JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Long-term Protection From Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in a Medium-Burden Tuberculosis Setting: The TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) Study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?The duration of protection against tuberculosis provided by isoniazid preventive therapy is not known for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals living in settings of medium tuberculosis incidence.
Related JoVE Video
How much is tuberculosis screening worth? Estimating the value of active case finding for tuberculosis in South Africa, China, and India.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundCurrent approaches are unlikely to achieve the aggressive global tuberculosis (TB) control targets set for 2035 and beyond. Active case finding (ACF) may be an important tool for augmenting existing strategies, but the cost-effectiveness of ACF remains uncertain. Program evaluators can often measure the cost of ACF per TB case detected, but how this accessible measure translates into traditional metrics of cost-effectiveness, such as the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY), remains unclear.MethodsWe constructed dynamic models of TB in India, China, and South Africa to explore the medium-term impact and cost-effectiveness of generic ACF activities, conceptualized separately as discrete (2-year) campaigns and as continuous activities integrated into ongoing TB control programs. Our primary outcome was the cost per DALY, measured in relationship to the cost per TB case actively detected and started on treatment.ResultsDiscrete campaigns costing up to $1,200 (95% uncertainty range [UR] 850¿2,043) per case actively detected and started on treatment in India, $3,800 (95% UR 2,706¿6,392) in China, and $9,400 (95% UR 6,957¿13,221) in South Africa were all highly cost-effective (cost per DALY averted less than per capita gross domestic product). Prolonged integration was even more effective and cost-effective. Short-term assessments of ACF dramatically underestimated potential longer term gains; for example, an assessment of an ACF program at 2 years might find a non-significant 11% reduction in prevalence, but a 10-year evaluation of that same intervention would show a 33% reduction.ConclusionsACF can be a powerful and highly cost-effective tool in the fight against TB. Given that short-term assessments may dramatically underestimate medium-term effectiveness, current willingness to pay may be too low. ACF should receive strong consideration as a basic tool for TB control in most high-burden settings, even when it may cost over $1,000 to detect and initiate treatment for each extra case of active TB.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalent tuberculosis at HIV diagnosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) Cohort.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although Brazil has model HIV care programs, many patients continue to present late to care. We studied the frequency of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed at HIV diagnosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to quantify missed opportunities for TB prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of isoniazid preventive therapy for HIV-infected adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an epidemiological model.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The potential epidemiological impact of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), delivered at levels that could be feasibly scaled up among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in modern, moderate-burden settings, remains uncertain.
Related JoVE Video
A comparative assessment of the price, brands and pack characteristics of illicitly traded cigarettes in five cities and towns in South Africa.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prevalence of illicitly traded cigarettes in South Africa has been reported to be 40-50%. However, these estimates do not account for the more nuanced characteristics of the illicit cigarette trade. With the goal of better understanding contraband cigarettes in South Africa, this study piloted three methods for assessing the price, brands, pack features and smoker's views about illicit cigarettes in five cities/towns. Data were collected in June and July 2012.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with tuberculosis by HIV status in the Brazilian national surveillance system: a cross sectional study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Over the last decade tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in Brazil have been steadily declining. However, this downward trend has not been observed among HIV-infected patients. We describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of TB patients by HIV status using the Brazilian National Surveillance System.
Related JoVE Video
Survival of HIV patients with tuberculosis started on simultaneous or deferred HAART in the THRio cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The timing of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after a tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected patients can affect clinical outcomes and survival. We compared survival after tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected adults who initiated HAART and tuberculosis therapy simultaneously to those who delayed the start of HAART for at least two months.
Related JoVE Video
Active case finding of tuberculosis (TB) in an emergency room in a region with high prevalence of TB in Brazil.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Public hospital emergency room (ER) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, a setting with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Related JoVE Video
Clostridium difficile carriage and serum antitoxin responses in children with inflammatory bowel disease.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a high prevalence of Clostridium difficile carriage, but little data exist regarding pediatric patients with IBD. Serum antibody responses to C. difficile toxins in correlation with organism carriage are not described in IBD. This study determines the prevalence of C. difficile carriage and compares serum antibody responses to C. difficile toxins in pediatric outpatients with IBD and controls.
