JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Localized Intraoperative Virtual Endoscopy (LIVE) for Surgical Guidance in 16 Skull Base Patients.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous preclinical studies of localized intraoperative virtual endoscopy-image-guided surgery (LIVE-IGS) for skull base surgery suggest a potential clinical benefit.
Related JoVE Video
Integrated omic analysis of oropharyngeal carcinomas reveals HPV-dependent regulation of the AP-1 pathway.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) patients have superior outcome relative to HPV-negative patients, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We conducted a proteomic investigation of HPV-positive (n=27) and HPV-negative (n=26) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded OPC biopsies to acquire insights into the biological pathways that correlate with clinical behavior. Among the 2,633 proteins identified, 174 were differentially abundant. These were enriched for proteins related to cell cycle, DNA replication, apoptosis and immune response. The differential abundances of cortactin (CTTN) and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) were validated by immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of 29 OPC samples (p=0.023 and p=0.009, respectively). An additional 1,124 proteins were independently corroborated by comparison to a published proteomic dataset of OPC. Furthermore, utilizing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we conducted an integrated investigation of OPC, attributing mechanisms underlying differential protein abundance to alterations in mutation, copy number, methylation, and mRNA profiles. A key finding of this integration was the identification of elevated cortactin oncoprotein levels in HPV-negative OPCs, potentially contributing to reduced survival in these patients via its established role in radiation resistance. Through interrogation of TCGA data, we demonstrated that activation of the ?1-integrin/FAK/cortactin/JNK1 signaling axis and associated differential regulation of AP-1 transcription factor target genes is a plausible consequence of elevated cortactin protein levels.
Related JoVE Video
Inattentional blindness increased with augmented reality surgical navigation.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Augmented reality (AR) surgical navigation systems, designed to increase accuracy and efficiency, have been shown to negatively impact on attention. We wished to assess the effect "head-up" AR displays have on attention, efficiency, and accuracy, while performing a surgical task, compared with the same information being presented on a submonitor (SM).
Related JoVE Video
Creation of a diagnostic wait times measurement framework based on evidence and consensus.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Public reporting of wait times worldwide has to date focused largely on treatment wait times and is limited in its ability to capture earlier parts of the patient journey. The interval between suspicion and diagnosis or ruling out of cancer is a complex phase of the cancer journey. Diagnostic delays and inefficient use of diagnostic imaging procedures can result in poor patient outcomes, both physical and psychosocial. This study was designed to develop a framework that could be adopted for multiple disease sites across different jurisdictions to enable the measurement of diagnostic wait times and diagnostic delay.
Related JoVE Video
Production of tongue twisters by speakers with partial glossectomy.
Clin Linguist Phon
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract A partial glossectomy can affect speech production. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of a tumour as well as the glossectomy surgery on the patients' production of tongue twisters with the sounds [t] and [k]. Fifteen patients with tongue cancer and 10 healthy controls took part in the study. The outcome measures were the patients' speech acceptability, rate of errors, the time needed to produce the tongue twisters, pause duration between item repetitions and the tongue shape during the production of the consonants [t] and [k] before and after surgery. The patients' speech acceptability deteriorated after the surgery. Compared to controls, the patients' productions of the tongue twisters were slower but not more errorful. Following the surgery, their speed of production did not change, but the rate of errors was higher. Pause duration between items was longer in the patients than in the controls but did not increase from before to after surgery. Analysis of the patients' tongue shapes for the productions of [t] and [k] indicated a higher elevation following the surgery for the patients with flap reconstructions. The results demonstrated that the surgical resection of the tongue changed the error rate but not the speed of production for the patient. The differences in pause duration also indicate that the tumour and the surgical resection of the tongue may impact the phonological planning of the tongue twister.
Related JoVE Video
Barriers to immediate breast reconstruction in the Canadian universal health care system.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the population-based rates of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) for all women undergoing mastectomy for treatment or prophylaxis of breast cancer in the past decade, and to evaluate geographic, institutional, and patient factors that influence use in the publically funded Canadian health care system.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer in 2003-2004: Population-based study from the Province of Ontario, Canada.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) became the standard of care for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancers based on clinical trials but its effectiveness at the community level is not reported.
Related JoVE Video
KAT6A, a chromatin modifier from the 8p11-p12 amplicon is a candidate oncogene in luminal breast cancer.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chromosome 8p11-p12 amplicon is present in 12% to 15% of breast cancers, resulting in an increase in copy number and expression of several chromatin modifiers in these tumors, including KAT6A. Previous analyses in SUM-52 breast cancer cells showed amplification and overexpression of KAT6A, and subsequent RNAi screening identified KAT6A as a potential driving oncogene. KAT6A is a histone acetyltransferase previously identified as a fusion partner with CREB binding protein in acute myeloid leukemia. Knockdown of KAT6A in SUM-52 cells, a luminal breast cancer cell line harboring the amplicon, resulted in reduced growth rate compared to non-silencing controls and profound loss of clonogenic capacity both in mono-layer and in soft agar. The normal cell line MCF10A, however, did not exhibit slower growth with knockdown of KAT6A. SUM-52 cells with KAT6A knockdown formed fewer mammospheres in culture compared to controls, suggesting a possible role for KAT6A in self-renewal. Previous data from our laboratory identified FGFR2 as a driving oncogene in SUM-52 cells. The colony forming efficiency of SUM-52 KAT6A knockdown cells in the presence of FGFR inhibition was significantly reduced compared to cells with KAT6A knockdown only. These data suggest that KAT6A may be a novel oncogene in breast cancers bearing the 8p11-p12 amplicon. While there are other putative oncogenes in the amplicon, the identification of KAT6A as a driving oncogene suggests that chromatin-modifying enzymes are a key class of oncogenes in these cancers, and play an important role in the selection of this amplicon in luminal B breast cancers.
