosphorylation background, which is altered in cardiac disease, influences the impact of cTnI Ser23/24 phosphorylation by PKA on Ca(2+)-sensitivity.
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A piece of the human heart: variance of protein phosphorylation in left ventricular samples from end-stage primary cardiomyopathy patients.
J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2009
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Cardiomyocyte contraction is regulated by phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins. Throughout the heart regional and transmural differences may exist in protein phosphorylation. In addition, phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins is altered in cardiac disease. Heterogeneity in protein phosphorylation may be larger in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as it may be caused by multiple mutations in genes encoding different sarcomeric proteins. Moreover, HCM is characterized by asymmetric remodelling of the heart. In the present study we assessed if local differences in sarcomeric protein phosphorylation are more evident in primary HCM or DCM than in non-failing donors. Thereto, phosphorylation of the two main target proteins of the beta-adrenergic receptor pathway, troponin I (cTnI) and myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) was analysed in different parts in the free left ventricular wall of end-stage failing HCM and DCM patients and donors obtained during transplant surgery. Intra-patient variability in protein phosphorylation within tissue samples of approximately 2 g wet weight was comparable between donor, HCM and DCM samples and could partly be attributed to the precision of the technique. Thus, our data indicate that within the precision of the measurements small, biopsy-sized cardiac tissue samples are representative for the region of the free left ventricular wall from which they were obtained.
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Absence of thrombospondin-2 causes age-related dilated cardiomyopathy.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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The progressive shift from a young to an aged heart is characterized by alterations in the cardiac matrix. The present study investigated whether the matricellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) may affect cardiac dimensions and function with physiological aging of the heart.
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Distinct myocardial effects of beta-blocker therapy in heart failure with normal and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2009
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Left ventricular (LV) myocardial structure and function differ in heart failure (HF) with normal (N) and reduced (R) LV ejection fraction (EF). This difference could underlie an unequal outcome of trials with beta-blockers in heart failure with normal LVEF (HFNEF) and heart failure with reduced LVEF (HFREF) with mixed results observed in HFNEF and positive results in HFREF. To investigate whether beta-blockers have distinct myocardial effects in HFNEF and HFREF, myocardial structure, cardiomyocyte function, and myocardial protein composition were compared in HFNEF and HFREF patients without or with beta-blockers.
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Protein kinase C alpha and epsilon phosphorylation of troponin and myosin binding protein C reduce Ca2+ sensitivity in human myocardium.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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Previous studies indicated that the increase in protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated myofilament protein phosphorylation observed in failing myocardium might be detrimental for contractile function. This study was designed to reveal and compare the effects of PKCalpha- and PKCepsilon-mediated phosphorylation on myofilament function in human myocardium. Isometric force was measured at different [Ca2+] in single permeabilized cardiomyocytes from failing human left ventricular tissue. Activated PKCalpha and PKCepsilon equally reduced Ca2+ sensitivity in failing cardiomyocytes (DeltapCa50 = 0.08 +/- 0.01). Both PKC isoforms increased phosphorylation of troponin I- (cTnI) and myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) in failing cardiomyocytes. Subsequent incubation of failing cardiomyocytes with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) resulted in a further reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity, indicating that the effects of both PKC isoforms were not caused by cross-phosphorylation of PKA sites. Both isozymes showed no effects on maximal force and only PKCalpha resulted in a modest significant reduction in passive force. Effects of PKCalpha were only minor in donor cardiomyocytes, presumably because of already saturated cTnI and cMyBP-C phosphorylation levels. Donor tissue could therefore be used as a tool to reveal the functional effects of troponin T (cTnT) phosphorylation by PKCalpha. Massive dephosphorylation of cTnT with alkaline phosphatase increased Ca2+ sensitivity. Subsequently, PKCalpha treatment of donor cardiomyocytes reduced Ca2+ sensitivity (DeltapCa50 = 0.08 +/- 0.02) and solely increased phosphorylation of cTnT, but did not affect maximal and passive force. PKCalpha- and PKCepsilon-mediated phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and cTnI as well as cTnT decrease myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and may thereby reduce contractility and enhance relaxation of human myocardium.
