JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Q-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 451 Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables: Method Development and Validation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper presents an application of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS) for the determination of 451 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Pesticides were extracted from samples using the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS in full MS scan mode acquired full MS data for quantification, and UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Full MS/dd-MS(2) (i.e., data-dependent scan mode) obtained product ion spectra for identification. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves along with the use of isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards to achieve optimal method accuracy. The method performance characteristics include overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty evaluated according to a nested experimental design. For the 10 matrices studied, 94.5% of the pesticides in fruits and 90.7% in vegetables had recoveries between 81 and 110%; 99.3% of the pesticides in fruits and 99.1% of the pesticides in vegetables had an intermediate precision of ?20%; and 97.8% of the pesticides in fruits and 96.4% of the pesticides in vegetables showed measurement uncertainty of ?50%. Overall, the UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS demonstrated acceptable performance for the quantification of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. The UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Full MS/dd-MS(2) along with library matching showed great potential for identification and is being investigated further for routine practice.
Related JoVE Video
Determining mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds using stable isotope dilution and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We developed a stable isotope dilution assay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine multiple mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds. Samples were fortified with [(13)C]-uniformly labeled mycotoxins as internal standards ([(13)C]-IS) and prepared by solvent extraction (50% acetonitrile in water) and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Mycotoxins in each sample were quantitated with the corresponding [(13)C]-IS. In general, recoveries of aflatoxins (2-100 ng/g), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins (50-2000 ng/g), ochratoxin A (20-1000 ng/kg), T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (40-2000 ng/g) in tested matrices (grain/rice/oatmeal-based formula, animal feed, dry cat/dog food) ranged from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) <20%. The method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to screen for aflatoxins at ng/g concentrations and deoxynivalenol and fumonisins at low ?g/g concentrations in baby foods and animal feeds, without using conventional standard addition or matrix-matched calibration standards to correct for matrix effects.
Related JoVE Video
Screening multimycotoxins in food-grade gums by stable isotope dilution and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
J AOAC Int
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stable isotope dilution with LC/MSIMS was used to determine the following 11 mycotoxins in food grade gums: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; deoxynivalenol; fumonisins B1, B2, and B3; ochratoxin A; T-2 toxin; and zearalenone. Samples were fortified with 11 [13C]-uniformly labeled internal standard ([13C]-IS) mycotoxins that corresponded to the 11 target mycotoxins and extracted by acetonitrile-water (4 + 1, v/v), followed by LC/MS/MS analysis. Mycotoxins were quantitated with the fortified [13C]-IS in each sample. The average recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 (1, 5, and 25 microg/kg); deoxynivalenol and fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 (25, 100, and 500 microg/kg); and ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (10, 50, and 250 microg/kg) ranged from 84 to 117% with RSDs less than 20%. Method-dependent LOQs were from 0.1 (aflatoxin B1) to 25 microg/kg (fumonisin B3). Among 20 market samples, aflatoxin B1 (< LOQ) was detected in a Guar gum and a Tragacanth gum, and zearalenone (6 +/- 0.6 microg/kg) was detected in a Xanthan gum. The detected mycotoxins were further confirmed by comparing their enhanced product ion spectra to those of reference standards. The single laboratory validated stable isotope dilution and LC/MSIMS method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility with a simple sample preparation to screen the 11 mycotoxins in gums.