Related JoVE Video
High-dimensional single-cell cancer biology.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer cells are distinguished from each other and from healthy cells by features that drive clonal evolution and therapy resistance. New advances in high-dimensional flow cytometry make it possible to systematically measure mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and therapy resistance on millions of cells from human tumors. Here we describe flow cytometry techniques that enable a "single-cell " view of cancer. High-dimensional techniques like mass cytometry enable multiplexed single-cell analysis of cell identity, clinical biomarkers, signaling network phospho-proteins, transcription factors, and functional readouts of proliferation, cell cycle status, and apoptosis. This capability pairs well with a signaling profiles approach that dissects mechanism by systematically perturbing and measuring many nodes in a signaling network. Single-cell approaches enable study of cellular heterogeneity of primary tissues and turn cell subsets into experimental controls or opportunities for new discovery. Rare populations of stem cells or therapy-resistant cancer cells can be identified and compared to other types of cells within the same sample. In the long term, these techniques will enable tracking of minimal residual disease (MRD) and disease progression. By better understanding biological systems that control development and cell-cell interactions in healthy and diseased contexts, we can learn to program cells to become therapeutic agents or target malignant signaling events to specifically kill cancer cells. Single-cell approaches that provide deep insight into cell signaling and fate decisions will be critical to optimizing the next generation of cancer treatments combining targeted approaches and immunotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Novel PRKD gene rearrangements and variant fusions in cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) and cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland (CAMSG) are low-grade carcinomas arising most often in oral cavity and oropharynx, respectively. Controversy exists as to whether these tumors represent separate entities or variants of one spectrum, as they appear to have significant overlap, but also clinicopathologic differences. As many salivary carcinomas harbor recurrent translocations, paired-end RNA sequencing and FusionSeq data analysis was applied for novel fusion discovery on two CAMSGs and two PLGAs. Validated rearrangements were then screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 60 cases. Histologic classification was performed without knowledge of fusion status and included: 21 CAMSG, 18 classic PLGA, and 21 with "mixed/indeterminate" features. The RNAseq of 2 CAMSGs showed ARID1A-PRKD1 and DDX3X-PRKD1 fusions, respectively, while no fusion candidates were identified in two PLGAs. FISH for PRKD1 rearrangements identified 11 additional cases (22%), two more showing ARID1A-PRKD1 fusions. As PRKD2 and PRKD3 share similar functions with PRKD1 in the diacylglycerol and protein kinase C signal transduction pathway, we expanded the investigation for these genes by FISH. Six additional cases each showed PRKD2 and PRKD3 rearrangements. Of the 26 (43%) fusion-positive tumors, there were 16 (80%) CAMSGs and 9 (45%) indeterminate cases. A PRKD2 rearrangement was detected in one PLGA (6%). We describe novel and recurrent gene rearrangements in PRKD1-3 primarily in CAMSG, suggesting a possible pathogenetic dichotomy from "classic" PLGA. However, the presence of similar genetic findings in half of the indeterminate cases and a single PLGA suggests a possible shared pathogenesis for these tumor types.
Related JoVE Video
Practice patterns in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer in Ontario Canada 2000-2008.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The extent of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the variations in practice prior to diagnosis and for the first year after diagnosis, including the investigations, the extent of surgery and the use of RAI 131, for all patients with thyroid cancer (TC) treated Jan 1 2000 to Dec 2008 across Ontario Canada.
Related JoVE Video
Volume-outcome relationships for head and neck cancer surgery in a universal health care system.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to assess whether surgeon and/or institution resection volume predicts long-term overall survival in head and neck cancer in a publicly funded healthcare system.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of the Clavien-Dindo classification system for complications in head and neck surgery.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The importance of reporting and grading surgical complications is central to quality improvement in head and neck surgery. The purpose of this study is to assess the interobserver reliability, content validity, and construct validity of the Clavien-Dindo classification system for use in grading complications related to head and neck surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Association of human papilloma virus with atypical and malignant oral papillary lesions.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to examine atypical and malignant papillary oral lesions for low- and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and to correlate HPV infection with clinical and pathologic features.
Related JoVE Video
Longer survival in patients with human papillomavirus-related head and neck cancer after positive postradiation planned neck dissection.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between human papillomavirus (HPV)-related versus -unrelated head and neck cancer after pathological positive planned neck dissection.
Related JoVE Video
Access, excess, and overdiagnosis: the case for thyroid cancer.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of thyroid cancer in women is increasing at an epidemic rate. Numerous studies have proposed that the cause is increasing detection due to availability and use of medical diagnostic ultrasound. Our objective was to compare rates of diagnosis across different health-care regions to rates of diagnostic tests and to features of both health and access of the regional populations. This is a population-based retrospective ecological observational study of 12,959 patients with thyroid cancer between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008 in Ontario Canada based on the health-care utilization regions (Local Health Integration Networks) of the province of Ontario Canada. We found that some regions of Ontario had four times the rates of diagnosis of thyroid cancer compared to other regions. The regions with the highest use of discretionary medical tests (pelvic ultrasound, abdominal ultrasound, neck ultrasound, echocardiogram, resting electrocardiogram, cardiac nuclear perfusion tests, and bone scan), highest population density, and better education had the highest rates of thyroid cancer diagnoses. Differences in the rates of the ordering of discretionary diagnostic medical tests, such as diagnostic ultrasound, in different geographic regions of Ontario lead to differences in the rates of diagnosis of thyroid cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Recurrent genomic alterations in sequential progressive leukoplakia and oral cancer: drivers of oral tumorigenesis?