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Altered myocardial substrate metabolism is associated with myocardial dysfunction in early diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats: studies using positron emission tomography.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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In vitro data suggest that changes in myocardial substrate metabolism may contribute to impaired myocardial function in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of the present study was to study in a rat model of early DCM, in vivo changes in myocardial substrate metabolism and their association with myocardial function.
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Prevention of myofilament dysfunction by beta-blocker therapy in postinfarct remodeling.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Myofilament contractility of individual cardiomyocytes is depressed in remote noninfarcted myocardium and contributes to global left ventricular pump dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we investigated whether beta-blocker therapy could restore myofilament contractility.
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Detrimental effect of combined exercise training and eNOS overexpression on cardiac function after myocardial infarction.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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It has been reported that exercise after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates left ventricular (LV) pump dysfunction by normalization of myofilament function. This benefit could be due to an exercise-induced upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity. Consequently, we first tested the hypothesis that the effects of exercise after MI can be mimicked by elevated eNOS expression using transgenic mice with overexpression of human eNOS (eNOSTg). Both exercise and eNOSTg attenuated LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI in mice and improved cardiomyocyte maximal force development (F(max)). However, only exercise training restored myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)2a protein levels and improved the first derivative of LV pressure at 30 mmHg. Conversely, only eNOSTg improved survival. In view of these partly complementary actions, we subsequently tested the hypothesis that combining exercise and eNOSTg would provide additional protection against LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI. Unexpectedly, the combination of exercise and eNOSTg abolished the beneficial effects on LV remodeling and dysfunction of either treatment alone. The latter was likely due to perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, as myofilament F(max) actually increased despite marked reductions in the phosphorylation status of several myofilament proteins, whereas the exercise-induced increases in SERCA2a protein levels were lost in eNOSTg mice. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine or supplementation of tetrahydrobiopterin and l-arginine prevented these detrimental effects on LV function while partly restoring the phosphorylation status of myofilament proteins and further enhancing myofilament F(max). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and elevated eNOS expression abolished the cardioprotective effects of either treatment alone after MI, which appeared to be, at least in part, the result of increased oxidative stress secondary to eNOS "uncoupling."
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Cardiac myosin-binding protein C mutations and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: haploinsufficiency, deranged phosphorylation, and cardiomyocyte dysfunction.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene, encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C), are a frequent cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we investigated whether protein composition and function of the sarcomere are altered in a homogeneous familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patient group with frameshift mutations in MYBPC3 (MYBPC3(mut)).
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Hypophosphorylation of the Stiff N2B titin isoform raises cardiomyocyte resting tension in failing human myocardium.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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High diastolic stiffness of failing myocardium results from interstitial fibrosis and elevated resting tension (F(passive)) of cardiomyocytes. A shift in titin isoform expression from N2BA to N2B isoform, lower overall phosphorylation of titin, and a shift in titin phosphorylation from N2B to N2BA isoform can raise F(passive) of cardiomyocytes. In left ventricular biopsies of heart failure (HF) patients, aortic stenosis (AS) patients, and controls (CON), we therefore related F(passive) of isolated cardiomyocytes to expression of titin isoforms and to phosphorylation of titin and titin isoforms. Biopsies were procured by transvascular technique (44 HF, 3 CON), perioperatively (25 AS, 4 CON), or from explanted hearts (4 HF, 8 CON). None had coronary artery disease. Isolated, permeabilized cardiomyocytes were stretched to 2.2-microm sarcomere length to measure F(passive). Expression and phosphorylation of titin isoforms were analyzed using gel electrophoresis with ProQ Diamond and SYPRO Ruby stains and reported as ratio of titin (N2BA/N2B) or of phosphorylated titin (P-N2BA/P-N2B) isoforms. F(passive) was higher in HF (6.1+/-0.4 kN/m(2)) than in CON (2.3+/-0.3 kN/m(2); P<0.01) or in AS (2.2+/-0.2 kN/m(2); P<0.001). Titin isoform expression differed between HF (N2BA/N2B=0.73+/-0.06) and CON (N2BA/N2B=0.39+/-0.05; P<0.001) and was comparable in HF and AS (N2BA/N2B=0.59+/-0.06). Overall titin phosphorylation was also comparable in HF and AS, but relative phosphorylation of the stiff N2B titin isoform was significantly lower in HF (P-N2BA/P-N2B=0.77+/-0.05) than in AS (P-N2BA/P-N2B=0.54+/-0.05; P<0.01). Relative hypophosphorylation of the stiff N2B titin isoform is a novel mechanism responsible for raised F(passive) of human HF cardiomyocytes.