Related JoVE Video
Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization of Patulin in Apple Juice and Apple-Based Food with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine patulin in apple juice and apple-based food. Different dopants, dopant flow rates, and LC separation conditions were evaluated. Using toluene as the dopant, the LC-APPI-MS/MS method achieved a linear calibration from 12.5 to 2000 ?g/L (r(2) > 0.99). Matrix-dependent limits of quantitation (LOQs) were from 8 ?g/L (solvent) to 12 ?g/L (apple juice). [(13)C]-Patulin-fortified apple juice samples were directly analyzed by the LC-APPI-MS/MS method. Other apple-based food was fortified with [(13)C]-patulin, diluted using water (1% formic acid), centrifuged, and filtered, followed by LC-APPI-MS/MS analysis. In clear apple juice, unfiltered apple cider, applesauce, and apple-based baby food, average recoveries were 101 ± 6% (50 ?g/kg), 103 ± 5% (250 ?g/kg), and 102 ± 5% (1000 ?g/kg) (av ± SD, n = 16). Using the suggested method, patulin was detected in 3 of 30 collected market samples with concentrations ranging from
Related JoVE Video
Determination of mycotoxins in milk-based products and infant formula using stable isotope dilution assay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A stable isotope dilution assay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of 12 mycotoxins, aflatoxins B?, B?, G?, G?, and M?, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B?, B?, and B?, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone, in milk-based infant formula and foods. Samples were fortified with 12 ¹³C uniformly labeled mycotoxins ([¹³C]-mycotoxins) that correspond to the 12 target mycotoxins and prepared by dilution and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Quantitation was achieved using the relative response factors of [¹³C]-mycotoxins and target mycotoxins. The average recoveries in fortified milk, milk-based infant formula, milk powder, and baby yogurt of aflatoxins B?, B?, G?, and G? (2, 10, and 50 ?g/kg), aflatoxin M? (0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 ?g/kg), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B?, B?, and B? (40, 200, and 1000 ?g/kg), ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (20, 100, and 500 ?g/kg), range from 89 to 126% with RSDs of <20%. The individual recoveries in the four fortified matrices range from 72% (fumonisin B?, 20 ?g/kg, milk-based infant formula) to 136% (T-2 toxin, 20 ?g/kg, milk powder), with RSDs ranging from 2 to 25%. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were from 0.01 ?g/kg (aflatoxin M?) to 2 (fumonisin B?) ?g/kg. Aflatoxin M? was detected in two European Reference materials at 0.127 ± 0.013 ?g/kg (certified value = 0.111 ± 0.018 ?g/kg) and 0.46 ± 0.04 ?g/kg (certified value = 0.44 ± 0.06 ?g/kg), respectively. In 60 local market samples, aflatoxins B? (1.14 ± 0.10 ?g/kg) and B? (0.20 ± 0.03 ?g/kg) were detected in one milk powder sample. Aflatoxin M? was detected in three imported samples (condensed milk, milk-based infant formula, and table cream), ranging from 0.10 to 0.40 ?g/kg. The validated method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to screen for aflatoxin M? at nanograms per kilogram concentrations and other mycotoxins, without using standard addition or matrix-matched calibration to compensate for matrix effects.
Related JoVE Video
Multi-mycotoxin analysis of finished grain and nut products using high-performance liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mycotoxins in foods have long been recognized as potential health hazards due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. A simple and rapid method was developed to detect 26 mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids) in corn, rice, wheat, almond, peanut, and pistachio products using high-performance liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Test portions of homogenized grain or nut products were extracted with acetonitrile/water (85:15, v/v), followed by high-speed centrifugation and dilution with water. Mean recoveries (± standard deviations) were 84 ± 6, 89 ± 6, 97 ± 9, 87 ± 12, 104 ± 16, and 92 ± 18% from corn, rice, wheat, almond, peanut, and pistachio products, respectively, and the matrix-dependent instrument quantitation limits ranged from 0.2 to 12.8 ?g/kg, depending on the mycotoxin. Matrix effects, as measured by the slope ratios of matrix-matched and solvent-only calibration curves, revealed primarily suppression and were more pronounced in nuts than in grains. The measured mycotoxin concentrations in 11 corn and wheat reference materials were not different from the certified concentrations. Nineteen mycotoxins were identified and measured in 35 of 70 commercial grain and nut products, ranging from 0.3 ± 0.1 ?g/kg (aflatoxin B1 in peanuts) to 1143 ± 87 ?g/kg (fumonisin B1 in corn flour). This rapid and efficient method was shown to be rugged and effective for the multiresidue analysis of mycotoxins in finished grain and nut products.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue pesticide analysis of botanical dietary supplements using salt-out acetonitrile extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup column, and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dietary supplements form an increasing part of the American diet, yet broadly applicable multiresidue pesticide methods have not been evaluated for many of these supplements. A method for the analysis of 310 pesticides, isomers, and pesticide metabolites in dried botanical dietary supplements has been developed and validated. Sample preparation involved acetonitrile:water added to the botanical along with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride for extraction, followed by cleanup with solid-phase extraction using a tandem cartridge consisting of graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary-secondary amine sorbent (PSA). Pesticides were measured by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Accuracy and precision were evaluated through fortifications of 24 botanicals at 10, 25, 100, and 500 ?g/kg. Mean pesticide recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for all botanicals were 97%, 91%, 90%, and 90% and 15%, 10%, 8%, and 6% at 10, 25, 100, and 500 ?g/kg, respectively. The method was applied to 21 incurred botanicals. Quinoxyfen was measured in hops (100-620 ?g/kg). Tetraconazole (48 ?g/kg), tetramethrin (15 ?g/kg), methamidophos (50 ?g/kg), and chlorpyrifos (93 ?g/kg) were measured in licorice, mallow, tea, and tribulus, respectively. Quintozene, its metabolites and contaminants (pentachloroaniline, pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, and pentachlorothioanisole and hexachlorobenzene and tecnazene, respectively), with hexachlorocyclohexanes and DDT were identified in ginseng sources along with azoxystrobin, diazinon, and dimethomorph between 0.7 and 2800 ?g/kg. Validation with these botanicals demonstrated the extent of this methods applicability for screening 310 pesticides in a wide array of botanical dietary supplements.