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A significant proportion (up to 62%) of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) may arise from oral potential malignant lesions (OPMLs), such as leukoplakia. Patient outcomes may thus be improved through detection of lesions at a risk for malignant transformation, by identifying and categorizing genetic changes in sequential, progressive OPMLs. We conducted array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 25 sequential, progressive OPMLs and same-site OSCCs from five patients. Recurrent DNA copy number gains were identified on 1p in 20/25 cases (80%) with minimal, high-level amplification regions on 1p35 and 1p36. Other regions of gains were frequently observed: 11q13.4 (68%), 9q34.13 (64%), 21q22.3 (60%), 6p21 and 6q25 (56%) and 10q24, 19q13.2, 22q12, 5q31.2, 7p13, 10q24 and 14q22 (48%). DNA losses were observed in >20% of samples and mainly detected on 5q31.2 (35%), 16p13.2 (30%), 9q33.1 and 9q33.29 (25%) and 17q11.2, 3p26.2, 18q21.1, 4q34.1 and 8p23.2 (20%). Such copy number alterations (CNAs) were mapped in all grades of dysplasia that progressed, and their corresponding OSCCs, in 70% of patients, indicating that these CNAs may be associated with disease progression. Amplified genes mapping within recurrent CNAs (KHDRBS1, PARP1, RAB1A, HBEGF, PAIP2, BTBD7) were selected for validation, by quantitative real-time PCR, in an independent set of 32 progressive leukoplakia, 32 OSSCs and 21 non-progressive leukoplakia samples. Amplification of BTBD7, KHDRBS1, PARP1 and RAB1A was exclusively detected in progressive leukoplakia and corresponding OSCC. BTBD7, KHDRBS1, PARP1 and RAB1A may be associated with OSCC progression. Protein-protein interaction networks were created to identify possible pathways associated with OSCC progression.
Related JoVE Video
Joint modeling and registration of cell populations in cohorts of high-dimensional flow cytometric data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In biomedical applications, an experimenter encounters different potential sources of variation in data such as individual samples, multiple experimental conditions, and multivariate responses of a panel of markers such as from a signaling network. In multiparametric cytometry, which is often used for analyzing patient samples, such issues are critical. While computational methods can identify cell populations in individual samples, without the ability to automatically match them across samples, it is difficult to compare and characterize the populations in typical experiments, such as those responding to various stimulations or distinctive of particular patients or time-points, especially when there are many samples. Joint Clustering and Matching (JCM) is a multi-level framework for simultaneous modeling and registration of populations across a cohort. JCM models every population with a robust multivariate probability distribution. Simultaneously, JCM fits a random-effects model to construct an overall batch template--used for registering populations across samples, and classifying new samples. By tackling systems-level variation, JCM supports practical biomedical applications involving large cohorts. Software for fitting the JCM models have been implemented in an R package EMMIX-JCM, available from http://www.maths.uq.edu.au/~gjm/mix_soft/EMMIX-JCM/.
Related JoVE Video
Intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography and multi-slice computed tomography in temporal bone imaging for surgical treatment.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective Conventional computed tomography (CT) imaging is the standard imaging technique for temporal bone diseases, whereas cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging is a very fast imaging tool with a significant less radiation dose compared with conventional CT. We hypothesize that a system for intraoperative cone-beam CT provides comparable image quality to diagnostic CT for identifying temporal bone anatomical landmarks in cadaveric specimens. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University tertiary care facility. Subjects and Methods Twenty cadaveric temporal bones were affixed into a head phantom and scanned with both a prototype cone-beam CT C-arm and multislice helical CT. Imaging performance was evaluated by 3 otologic surgeons and 1 head and neck radiologist. Participants were presented images in a randomized order and completed landmark identification questionnaires covering 21 structures. Results CBCT and multislice CT have comparable performance in identifying temporal structures. Three otologic surgeons indicated that CBCT provided statistically equivalent performance for 19 of 21 landmarks, with CBCT superior to CT for the chorda tympani and inferior for the crura of the stapes. Subgroup analysis showed that CBCT performed superiorly for temporal bone structures compared with CT. The radiologist rated CBCT and CT as statistically equivalent for 18 of 21 landmarks, with CT superior to CBCT for the crura of stapes, chorda tympani, and sigmoid sinus. Conclusion CBCT provides comparable image quality to conventional CT for temporal bone anatomical sites in cadaveric specimens. Clinical applications of low-dose CBCT imaging in surgical planning, intraoperative guidance, and postoperative assessment are promising but require further investigation.
Related JoVE Video
Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Hypopharynx with Intestinal-Phenotype.