Related JoVE Video
AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma in Brazil: trends and geopolitical distribution.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma (KS) is a unique model of the relationship between viral infection, immunity, environmental, and genetic factors in viral cancers. The goal was to determine the distribution of KS cases among Brazilian geopolitical regions, looking at the ecological relationship with median CD4 cell count.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of improved tuberculosis screening and isoniazid preventive therapy on incidence of tuberculosis and death in patients with HIV in clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a stepped wedge, cluster-randomised trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Preventive therapy for tuberculosis in patients with HIV is effective, but it has not been widely implemented in moderate or high-burden settings. We assessed the effect of widespread use of isoniazid preventive therapy on rates of tuberculosis and death in people with HIV in Brazil.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment Adherence Among Refugees and Other Patient Groups Referred to the Baltimore City Health Department TB Clinic, February 2009-March 2011.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sought to determine the proportion of refugee patients at the Baltimore City Health Department Tuberculosis program (BCHD-TB) successfully completing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment, as compared to other referral groups, and to identify factors associated with treatment completion. We completed a retrospective cohort analysis of individuals referred to BCHD-TB program for LTBI care between February 1, 2009 and March 31, 2011. Among 841 patients evaluated by BCHD-TB and diagnosed with LTBI, 81 % of refugees, 50 % of non-refugee foreign-born, and 35 % of US-born patients completed LTBI treatment. In multivariate analysis, refugees had greater odds of LTBI treatment completion (Adjusted Odds Ratio 7.2; 95 % CI 4.2-12.4, p < 0.001) compared to US-born individuals adjusting for age, gender, and treatment regimen. Overall, LTBI treatment completion remains suboptimal. At BCHD-TB, LTBI treatment completion was significantly higher among refugees than other referral groups. Additional efforts are needed to optimize LTBI care, and future efforts may need to be tailored for different risk groups.
Related JoVE Video
A comparative analysis of clinical and molecular factors with the stage of cervical cancer in a Brazilian cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cell cycle protein expression plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer. However, few studies have attempted to correlate the use of these biomarkers with the clinical progression of the tumor.
Related JoVE Video
Cervical cytology and histopathologic abnormalities in women living with AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Women living with HIV/AIDS present with a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, higher rates of squamous intraepithelial lesions, and are more susceptible to invasive cervical carcinoma progression.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of oral antiseptic rinsing before sputum collection to reduce contamination of mycobacterial cultures.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess whether rinsing with oral antiseptics before sputum collection would reduce contamination of mycobacterial cultures, 120 patients with suspected tuberculosis were randomly assigned to rinse with chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium mouthwash before collection. The culture contamination rate was significantly lower after rinsing with chlorhexidine before collection, especially for cultures grown in MGIT medium.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiological profile of adult patients with tuberculosis and AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: cross-referencing tuberculosis and AIDS databases.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with tuberculosis (TB) only and that of patients with TB/AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2006.
Related JoVE Video
Cost-effectiveness of community health worker versus home-based guardians for directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil.
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the costs and outcomes associated with guardian-supervised directly observed treatment relative to the standard of care Directly Observed Therapy, Short Course (DOTS) provided by community health workers (CHW). New cases of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) treated in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, between January 2005 and December 2006 were interviewed and chose their preferred treatment strategy. Costs incurred by providers and patients (and patients families) were estimated, and cost-effectiveness was assessed by comparing costs per successfully treated patient. 130 patients were included in the study; 84 chose CHW-supervised DOTS and 46 chose guardian-supervised DOTS. 45 of 46 (98%) patients treated with guardian-supervised DOTS were cured or completed treatment compared to 70/84 (83%) of the CHW-supervised patients (p = 0.01). Logistic regression showed only the strategy of supervision to be a significant association with treatment outcome, with guardian-supervised care strongly protective. Cost per patient treated with guardian-supervised DOTS was US$398, compared to US$548 for CHW-supervised DOTS. The guardian-supervised DOTS is an attractive option to complement CHW-supervised DOTS.
Related JoVE Video
Physician adherence to guidelines for tuberculosis and HIV care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected patients in Brazil. Brazils national policy for HIV care recommends screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) and implementing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT).