Related JoVE Video
An investigational report into the causes of pine mouth events in US consumers.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Between July 2008 and June 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration received 501 consumer reports of prolonged taste disturbances consistent with pine mouth syndrome. Consumers consistently reported a delayed bitter or metallic taste beginning hours to days following consumption of pine nuts that recurred with intake of any food or meal. This dysgeusia lasted in some cases up to a few weeks, but would eventually resolve without serious health consequences. To evaluate these reports, a questionnaire was developed to address various characteristics of the pine nuts consumed, pertinent medical history of complainants and other dysgeusia-related factors. Pine nut samples associated with 15 complaints were collected for analysis. The investigation of reports found no clear evidence of an underlying medical cause or common trigger that could adequately explain the occurrence of dysgeusia in complainants. Rather, the results of our investigation suggest that the occurrence of "pine mouth syndrome" in US consumers is correlated with the consumption of the pine nut species Pinus armandii.
Related JoVE Video
Automated QuEChERS Tips for Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables by GC-MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper reports the development of an automated method of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) using pipet tips fitted with filtration screens and containing primary-secondary amine, magnesium sulfate, and graphitized carbon black. These tips are referred to as "QuEChERS Tips". Using loosely contained sorbent, dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) cleanup was performed with the QuEChERS Tips and automation. The main advantage of the QuEChERS Tips is that they are readily automated because this dSPE method does not require centrifugation. High recoveries (70-117%) and good reproducibilities (<12%) are shown for over 200 pesticides using automated QuEChERS Tips and GC-MS in various sample matrices.
Related JoVE Video
Combining targeted and nontargeted data analysis for liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing importation of food and the diversity of potential contaminants have necessitated more analytical testing of these foods. Historically, mass spectrometric methods for testing foods were confined to monitoring selected ions (SIM or MRM), achieving sensitivity by focusing on targeted ion signals. A limiting factor in this approach is that any contaminants not included on the target list are not typically identified and retrospective data mining is limited. A potential solution is to utilize high-resolution MS to acquire accurate mass full-scan data. Based on the instrumental resolution, these data can be correlated to the actual mass of a contaminant, which would allow for identification of both target compounds and compounds that are not on a target list (nontargets). The focus of this research was to develop software algorithms to provide rapid and accurate data processing of LC/MS data to identify both targeted and nontargeted analytes. Software from a commercial vendor was developed to process LC/MS data and the results were compared to an alternate, vendor-supplied solution. The commercial software performed well and demonstrated the potential for a fully automated processing solution.
Related JoVE Video
A perspective on high throughput analysis of pesticide residues in foods.
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The screening of pesticide residues plays a vital role in food safety. Applications of high throughput analytical procedures are desirable for screening a large number of pesticides and food samples in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. This review discusses how sample throughput of pesticide analysis could be improved with an emphasis on sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue pesticide analysis in ginseng and spinach by nontargeted and targeted screening procedures.