Head Neck Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adenosquamous carcinomas of the head and neck (ADSCs) are rare locally aggressive malignancies characterized by the presence of two distinctive components, a squamous cell carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma. The immunophenotype of the glandular component of ADSCs has only been rarely studied but has been reported as being positive for keratin 7 (CK7) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and negative for keratin 20 (CK20). Herein, we report a case of an ADSCs of the hypopharynx composed of a superficial squamous cell carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma with an intestinal phenotype. The patient was a 62 year-old male with a T2 N0 M0 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of uvula and palate and a T1 N0 M0 of right hypopharynx. The ADSCs of the hypopharynx was composed of a minimally invasive SCC and an adenocarcinoma with tubulo-glandular and cribriform architecture. The neoplastic glands were positive for CK7, CK20, CDX2, CEA and Villin. The patient underwent radiotherapy to both tumors and remains well with no evidence of recurrent disease 19 months after treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ADSCs of the head and neck with an intestinal phenotype in its glandular component.
Related JoVE Video
Virtual surgical planning in endoscopic skull base surgery.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skull base surgery (SBS) involves operative tasks in close proximity to critical structures in a complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy. The aim was to investigate the value of virtual planning (VP) based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for surgical planning in SBS and to compare the effects of virtual planning with 3D contours between the expert and the surgeon in training.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire for use in patients following neck dissection for head and neck cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: In this cross-sectional study, the sensibility, test-retest reliability, and validity of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire were assessed in patients who underwent neck dissection. Methods: Sensibility was assessed with a questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was performed with completion of the DASH two weeks after initial completion; validity, by evaluating differences in scores between patients undergoing different types of neck dissections and correlating DASH scores with Neck Dissection Impairment Index (NDII) scores. Results: The DASH met sensibility criteria. For test-retestreliability analysis the intraclass coefficient was 0.91. The DASH showed differences between patients who underwent accessory nerve-sacrifice and nerve-sparing neck dissection. DASH scores strongly correlated with NDII scores (r=-0.86). Conclusions: While this study provides preliminary data on some psychometric properties of the DASH in patients who have undergone a neck dissection, further assessment of responsiveness and other properties are required. Head Neck, 2013.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of shoulder disability questionnaires used for the assessment of shoulder disability after neck dissection for head and neck cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several questionnaires have been used to evaluate shoulder disability after neck dissection. The purpose of this study was to review these measures and highlight their strengths and weaknesses.
Related JoVE Video
Closing the quality loop: facilitating improvement in oncology practice through timely access to clinical performance indicators.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Health care organizations and professionals are being called on to develop clear and transparent measures of quality and to demonstrate the application of the data to performance improvement at the system and provider levels.
Related JoVE Video
Improving multidisciplinary cancer conferences: a population-based intervention.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multidisciplinary cancer conferences (MCCs) facilitate the discussion of appropriate diagnostic and treatment options for an individual cancer patient. In 2007, a study conducted in Ontario found that 52 % of hospitals were able to provide access to MCCs. In 2006, Cancer Care Ontario published minimum standards for MCCs. A framework for measurement was developed to monitor MCCs at the hospital, regional, and provincial level. The objective of this study was to review the results from initial efforts to improve quality and access through a population-based intervention.
Related JoVE Video
An oral cavity carcinoma nomogram to predict benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After surgical resection for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, adjuvant radiotherapy may be recommended for patients at higher risk for locoregional recurrence, but it can be difficult to predict whether a particular patient will benefit.
Related JoVE Video
Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Potential histopathologic predictors.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify or confirm any new or suggested independent histopathological predictors in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the head and neck (HN) correlated with outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Temporal Nodal Regression and Regional Control After Primary Radiation Therapy for N2-N3 Head-and-Neck Cancer Stratified by HPV Status.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the temporal lymph node (LN) regression and regional control (RC) after primary chemoradiation therapy/radiation therapy in human papillomavirus-related [HPV(+)] versus human papillomavirus-unrelated [HPV(-)] head-and-neck cancer (HNC).
Related JoVE Video
Do behavioural self-blame and stigma predict positive health changes in survivors of lung or head and neck cancers?
Psychol Health
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Survivors of lung or head and neck cancers often change tobacco and alcohol consumption after diagnosis, but few studies have examined other positive health changes (PHCs) or their determinants in these groups. The present study aims to: (a) document PHCs in survivors of lung (n?=?107) or head and neck cancers (n?=?99) and (b) examine behavioural self-blame and stigma as determinants of PHCs. We hypothesised that: (a) survivors would make a variety of PHCs; (b) behavioural self-blame for the disease would positively predict making PHCs; and (c) stigma would negatively predict making PHCs.
Related JoVE Video
Scoping review of the literature on shoulder impairments and disability after neck dissection.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this article was to provide a review of the literature on shoulder disability after neck dissection. METHODS: A literature review was performed using Ovid Medline and Embase databases. A total of 306 abstracts and 78 full-text articles were reviewed. Forty-two articles were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Patients undergoing nerve-sacrifice neck dissections have greater disability and lower quality of life scores than those undergoing neck dissections with the least manipulation (ie, selective neck dissections). Shoulder impairments can still occur in patients undergoing selective neck dissections. Disability typically improves over time in patients undergoing nerve-sparing neck dissections. CONCLUSION: There was significant variability in the literature in terms of the prevalence and recovery of shoulder morbidity after neck dissection. This variability may not just be related to surgical technique or rehabilitation, but also to study design, definitions, and the variability in disability questionnaires used. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.
Related JoVE Video
Value of preoperative mandibular plating in reconstruction of the mandible.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative versus intraoperative mandibular contouring using rapid prototyping technology.