Related JoVE Video
Lower levels of interleukin-12 precede the development of tuberculosis among HIV-infected women.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is the worldwide leading cause of death among HIV-infected individuals, accounting for more than half of AIDS-related deaths. A high risk of tuberculosis (TB) has been shown in early stages of the HIV disease, even in the presence of normal CD4(+) cell counts. Moreover, the factors that determine protective immunity vs. susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis cannot be fully explained by simple changes in IFN? levels or a shift from Th1 to Th2 cytokines. This work investigated the relationship between cytokine expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and susceptibility to M. tuberculosis in 10 HIV+ women who went onto develop TB. RNA transcripts for IL-4, IL-4?2, IL-10, IL-12(p35), IL-13, IL-17A, IFN? and TNF? were measured by real-time quantitative PCR in unstimulated or TB peptide antigen-stimulated PBMCs from 10 HIV+ women with positive tuberculin skin tests (TST) and compared with HIV-seropositive and seronegative women without previous TB and negative TST. Stimulated PBMC cultures showed significantly lower expression of IL-12p35 (p=0.004) and IL-10 (p=0.026) in the HIV+TB+ group 6-12months before onset of TB compared to HIV+TB- women. Unstimulated PBMC from HIV+TB+ women also had lower expression of Th2 cytokines [IL-4 (p=0.056) and IL-13 (p=0.050)] compared to HIV+TB- women. These results suggest that lower IL-12 production by PBMC in response to TB antigens and lower levels of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines by PBMC correlate with future development of TB in HIV-infected women and may be responsible for their increased susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
The implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV clinics: the experience from the TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) study was launched in September 2005 to assess the impact of integrated tuberculosis (TB) and HIV treatment strategies in 29 HIV clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Related JoVE Video
Estimating the extent of underreporting of mortality among HIV-infected individuals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-HIV-related causes of death have been increasing after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Underlying and contributing causes of death were assessed in respect to the presence/absence of HIV/AIDS among HIV-infected/AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Demographic variables (age, gender, ethnicity, and schooling) and CD4?cell counts closest to death were assessed through logistic regression models comparing those who did not have with those who had HIV/AIDS mentioned on the death certificate. The linkage with the two cohorts identified 1249 records, of which 370 (29.6%) did not have HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate [77 (20.8%) attributed to undefined and 72 (19.5%) to external causes]. After excluding external causes, 25.3% still did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age >40 years (OR?=?2.09; 95%CI?=?1.49-2.93; p?
Related JoVE Video
Tuberculosis and AIDS co-morbidity in children: linkage of databases from Espirito Santo State, Brazil.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We assessed the prevalence of AIDS among children diagnosed with active tuberculosis (TB) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, by linking TB and AIDS surveillance databases using Reclink software and SPSS. Among 411 pediatric TB cases from 2000 to 2006, 27 (7%) were co-infected with AIDS. Most children were unable to provide a sputum specimen; co-infected patients were more likely to be smear negative for acid-fast bacilli (83% vs 46%; p?=?0.07) and culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (44% vs 19%; p?
Related JoVE Video
Body mass index and risk of tuberculosis and death.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High BMI has been shown to be protective against tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-uninfected individuals, as well as against disease progression and mortality among those with HIV. We examined the effect of BMI on all-cause mortality and TB incidence among a cohort of HIV-infected adults in Soweto, South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Point-of-care Arkansas method for measuring adherence to treatment with isoniazid.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the accuracy of a point-of-care test designed to measure adherence to isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy in a hospital setting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients on treatment with daily INH and patients not receiving INH were included. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were 84%/98% at the first minute, and 95%/98% at the fifth minute, respectively. Among smokers, sensitivity and specificity was reduced (80%/89% at the fifth minute, respectively), but only 17% smoked. This test accurately detected INH metabolites 24h following directly observed INH intake, though sensitivity and specificity may be compromised by tobacco smoke exposure.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of patients with respiratory symptoms through active case finding and diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners and related predictors in a jail in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil.