J AOAC Int
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five different mass spectrometers interfaced to GC or LC were evaluated for their application to targeted and nontargeted screening of pesticides in two foods, spinach and ginseng. The five MS systems were capillary GC/MS/MS, GC-high resolution time-of-flight (GC/HR-TOF)-MS, TOF-MS interfaced with a comprehensive multidimensional GC (GCxGC/TOF-MS), an MS/MS ion trap hybrid mass (qTrap) system interfaced with an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC-qTrap), and UPLC interfaced to an orbital trap high resolution mass spectrometer (UPLC/Orbitrap HR-MS). Each MS system was tested with spinach and ginseng extracts prepared through a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure. Each matrix was fortified at 10 and 50 ng/g for spinach or 25 and 100 ng/g for ginseng with subsets of 486 pesticides, isomers, and metabolites representing most pesticide classes. HR-TOF-MS was effective in a targeted search for characteristic accurate mass ions and identified 97% of 170 pesticides in ginseng at 25 ng/g. A targeted screen of either ginseng or spinach found 94-95% of pesticides fortified for analysis at 10 ng/g with GC/MS/MS or LC/MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) procedures. Orbitrap-MS successfully found 89% of 177 fortified pesticides in spinach at 25 ng/g using a targeted search of accurate mass pseudomolecular ions in the positive electrospray ionization mode. A comprehensive GCxGC/TOF-MS system provided separation and identification of 342 pesticides and metabolites in a single 32 min acquisition with standards. Only 67 or 81% of the pesticides were identified in ginseng and spinach matrixes at 25 ng/g or 10 ng/g, respectively. MS/MS or qTrap-MS operated in the MRM mode produced the lowest false-negative rates, at 10 ng/g. Improvements to instrumentation, methods, and software are needed for efficient use of nontargeted screens in parallel with triple quadrupole MS.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue pesticide analysis of agricultural commodities using acetonitrile salt-out extraction, dispersive solid-phase sample clean-up, and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multiresidue method analyzing 209 pesticides in 24 agricultural commodities has been developed and validated using the original Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) procedure and high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Using solvent-only calibration standards (SOCSs) and matrix-matched calibration standards (MMCSs), it was demonstrated that a minimal concentration of 5-10 ?g/kg (part per billion, ppb) of analytes in matrix is required for the consistent identification of targeted pesticides with two MRM transitions. Method performance was validated by the precision and accuracy results obtained from fortification studies at 10, 25, 100, and 500 ppb and MMCSs. The method was demonstrated to achieve an average recovery of 100 ± 20% (n = 4) for >75% of evaluated pesticides at the low fortification level (10 ppb) and improved to >84% at the higher fortification concentrations in all 24 matrices. Matrix effects in LC-MS/MS analysis were studied by evaluating the slope ratios of calibration curves (1.0-100 ng/mL) obtained from the SOCSs and MMCSs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of LC-MS/MS and method validation data confirmed that each matrix exerts its specific effect during the sample preparation and LC-MS/MS analysis. The matrix effect is primarily dependent on the matrix type, pesticide type and concentration. Some caution is warranted when using matrix matched calibration curves for the quantitation of pesticides to alleviate concerns on matrix effects. The QuEChERS method with LC-MS/MS was used to identify and quantitate pesticides residues, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 to >1000 ppb in a variety of agricultural samples, demonstrating fitness for screening and surveillance applications.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue pesticide analysis by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multiresidue pesticide method using a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) procedure and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described for the determination of 166 organochlorine, organophosphorus, and pyrethroid pesticides, metabolites, and isomers in spinach. The pesticides from spinach were extracted using acetonitrile saturated with magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, followed by solid-phase dispersive cleanup using primary-secondary amine and graphitized carbon black sorbents and toluene. Analysis is performed using different GC-MS techniques emphasizing the benefits of non-targeted acquisition and targeted screening procedures. Non-targeted data acquisition of pesticides in the spinach was demonstrated using GC coupled to a single quadrupole mass spectrometery (GC-MS) in full scan mode or multidimensional GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometery (GC ?× ?GC-TOF/MS), along with deconvolution software and libraries. Targeted screening was achieved using GC-single quadrupole mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) mode or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The development of these techniques demonstrates the powerful use of GC-MS for the screening, identification, and quantitation of pesticide residues in foods.
Related JoVE Video
Collaborative validation of the QuEChERS procedure for the determination of pesticides in food by LC-MS/MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seven FDA pesticide laboratories collaborated to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method to determine 173 pesticides in <20 min. The average determination coefficient (r²) was >0.99 for all but two compounds tested. The limits of detection were <20 ng/mL for all compounds and <10 ng/mL for 363 of the 368 transitions reported. The method was used to determine pesticides in two AOAC sponsored proficiency samples. The LC-MS/MS determination was used for the analysis of oranges, carrots and spinach using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) method. Each matrix was fortified at 20, 100, 400, and 1000 ng/g. No false positive responses were detected in controls of the three matrices. 165 pesticides had recoveries between 70 and 130%, and 161 had minimum detection levels less than 10 ng/g. Recoveries of 169 compounds for the 1000 ng/g spikes were within 50-150%. A matrix effect study indicated all three matrices caused a small net suppressing effect, the most pronounced attributable to the citrus matrix. The procedure proved to be accurate, precise, linear, sensitive and rugged, and adds 100 pesticides to the scope of the FDA pesticide program.