Related JoVE Video
Potentially prognostic miRNAs in HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Deregulation of miRNAs is associated with almost all human malignancies. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) has a significantly more favorable outcome compared with HPV-negative OPCs; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine whether miRNA expression differed as a function of HPV status and to assess whether such miRNAs provide prognostic value beyond HPV status. Methods: Global miRNA profilings were conducted on 88 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OPC biopsies (p16-positive: 56; p16-negative: 32), wherein the expression levels of 365 miRNAs plus 3 endogenous controls were simultaneously measured using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. Seven FFPE specimens of histologically normal tonsils were used as controls.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of intraoperative cone beam computed tomography and optical drill tracking in temporal bone surgery.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A prototype system for intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging has been developed and augmented with real time optical tracking of a surgical drill. We hypothesize that this system provides sufficient accuracy for guidance of temporal bone surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Augmented real-time navigation with critical structure proximity alerts for endoscopic skull base surgery.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Image-guided surgery (IGS) systems are frequently utilized during cranial base surgery to aid in orientation and facilitate targeted surgery. We wished to assess the performance of our recently developed localized intraoperative virtual endoscopy (LIVE)-IGS prototype in a preclinical setting prior to deployment in the operating room. This system combines real-time ablative instrument tracking, critical structure proximity alerts, three-dimensional virtual endoscopic views, and intraoperative cone-beam computed tomographic image updates.
Related JoVE Video
Outcome predictors in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hard palate and maxillary alveolus are two commonly grouped oral cavity subsites due to their anatomic contiguity and oncologic disease behavior. Few studies have been conducted investigating clinical presentation, staging, prevalence of cervical metastases, and outcomes in this population. The primary objective of this study was to analyze predictors of disease-free survival (DFS) in surgically treated patients, particularly as it relates to the role of neck dissection.
Related JoVE Video
Association of two BRM promoter polymorphisms with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is an important regulator of gene expression that has been linked to cancer development. Expression of Brahma (BRM), a critical catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF, is lost in a variety of solid tumors. Two novel BRM promoter polymorphisms (BRM-741 and BRM-1321) have been correlated with BRM loss and elevated cancer risk. The aim(s) of this study were to examine BRM expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to correlate BRM polymorphisms with HNSCC risk. BRM expression studies were performed on eight HNSCC cell lines and 76 surgically resected tumor samples. A case-control study was conducted on 668 HNSCC patients (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx) and 700 healthy matched controls. BRM expression was lost in 25% of cell lines and 16% of tumors. The homozygous genotype of each polymorphism was significantly associated with increased HNSCC risk [BRM-741: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.75, 95% CI 1.2-2.3, P < 0.001; BRM-1321: aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.2-2.2, P < 0.001]. Individuals that were homozygous for both BRM polymorphisms had a more than 2-fold increase in the risk of HNSCC (aOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.5-3.4, P < 0.001). A particularly elevated risk was seen within the oropharynx, human papillomavirus-positive subgroup for carriers of both homozygous variants (aOR 3.09, 95% CI 1.5-6.8, P = 0.004). BRM promoter polymorphisms appear to act as susceptibility markers of HNSCC with potential utility in screening, prevention and treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Social environment, secondary smoking exposure, and smoking cessation among head and neck cancer patients.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Smoking during treatment of squamous cell head and neck cancer (HNC) has adverse affects on toxicity, treatment, and survival. The purpose of this report was to evaluate sociodemographic predictors of smoking cessation in HNC patients to support the development of a smoking cessation program.
Related JoVE Video
High PD-1 expression and suppressed cytokine signaling distinguish T cells infiltrating follicular lymphoma tumors from peripheral T cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Defects in T-cell function in patients with cancer might influence their capacity to mount efficient antitumor immune responses. Here, we identified highly reduced IL-4-, IL-10-, and IL-21-induced phosphorylation of STAT6 and STAT3 in tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs) in follicular lymphoma (FL) tumors, contrasting other non-Hodgkin lymphoma TILs. By combining phospho-protein-specific flow cytometry with several T-cell markers, we identified that CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) FL TILs were largely nonresponsive to cytokines, in contrast to the corresponding autologous peripheral blood subset. We observed differential expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 in FL TILs and peripheral blood T cells. Furthermore, CD4(+)PD-1(hi) FL TILs, containing T(FH) and non-T(FH) cells, had lost their cytokine responsiveness, whereas PD-1 TILs had normal cytokine signaling. However, this phenomenon was not tumor specific, because tonsil T cells were similar to FL TILs. FL tumor cells were negative for PD-1 ligands, but PD-L1(+) histiocytes were found within the T cell-rich zone of the neoplastic follicles. Disruption of the microenvironment and in vitro culture of FL TILs could restore cytokine signaling in the PD-1(hi) subset. Because FL TILs in vivo probably receive suppressive signals through PD-1, this provides a rationale for testing PD-1 Ab in combination with immunotherapy in patients with FL.
Related JoVE Video
Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is currently incurable using conventional chemotherapy or immunotherapy regimes, compelling new strategies. Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies that can reveal oncogenic pathways have stimulated interest in tailoring therapies toward actionable somatic mutations. However, for mutation-directed therapies to be most effective, the mutations must be uniformly present in evolved tumor cells as well as in the self-renewing tumor-cell precursors. Here, we show striking intratumoral clonal diversity within FL tumors in the representation of mutations in the majority of genes as revealed by whole exome sequencing of subpopulations. This diversity captures a clonal hierarchy, resolved using immunoglobulin somatic mutations and IGH-BCL2 translocations as a frame of reference and by comparing diagnosis and relapse tumor pairs, allowing us to distinguish early versus late genetic eventsduring lymphomagenesis. We provide evidence that IGH-BCL2 translocations and CREBBP mutations are early events, whereas MLL2 and TNFRSF14 mutations probably represent late events during disease evolution. These observations provide insight into which of the genetic lesions represent suitable candidates for targeted therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Deintensification candidate subgroups in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer according to minimal risk of distant metastasis.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To define human papillomavirus (HPV) -positive oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) suitable for treatment deintensification according to low risk of distant metastasis (DM).