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Myofilament dysfunction in cardiac disease from mice to men.
J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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In healthy human myocardium a tight balance exists between receptor-mediated kinases and phosphatases coordinating phosphorylation of regulatory proteins involved in cardiomyocyte contractility. During heart failure, when neurohumoral stimulation increases to compensate for reduced cardiac pump function, this balance is perturbed. The imbalance between kinases and phosphatases upon chronic neurohumoral stimulation is detrimental and initiates cardiac remodelling, and phosphorylation changes of regulatory proteins, which impair cardiomyocyte function. The main signalling pathway involved in enhanced cardiomyocyte contractility during increased cardiac load is the beta-adrenergic signalling route, which becomes desensitized upon chronic stimulation. At the myofilament level, activation of protein kinase A (PKA), the down-stream kinase of the beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR), phosphorylates troponin I, myosin binding protein C and titin, which all exert differential effects on myofilament function. As a consequence of beta-AR down-regulation and desensitization, phosphorylation of the PKA-target proteins within the cardiomyocyte may be decreased and alter myofilament function. Here we discuss involvement of altered PKA-mediated myofilament protein phosphorylation in different animal and human studies, and discuss the roles of troponin I, myosin binding protein C and titin in regulating myofilament dysfunction in cardiac disease. Data from the different animal and human studies emphasize the importance of careful biopsy procurement, and the need to investigate localization of kinases and phosphatases within the cardiomyocyte, in particular their co-localization with cardiac myofilaments upon receptor stimulation.
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Myocardial adaptations in the failing heart: cause or consequence?
J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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Many changes in morphology, biochemical properties and myocyte function occur during development to heart failure. Most changes may be compensatory, yet unable to prevent cardiac dysfunction in the long run. This illustrates that it is important to carefully dissect the disease causing modifications from cardiac adaptation, in order to obtain a better understanding of the pathophysiological processes leading to heart failure.
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Impact of site-specific phosphorylation of protein kinase A sites Ser23 and Ser24 of cardiac troponin I in human cardiomyocytes.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
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PKA-mediated phosphorylation of contractile proteins upon ?-adrenergic stimulation plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac performance. Phosphorylation of the PKA sites (Ser(23)/Ser(24)) of cardiac troponin (cTn)I results in a decrease in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and an increase in the rate of relaxation. However, the relation between the level of phosphorylation of the sites and the functional effects in the human myocardium is unknown. Therefore, site-directed mutagenesis was used to study the effects of phosphorylation at Ser(23) and Ser(24) of cTnI on myofilament function in human cardiac tissue. Serines were replaced by aspartic acid (D) or alanine (A) to mimic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. cTnI-DD mimics both sites phosphorylated, cTnI-AD mimics Ser(23) unphosphorylated and Ser(24) phosphorylated, cTnI-DA mimics Ser(23) phosphorylated and Ser(24) unphosphorylated, and cTnI-AA mimics both sites unphosphorylated. Force development was measured at various Ca(2+) concentrations in permeabilized cardiomyocytes in which the endogenous troponin complex was exchanged with these recombinant human troponin complexes. In donor cardiomyocytes, myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity (pCa(50)) was significantly lower in cTnI-DD (pCa(50): 5.39 ± 0.01) compared with cTnI-AA (pCa(50): 5.50 ± 0.01), cTnI-AD (pCa(50): 5.48 ± 0.01), and cTnI-DA (pCa(50): 5.51 ± 0.01) at ~70% cTn exchange. No effects were observed on the rate of tension redevelopment. In cardiomyocytes from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathic tissue, a linear decline in pCa(50) with cTnI-DD content was observed, saturating at ~55% bisphosphorylation. Our data suggest that in the human myocardium, phosphorylation of both PKA sites on cTnI is required to reduce myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity, which is maximal at ~55% bisphosphorylated cTnI. The implications for in vivo cardiac function in health and disease are detailed in the DISCUSSION in this article.