Related JoVE Video
Surface swabbing technique for the rapid screening for pesticides using ambient pressure desorption ionization with high-resolution mass spectrometry.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A rapid screening method for pesticides has been developed to promote more efficient processing of produce entering the United States. Foam swabs were used to recover a multiclass mixture of 132 pesticides from the surfaces of grapes, apples, and oranges. The swabs were analyzed using direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled with a high-resolution Exactive Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer. By using a DART helium temperature gradient from 100-350°C over 3?min, a minimal separation of analytes based on volatility differences was achieved. This, combined with the Exactives mass resolution of 100,00, allowed the chromatographic step, along with the typical compositing and extraction steps associated with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) approaches, to be eliminated. Detection of 86% of the analytes present was consistently achieved at levels of 2?ng/g (per each apple or orange) and 10?ng/g (per grape). A resolution study was conducted with four pairs of isobaric compounds analyzed at a mass resolution of 100 000. Baseline separation was achieved with analyte ions differing in mass by 25?ppm and analyte ions with a mass difference of 10?ppm were partially resolved. In addition, field samples that had undergone traditional sample preparation using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, rugged, and safe) were analyzed using both LC/MS and DART-MS and the results from the two techniques were found to be comparable in terms of identification of the pesticides present. The use of swabs greatly increased sample throughput by reducing sample preparation and analysis time.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue method for pesticides and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in milk and cream using comprehensive two-dimensional capillary gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A method for the analysis of pesticides and their metabolites including most of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in milk and cream is described. The method was single-laboratory validated through milk fortification in quadruplicate with 34 pesticides, isomers, and metabolites including 12 of the insecticide POPs and their metabolites. Whole cows milk was fortified at 0.2, 0.4, 1, 2, 10, or 50 microg/kg wet weight and extracted with acetone/cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (2:1:1) with the addition of Mg(2)SO(4) and NaCl. Fat recovered in the extract accurately reflected the fat content of the milk or cream. All test portions were purified on a gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup on a mixed bed graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary/secondary amine silica gel (PSA) column before determination using a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph interfaced to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Average recoveries were 77, 72, 73, 66, 77, and 84% for 0.2, 0.4, 1, 2, 10, and 50 microg/kg wet weight whole milk, respectively. The average relative standard deviations for 0.2, 0.4, 1, 2, 10, and 50 microg/kg were 10, 8, 7, 7, 3, and 3%, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for all pesticides were 0.2 or 0.4 microg/kg wet weight. An archived cream sample collected in 1982 on Oahu, Hawaii, was found to contain only hepatachlor epoxide (HE) and DDE-p,p at 380 +/- 24 and 69 +/- 17 microg/kg fat, significantly elevated over the current action level of 50 microg/kg fat for HE.