Related JoVE Video
Usefulness of cone-beam computed tomography in determining the position of ossicular prostheses: a cadaveric model.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) is proving useful in various operative settings. We hypothesize that it has great potential as an intraoperative assessment tool for ossicular prosthesis positioning.
Related JoVE Video
Demons deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT using an iterative intensity matching approach.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A method of intensity-based deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT (CBCT) images is described, in which intensity correction occurs simultaneously within the iterative registration process. The method preserves the speed and simplicity of the popular Demons algorithm while providing robustness and accuracy in the presence of large mismatch between CT and CBCT voxel values ("intensity").
Related JoVE Video
HDAC1 inhibition by maspin abrogates epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase pi in prostate carcinoma cells.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both maspin and glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTp) are implicated as tumor suppressors and downregulated in human prostate cancer. It is well established that GSTp downregulation is through DNA methylation-based silencing. We report here that maspin expression in prostate cancer cell line DU145 reversed GSTp DNA methylation, as measured by methylation- specific PCR, MethyLight assay, and bisulfite sequencing. The effect of maspin on GSTp expression was similar to that of the combination of a synthetic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Maspin expression also led to an increased level of acetylated histone 3, decreased level of methyl transferase, and methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins at the site of demethylated GSTp promoter DNA. Earlier, we have shown that maspin inhibits HDAC1. In PC3 cells, where both maspin and GSTp are expressed at a reduced level, maspin knockdown led to a significant reduction in GSTp expression, whereas dual knockdown of maspin and HDAC1 barely increased the level of GSTp expression. Thus, HDAC1 may play an essential role in cellular response to maspin-mediated GSTp desilencing. Maspin has been shown to increase tumor cell sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, GSTp reexpression in the absence of maspin expression perturbation blocked the phosphorylation of histone 2A.X, the induction of hypoxia-induced factor 1? (HIF-1?), and cell death of LNCaP cells under oxidative stress. Because DNA hypermethylation-based silencing may couple with and depend on histone deacetylation, our study suggests that endogenous HDAC inhibition by maspin may prevent pathologic gene silencing in prostate tumor progression.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Augmented image guidance improves skull base navigation and reduces task workload in trainees: a preclinical trial.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our group has developed an augmented image guidance system that incorporates intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), virtual or augmented displays, and image registration. We assessed the potential benefits of augmented endoscopy derived from this system for use during skull base navigation. Specifically, we wished to evaluate target localization accuracy and the effect on task workload and confidence.
Related JoVE Video
The psychosocial impact of stigma in people with head and neck or lung cancer.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung and head and neck cancers are widely believed to produce psychologically destructive stigma because they are linked to avoidable risk-producing behaviors and are highly visible, but little research has tested these ideas. We examined cancer-related stigma, its determinants, and its psychosocial impact in lung (n = 107) and head and neck cancer survivors (n = 99) ? 3 years post-diagnosis. We investigated cancer site, self-blame, disfigurement, and sex as determinants, benefit finding as a moderator, and illness intrusiveness as a mediator of the relation between stigma and its psychosocial impact.
Related JoVE Video
Real-time tracking and virtual endoscopy in cone-beam CT-guided surgery of the sinuses and skull base in a cadaver model.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Custom software was developed to integrate intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with endoscopic video for surgical navigation and guidance. A cadaveric head was used to assess the accuracy and potential clinical utility of the following functionality: (1) real-time tracking of the endoscope in intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) CBCT; (2) projecting an orthogonal reconstructed CBCT image, at or beyond the endoscope, which is parallel to the tip of the endoscope corresponding to the surgical plane; (3) virtual reality fusion of endoscopic video and 3D CBCT surface rendering; and (4) overlay of preoperatively defined contours of anatomical structures of interest.
Related JoVE Video
A gene signature in histologically normal surgical margins is predictive of oral carcinoma recurrence.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, which is mainly due to recurrence leading to treatment failure and patient death. Histological status of surgical margins is a currently available assessment for recurrence risk in OSCC; however histological status does not predict recurrence, even in patients with histologically negative margins. Therefore, molecular analysis of histologically normal resection margins and the corresponding OSCC may aid in identifying a gene signature predictive of recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
mRNA transcript quantification in archival samples using multiplexed, color-coded probes.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recently developed probe-based technology, the NanoString nCounter™ gene expression system, has been shown to allow accurate mRNA transcript quantification using low amounts of total RNA. We assessed the ability of this technology for mRNA expression quantification in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) oral carcinoma samples.
Related JoVE Video
Blood transfusion prediction in patients undergoing major head and neck surgery with free-flap reconstruction.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
to develop a clinically useful perioperative blood transfusion prediction model for patients undergoing a major head and neck surgical procedure requiring free-flap reconstruction.