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Dysregulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system contributes to pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) often have a low cardiac output. To compensate, neurohormonal systems such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system are up-regulated, but this may have long-term negative effects on the progression of iPAH.
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Low myocardial protein kinase G activity in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Circulation
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Prominent features of myocardial remodeling in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) are high cardiomyocyte resting tension (F(passive)) and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In experimental models, both reacted favorably to raised protein kinase G (PKG) activity. The present study assessed myocardial PKG activity, its downstream effects on cardiomyocyte F(passive) and cardiomyocyte diameter, and its upstream control by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), nitrosative/oxidative stress, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). To discern altered control of myocardial remodeling by PKG, HFPEF was compared with aortic stenosis and HF with reduced EF (HFREF).
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NOX5 expression is increased in intramyocardial blood vessels and cardiomyocytes after acute myocardial infarction in humans.
Am. J. Pathol.
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Reactive oxygen species producing NADPH oxidases play important roles under different (patho)physiological conditions. NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 are important sources of reactive oxygen species in the heart, but knowledge of the calcium-dependent NOX5 in the heart is lacking. The presence of NOX5 was studied via RT-PCR in heart tissue from patients with end-stage heart failure; the tissue was obtained during cardiac transplantation surgery. NOX5 positivity and cellular localization were studied via IHC and digital-imaging microscopy in heart tissues of patients who did not have heart disease and in infarction areas of patients who died of myocardial infarctions of different durations. Furthermore, NOX5 expression was analyzed in vitro by using Western blot analysis. NOX5 RNA was found in the hearts of controls and patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. In controls, NOX5 localized to the endothelium of a limited number of intramyocardial blood vessels and to a limited number of scattered cardiomyocytes. In infarcted hearts, NOX5 expression increased, especially in infarctions >12 hours, which manifested as an increase in NOX5-positive intramyocardial blood vessels, as well as in endothelium, smooth muscle, and cardiomyocytes. NOX5 was found in cardiomyocyte cytoplasm, plasma membrane, intercalated disks, and cross striations. Western blot analysis confirmed NOX5 expression in isolated human cardiomyocytes. For the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrate NOX5 expression in human intramyocardial blood vessels and cardiomyocytes, with significant increases in the affected myocardium after acute myocardial infarction.
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Multiple myocardial crypts on modified long-axis view are a specific finding in pre-hypertrophic HCM mutation carriers.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
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Crypts can be found with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation carriers without hypertrophy (carriers) using a modified two-chamber view through the inferoseptum, but also in other patients and healthy individuals with standard long-axis views. Since it is currently unknown if carriers display a specific crypt morphology, we compared crypts in carriers with other cardiac pathologies (controls). Besides, we aimed to determine the optimal imaging plane for the detection of crypts by comparing modified two-chamber views with standard long-axis views. Finally, we evaluated the accuracy of crypts to identify carriers in HCM family screening.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.