Related JoVE Video
Emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 46th Annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop of 2009 (FPRW 2009) held in St. Pete Beach, FL, is the latest in an annual tradition drawing scientists from U.S. federal and state government laboratories, industry, and other laboratories worldwide. In 2009, selected FPRW presenters were invited to contribute to this special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry with a section devoted to emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches. What follows is the written record of what should become a scientific conversation launched at FPRW 2009. There are two distinct approaches to organic residue analysis: instrumental methods and assays. In much of the world, scientists primarily rely on laboratories equipped with instrumentation for analysis, usually gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with some type of selective detector. In the discussion of instrumental approaches, the focus is on chromatography with mass spectrometry as a detection method. Approaches such as biomonitoring and assays fall outside the traditional instrumental method approach to residue analysis. Assays that do not require laboratory equipment are of greater interest for screening and are well-suited to field use. Regardless of the analytical method, the success of multiresidue analysis relies on the appropriate choice of sample preparation and cleanup methodologies. Many new sample preparation and cleanup approaches used for pesticide and other small molecule contaminant residue analyses in a variety of complex sample matrices are discussed in this special issue. The goal of these approaches is to reduce overall analysis time and solvent consumption without compromising the analytical results.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue pesticide analysis of ginseng powders using acetonitrile- or acetone-based extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multiresidue method for the analysis of 168 pesticides in dried powdered ginseng has been developed using acetonitrile or acetone mixture (acetone/cyclohexane/ethyl acetate, 2:1:1 v/v/v) extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup with octyl-bonded silica (C(8)), graphitized carbon black/primary-secondary amine (GCB/PSA) sorbents and toluene, and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The geometric mean limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 53 and 6 microg/kg for the acetonitrile extraction and 48 and 7 microg/kg for the acetone-based extraction for GC-MS/SIM and GC-MS/MS, respectively. Mean percent recoveries and standard deviations from the ginseng fortified at 25, 100, and 500 microg/kg using GC-MS/SIM were 87 +/- 10, 88 +/- 8, and 86 +/- 10% from acetonitrile extracts and 88 +/- 13, 88 +/- 12, and 88 +/- 14% from acetone mixture extracts, respectively. The mean percent recoveries from the ginseng at the 25, 100, and 500 microg/kg levels using GC-MS/MS were 83 +/- 19, 90 +/- 13, and 89 +/- 11% from acetonitrile extracts and 98 +/- 20, 91 +/- 13, and 88 +/- 14% from acetone extracts, respectively. Twelve dried ginseng products were found to contain one or more of the following pesticides and their metabolites: BHCs (benzene hexachlorides, alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-), chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane), dacthal, diazinon, iprodione, quintozene, and procymidone ranging from <1 to >4000 microg/kg. No significant differences were found between the two extraction solvents, and GC-MS/MS was found to be more specific and sensitive than GC-MS/SIM. The procedures described were shown to be effective in screening, identifying, confirming, and quantitating pesticides in commercial ginseng products.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue pesticide analysis in fresh produce by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) and -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multiresidue method for the analysis of pesticides in fresh produce has been developed using salt-out acetonitrile extraction, solid-phase dispersive cleanup with octadecyl-bonded silica (C(18)), and graphitized carbon black/primary-secondary amine (GCB/PSA) sorbents and toluene, followed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS/SIM) or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Quantitation was determined from calibration curves using matrix-matched standards ranging from 3.3 to 6667 ng/mL with r(2) > 0.99, and geometric mean limits of quantitation were typically 8.4 and 3.4 microg/kg for GC-MS/SIM and GC-MS/MS, respectively. Identification was determined by using target and qualifier ions and qualifier-to-target ratios for GC-MS/SIM and two ion transitions for GC-MS/MS. Fortification studies (10, 25, 100, and 500 microg/kg) were performed on 167 organohalogen, organophosphorus, and pyrethroid pesticides in 10 different commodities (apple, broccoli, carrot, onion, orange, pea, peach, potato, spinach, and tomato). The mean percent recoveries were 90 +/- 14, 87 +/- 14, 89 +/- 14, and 92 +/- 14% for GC-MS/SIM and 95 +/- 22, 93 +/- 14, 93 +/- 13, and 97 +/- 13% for GC-MS/MS at 10, 25, 100, and 500 microg/kg, respectively. GC-MS/MS was shown to be more effective than GC-MS/SIM due to its specificity and sensitivity in detecting pesticides in fresh produce samples. The method, based on concepts from the multiresidue procedure used by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe), was shown to be efficient in screening, identifying, and quantitating pesticides in fresh produce samples.
Related JoVE Video
Development and interlaboratory validation of a QuEChERS-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for multiresidue pesticide analysis.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A high-throughput, QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) sample preparation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method has been developed and validated for the determination of 191 pesticides in vegetation and fruit samples. Using identical LC analytical column and MS/MS instrumentation and operation parameters, this method was evaluated at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Research Centre for Grapes (NRCG), India, and Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) laboratories. Method validation results showed that all but 1 of these 191 pesticides can be analyzed by LC-MS/MS with instrument detection limits (IDL) in the parts per trillion (ppt) range. Matrix-dependent IDL studies showed that due to either the low ionization efficiency or matrix effect exerted, 14 of these 191 pesticides could not be analyzed by this method. Method recovery (%R) and method detection limits (MDLs) were determined by the three laboratories using four sample matrices in replicates (N = 4). With >79% of %R data from the fortification studies in the range from 80 to 120%, MDLs were determined in the low parts per billion range with >94% of MDLs in the range from 0.5 to 5 ppb. Applying this method to the analysis of incurred samples showed that two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions may not be enough to provide 100% true positive identification of target pesticides; however, quantitative results obtained from the three laboratories had an excellent match with only a few discrepancies in the low parts per billion levels. The %R data from the fortification studies were subjected to principal component analysis and showed the majority of %R fell into the cluster of 80% < %R < 120%. Due to the matrix effect exerted by ginseng and peach, outliers were observed at the lowest spiking levels of 10 and 25 ppb. The study also showed that QuEChERS samples should be analyzed as soon as prepared or stored in a freezer to avoid any adverse affect on the analytes evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Assessing childrens dietary pesticide exposure: direct measurement of pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue analysis of 102 organophosphorus pesticides in produce at parts-per-billion levels using a modified QuEChERS method and gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection.