Related JoVE Video
Aesthetic and oncologic outcome after microsurgical reconstruction of complex scalp and forehead defects after malignant tumor resection: an algorithm for treatment.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limited follow-up data on aesthetic outcome and survival after microsurgical reconstruction of complex scalp and forehead defects are available. These data are important to improve reconstruction quality and patient counseling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical, aesthetic, and oncologic outcome of free flap scalp and forehead reconstructions in the patient population of two academic centers.
Related JoVE Video
Web-based analysis and publication of flow cytometry experiments.
Curr Protoc Cytom
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytobank is a Web-based application for storage, analysis, and sharing of flow cytometry experiments. Researchers use a Web browser to log in and use a wide range of tools developed for basic and advanced flow cytometry. In addition to providing access to standard cytometry tools from any computer, Cytobank creates a platform and community for developing new analysis and publication tools. Figure layouts created on Cytobank are designed to allow transparent access to the underlying experiment annotation and data processing steps. Since all flow cytometry files and analysis data are stored on a central server, experiments and figures can be viewed or edited by anyone with the proper permission, from any computer with Internet access. Once a primary researcher has performed the initial analysis of the data, collaborators can engage in experiment analysis and make their own figure layouts using the gated, compensated experiment files. Cytobank is available to the scientific community at http://www.cytobank.org.
Related JoVE Video
B-cell signaling networks reveal a negative prognostic human lymphoma cell subset that emerges during tumor progression.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human tumors contain populations of both cancerous and host immune cells whose malignant signaling interactions may define each patients disease trajectory. We used multiplexed phospho-flow cytometry to profile single cells within human follicular lymphoma tumors and discovered a subpopulation of lymphoma cells with impaired B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. The abundance of BCR-insensitive cells in each tumor negatively correlated with overall patient survival. These lymphoma negative prognostic (LNP) cells increased as tumors relapsed following chemotherapy. Loss of antigen receptor expression did not explain the absence of BCR signaling in LNP tumor cells, and other signaling responses were intact in these cells. Furthermore, BCR signaling responses could be reactivated in LNP cells, indicating that BCR signaling is not missing but rather specifically suppressed. LNP cells were also associated with changes to signaling interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Lower IL-7 signaling in tumor infiltrating T cells was observed in tumors with high LNP cell counts. The strength of signaling through T cell mediator of B cell function CD40 also stratified patient survival, particularly for those whose tumors contained few LNP cells. Thus, analysis of cell-cell interactions in heterogeneous primary tumors using signaling network profiles can identify and mechanistically define new populations of rare and clinically significant cells. Both the existence of these LNP cells and their aberrant signaling profiles provide targets for new therapies for follicular lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Coronal view ultrasound imaging of movement in different segments of the tongue during paced recital: findings from four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy.
Clin Linguist Phon
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goal of this study was to quantitatively describe aspects of coronal tongue movement in different anatomical regions of the tongue. Four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy read four repetitions of a metronome-paced poem. Their tongue movement was recorded in four coronal planes using two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound imaging. Quantitative indicators of tongue function (total distance travelled and concavity) were calculated. In all participants, it was observed that the centre of the tongue travelled greater distances than the lateral free margins. The tongues of the female speakers F1 and F2 travelled greater distances than those of the males M1 and M2. The greatest distances travelled were observed in the speaker with partial glossectomy G. In three of the participants, the greatest cumulative distances were recorded for the anterior tongue (F1, M1, and G) and in the other two (F2 and M2) in the posterior tongue. The concavity measure illustrated that the posterior tongue showed consistent grooving during connected speech, in all speakers. Flatness or convexity of the tongue was mainly observed in the anterior tongue. The study provides the first quantitative description of coronal tongue movement in a complex speech passage. Future research will have to further examine the effects of gender and orofacial morphology on the coronal shape and movement of the tongue.
Related JoVE Video
Programmed cell death 4 loss increases tumor cell invasion and is regulated by miR-21 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tumor suppressor Programmed Cell Death 4 (PDCD4) has been found to be under-expressed in several cancers and associated with disease progression and metastasis. There are no current studies characterizing PDCD4 expression and its clinical relevance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). Since nodal metastasis is a major prognostic factor in OSCC, we focused on determining whether PDCD4 under-expression was associated with patient nodal status and had functional relevance in OSCC invasion. We also examined PDCD4 regulation by microRNA 21 (miR-21) in OSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Atypical clinical behavior of p16-confirmed HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report atypical clinical behavior observed in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with radiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the survival impact of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in patients with early T stage (T1-2) oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and a single positive lymph node.
Related JoVE Video
Response rates for mailout survey-driven studies in patients with head and neck cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mailout survey studies are becoming more prevalent in the head and neck literature. The objective of this paper is to summarize response rates in patients with head and neck cancer, and to provide recommendations surrounding methodology used to design and implement mailout survey questionnaires.
Related JoVE Video
SNAI1 expression and the mesenchymal phenotype: an immunohistochemical study performed on 46 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Clin Pathol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SNAI1 can initiate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to loss of epithelial characteristics and, in cancer, to invasion and metastasis. We hypothesized that SNAI1 reactivation occurs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) where it might also be associated with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and p63 loss.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of positive frozen section microscopic tumor cut-through revised to negative on oral carcinoma control and survival rates.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the study was to evaluate the prognostic and therapeutic implications of an initial positive frozen section margin that was revised until negative (microscopic tumor cut-through), and to analyze the influence of microscopic margin status on oral carcinoma control.
Related JoVE Video
Clinicopathologic and therapeutic risk factors for perioperative complications and prolonged hospital stay in free flap reconstruction of the head and neck.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to determine predictors of morbidity in patients undergoing microvascular free flap reconstruction of the head and neck.
Related JoVE Video
Low prevalence of human papillomavirus in oral cavity carcinomas.
Head Neck Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing evidence shows that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is preferentially associated with some head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), with variable infection rates reported.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of patient specific signaling via augmentation of Bayesian networks with disease and patient state nodes.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Characterization of patient-specific disease features at a molecular level is an important emerging field. Patients may be characterized by differences in the level and activity of relevant biomolecules in diseased cells. When high throughput, high dimensional data is available, it becomes possible to characterize differences not only in the level of the biomolecules, but also in the molecular interactions among them. We propose here a novel approach to characterize patient specific signaling, which augments high throughput single cell data with state nodes corresponding to patient and disease states, and learns a Bayesian network based on this data. Features distinguishing individual patients emerge as downstream nodes in the network. We illustrate this approach with a six phospho-protein, 30,000 cell-per-patient dataset characterizing three comparably diagnosed follicular lymphoma, and show that our approach elucidates signaling differences among them.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a microRNA signature associated with progression of leukoplakia to oral carcinoma.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRs) are non-coding RNA molecules involved in cancer initiation and progression. Deregulated miR expression has been implicated in cancer; however, there are no studies implicating an miR signature associated with progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Although OSCC may develop from oral leukoplakia, clinical and histological assessments have limited prognostic value in predicting which leukoplakic lesions will progress. Our aim was to quantify miR expression changes in leukoplakia and same-site OSCC and to identify an miR signature associated with progression. We examined miR expression changes in 43 sequential progressive samples from 12 patients and four non-progressive leukoplakias from four different patients, using TaqMan Low Density Arrays. The findings were validated using quantitative RT-PCR in an independent cohort of 52 progressive dysplasias and OSCCs, and five non-progressive dysplasias. Global miR expression profiles distinguished progressive leukoplakia/OSCC from non-progressive leukoplakias/normal tissues. One hundred and nine miRs were highly expressed exclusively in progressive leukoplakia and invasive OSCC. miR-21, miR-181b and miR-345 expressions were consistently increased and associated with increases in lesion severity during progression. Over-expression of miR-21, miR-181b and miR-345 may play an important role in malignant transformation. Our study provides the first evidence of an miR signature potentially useful for identifying leukoplakias at risk of malignant transformation.
Related JoVE Video
Radiotherapy or surgery for head and neck squamous cell cancer: establishing the baseline for hypopharyngeal carcinoma?
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors compared the survival outcomes of radiotherapy+/-salvage surgery to surgery+/-postoperative radiotherapy for patients with squamous cell cancer of the hypopharynx. There was no evidence beyond observational studies and no consensus on the which treatment is most effective for this patient group.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic effect of CD137 immunomodulation in lymphoma and its enhancement by Treg depletion.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the success of passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), many lymphoma patients eventually relapse. Induction of an adaptive immune response may elicit active and long-lasting antitumor immunity, thereby preventing or delaying recurrence. Immunomodulating mAbs directed against immune cell targets can be used to enhance the immune response to achieve efficient antitumor immunity. Anti-CD137 agonistic mAb has demonstrated antitumor efficacy in various tumor models and has now entered clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of anti-CD137 mAb in lymphoma. We found that human primary lymphoma tumors are infiltrated with CD137+ T cells. We therefore hypothesized that lymphoma would be susceptible to treatment with anti-CD137 agonistic mAb. Using a mouse model, we demonstrate that anti-CD137 therapy has potent antilymphoma activity in vivo. The antitumor effect of anti-CD137 therapy was mediated by both natural killer (NK) and CD8 T cells and induced long-lasting immunity. Moreover, the antitumor activity of anti-CD137 mAb could be further enhanced by depletion of regulatory T cell (T(regs)). These results support the evaluation of anti-CD137 therapy in clinical trials for patients with lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Quality of life analysis in patients with anterior skull base neoplasms.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Significant morbidity is associated with management of anterior skull base neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the posttreatment patients quality of life (QOL).
Related JoVE Video
microRNA evaluation of unknown primary lesions in the head and neck.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Unknown primary malignancy in the head and neck is not an infrequent diagnosis for patients with metastatic cervical lymph nodes. Although linked with a relatively good prognosis following radiation treatment, widespread radiation is coupled with significant morbidity. Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression has been associated with both cancer progression and metastasis. We sought to determine whether miRNA expression analysis could be used as a diagnostic tool to discover the primary site of malignancy, within the head and neck. We used quantitative real-time PCR to identify miRNA expression profiles of squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, base of tongue and post-nasal space, as well as their corresponding metastatic lymph nodes, from 6 patients. Our results revealed that each cancer maintained its expression profile between the primary site and the nodal metastasis (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). In addition, each anatomical sub-site maintained a distinct miRNA profile between individual patients (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001). Finally, between sub-sites, the miRNA profiles were distinct (p < 0.0001). As proof of principle, our study provides an indication that miRNA expression analysis may be useful to compare the primary lesion and local metastatic disease. This may be clinically relevant to predict the primary site of origin of metastatic disease, when the primary site remains obscure.
Related JoVE Video
Patient perception of risk factors in head and neck cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A previous study at our institution noted that only 15% of newly diagnosed patients with oral cancer could identify smoking or alcohol abuse as major risk factors for the development of their cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a simple educational intervention in 189 consecutively identified patients with head and neck malignancy.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.