J AOAC Int
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multiresidue method for the analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh produce at levels down to 1.0 microg/kg (ppb) has been developed using a modification of the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure. The procedure entails extraction of pesticides from the sample with acetonitrile, salting-out with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and sodium chloride, and cleanup of the resulting extracts with dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary-secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and MgSO4. Fortification studies were performed for 102 organophosphorus pesticides at 1.0, 10, and 100 ppb in 4 different pesticide-free commodities (grape, orange, spinach, and tomato). Recoveries ranged from 63-125%, with >80% being achieved for most of the pesticides tested in each commodity. The procedure was applied to the analysis of 400 produce samples collected from a cohort of children that participated in the Childrens Pesticide Exposure Study and the Longitudinal Dietary Pesticide Exposure Study in which selected 24 h duplicate food items were collected throughout a 12-month period. Residues of 15 of the 102 pesticides were detected at levels ranging from <1 to 526 ppb.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue pesticide analysis of wines by dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multiresidue pesticide method is described for the determination of 72 pesticides in wines. Pesticides were extracted using acetonitrile saturated with magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, followed by solid-phase dispersive cleanup using primary-secondary amine and graphitized carbon black sorbents. Analysis is performed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The limits of quantitation (LOQs) for most of the pesticides ranged from 0.3 to 3.3 ?g/L with the exception of cyromazine, fenhexamid, and acibenzolar S-methyl (LOQ > 10 ?g/L), and quantitation was determined from calibration curves of standards containing 5.0-2500 ?g/L with r(2) > 0.99. Recovery studies were performed by fortifying wine samples with the pesticides to concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ?g/L, resulting in recoveries of >80% for most of the pesticides. Lower (<70%) and higher (>120%) recoveries were most likely from complications of pesticide lability or volatility, matrix interference, or inefficient desorption from the solid-phase sorbents. The method was used to analyze 10 wines collected from a market basket survey, and 19 different pesticides, primarily fungicides, were present at concentrations ranging from <1.0 to 1000 ?g/L.
Related JoVE Video
Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis of Dried Botanical Dietary Supplements Using an Automated Dispersive SPE Cleanup for QuEChERS and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An automated dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) cleanup procedure as part of the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method, coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in positive mode, was used for the simultaneous analysis of 236 pesticides in three dried powdered botanical dietary supplements (ginseng, saw palmetto, and gingko biloba). The procedure involved extraction of the dried powdered botanical samples with salt-out acetonitrile/water extraction using anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, followed by an automated dSPE cleanup using a mixture of octadodecyl- (C18) and primary-secondary amine (PSA)-linked silica sorbents and anhydrous MgSO4 and online LC-MS/MS analysis. Dynamic multiple-reaction monitoring (DMRM) based on the collection of two precursor-to-product ion transitions with their retention time windows was used for all of the targeted pesticides and the internal standard. Matrix-matched calibration standards were used for quantitation, and standard calibration curves showed linearity (r(2) > 0.99) across a concentration range of 0.2-400 ng/mL for the majority of the 236 pesticides evaluated in the three botanical matrices. Mean recoveries (average %RSD, n = 4) were 91 (6), 93 (4), 96 (3), and 99 (3)% for ginseng, 101 (9), 98 (6), 99 (4), and 102 (3)% for gingko biloba, and 100 (9), 98 (6), 96 (4), and 96 (3)% for saw palmetto at fortification concentrations of 25, 100, 250, and 500 ?g/kg, respectively. The geometric mean matrix-dependent instrument detection limits were 0.17, 0.09, and 0.14 ?g/kg on the basis of the studies of 236 pesticides tested in ginseng roots, gingko biloba leaves, and saw palmetto berries, respectively. The method was used to analyze incurred ginseng samples that contained thermally labile pesticides with a concentration range of 2-200 ?g/kg, indicating different classes of pesticides are being applied to these botanicals other than the traditional pesticides that are commonly used and analyzed by gas chromatography techniques. The method demonstrates the use of an automated cleanup procedure and the LC-MS/MS detection of multiple pesticide residues in dried, powdered botanical dietary supplements.
Related JoVE Video
Protocol for an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectral product ion library: development and application for identification of 240 pesticides in foods.
Anal. Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Modern determination techniques for pesticides must yield identification quickly with high confidence for timely enforcement of tolerances. A protocol for the collection of liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray ionization (ESI)-quadruple linear ion trap (Q-LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) library spectra was developed. Following the protocol, an enhanced product ion (EPI) library of 240 pesticides was developed by use of spectra collected from two laboratories. A LC-Q-LIT-MS workflow using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) survey scan, information-dependent acquisition (IDA) triggered collection of EPI spectra, and library search was developed and tested to identify the 240 target pesticides in one single LC-Q-LIT MS analysis. By use of LC retention time, one sMRM survey scan transition, and a library search, 75-87% of the 240 pesticides were identified in a single LC/MS analysis at fortified concentrations of 10 ng/g in 18 different foods. A conventional approach with LC-MS/MS using two MRM transitions produced the same identifications and comparable quantitative results with the same incurred foods as the LC-Q-LIT using EPI library search, finding 1.2-49 ng/g of either carbaryl, carbendazim, fenbuconazole, propiconazole, or pyridaben in peaches; carbendazim, imazalil, terbutryn, and thiabendazole in oranges; terbutryn in salmon; and azoxystrobin in ginseng. Incurred broccoli, cabbage, and kale were screened with the same EPI library using three LC-Q-LIT and a LC-quadruple time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. The library search identified azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxinil, imidacloprid, metalaxyl, spinosyn A, D, and J, amd spirotetramat with each instrument. The approach has a broad application in LC-MS/MS type targeted screening in food analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of siloxanes in silicone products and potential migration to milk, formula and liquid simulants.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A pressurised solvent extraction procedure coupled with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selective ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) method was developed to determine three cyclic siloxanes, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) and three linear siloxanes, octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4), dodecamethylpentasiloxane (L5), in silicone products. Additionally, two different extraction methods were developed to measure these siloxanes migrating into milk, infant formula and liquid simulants (50 and 95% ethanol in water). The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the six siloxanes ranged from 6?ng/g (L3) to 15?ng/g (D6). Silicone nipples and silicone bakewares were extracted using pressurised solvent extraction (PSE) and analysed using the GC-MS-SIM method. No linear siloxanes were detected in the silicone nipple samples analysed. The three cyclic siloxanes (D4, D5 and D6) were detected in all silicone nipple samples with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 269?µg/g. In the bakeware samples, except for L3, the other five siloxanes were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.2?µg/g (L4) to 7030?µg/g (D6). To investigate the potential migration of the six siloxanes from silicone nipples to milk and infant formula, a liquid extraction and dispersive clean-up procedure was developed for the two matrices. The procedure used a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (1?:?1, v/v) as extraction solvent and C?? powder as the dispersive clean-up sorbent. For the liquid simulants, extraction of the siloxanes was achieved using hexane without any salting out or clean-up procedures. The recoveries of the six siloxanes from the milk, infant formula and simulants fortified at 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000?µg/l ranged from 70 to 120% with a relative standard derivation (RSD) of less than 15% (n?=?4). Migration tests were performed by exposing milk, infant formula and the liquid simulants to silicone baking sheets with known concentrations of the six siloxanes at 40°C. No siloxanes were detected in milk or infant formula after 6?h of direct contact with the silicone baking sheet plaques, indicating insignificant migration of the siloxanes to milk or infant formula. Migration tests in the two simulants lasted up to 72?h and the three cyclic siloxanes were detected in 50% ethanol after an 8-h exposure and after 2?h in 95% ethanol. The highest detected concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 were 42, 36 and 155?ng/ml, respectively, indicating very limited migration of D4, D5 or D6 into the two simulants.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.