Rev Bras Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prisons offer a fertile setting for the transmission of tuberculosis due to the presence of many classic risk factors for both infection and disease: overcrowding, poor ventilation, and little sunlight. Prisoners are often malnourished and have poor hygiene and are more likely to have a background of alcohol and drug abuse.
Related JoVE Video
Smoking and risk of tuberculosis incidence, mortality, and recurrence in South Korean men and women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors explored the association of cigarette smoking with tuberculosis incidence, recurrence, and mortality. A 14-year prospective cohort study (1992-2006) was carried out in 1,294,504 South Koreans. Participants were grouped by smoking history, and the authors assessed tuberculosis incidence, mortality, and recurrence risk for each group. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between smoking history and the 3 outcomes of interest, adjusting for age and alcohol use. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had increased mortality from tuberculosis among both men (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.0) and women (HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.4). Current male smokers had greater risk of incident tuberculosis than former smokers (HR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.5), and risk among current smokers increased with number of cigarettes smoked daily. In females, cigarette smoking was not associated with incident tuberculosis. There was interaction between smoking and sex for incidence (P = 0.00047). The effect of smoking was generally reduced with adjustment for body mass index. Among men, the highest alcohol consumption category (> or =100 g/day) was associated with risk of incident tuberculosis (HR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.7). This study provides longitudinal evidence that smoking increases risk of incident tuberculosis, mortality from tuberculosis, and tuberculosis recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis among HIV-infected children: a randomized controlled trial comparing two dosing schedules.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Isoniazid prophylaxis can reduce tuberculosis incidence in this population. However, for the treatment to be effective, adherence to the medication must be optimized. We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to three times a week, and predictors of adherence amongst HIV-infected children.
Related JoVE Video
Human papillomavirus in women with and without HIV-1 infection attending an STI clinic in Vitoria, Brazil.
J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We conducted a cross-sectional study in Vitória, Brazil, to assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI)/AIDS clinic. We also investigated the presence of HPV genotypes and assessed covariates for HIV infection. Enrolled patients received a gynecological evaluation, and cervical scrape samples were collected for cytological analysis and HPV-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A blood sample was obtained to determine HIV status. HPV infection and squamous intraepithelial lesions were studied in 284 women, 112 (39.4%) HIV-positive women and 172 (60.5%) HIV-negative women. HPV-DNA was detected in 133 (46.8%). HIV-infected women were almost twice as likely to be concurrently infected with HPV than HIV-negative women (OR = 1.87 95% CI: 1.16-3.03). The high proportion of HPV detected among women attending an STI/AIDS clinic, particularly among HIV-infected women, proves the importance of screening this high-risk group in the hope of earlier detection and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a High HIV prevalence setting.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Effective tuberculosis (TB) control in HIV-prevalent settings is hindered by absence of accurate, rapid TB diagnostic tests. We evaluated the accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB diagnosis in South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Isoniazid preventive therapy, HAART and tuberculosis risk in HIV-infected adults in South Africa: a prospective cohort.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults, although few countries have instituted this policy. Both IPT and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) used separately result in reductions in tuberculosis risk. There is less information on the combined effect of IPT and HAART. We assessed the effect of IPT, HAART or both IPT and HAART on tuberculosis incidence in HIV-infected adults in South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of diabetes mellitus on treatment outcomes of patients with active tuberculosis.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an emerging chronic health condition of developed and developing countries. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with active, culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) in Maryland to determine the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. Of 297 TB patients, 42 (14%) had DM. Patients with diabetes had 2.0 times higher odds of death than patients without diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-5.2, P = 0.18). Adjusting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), age, weight, and foreign birth, the odds of death were 6.5 times higher in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes (95% CI 1.1-38.0, P = 0.039). In pulmonary TB patients, time to sputum culture conversion was longer in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes (median 49 versus 39 days, P = 0.09). Two-month culture conversion proportions were similar (70% and 69%). Treatment failure occurred in 4.1% of patients without diabetes and 6.7% of patients with diabetes (P = 0.51). In conclusion, DM was a risk factor for death in Maryland TB patients. There was a trend toward increased time to culture conversion; two-month culture conversion proportions, however, were similar.
Related JoVE Video
Tuberculosis and AIDS co-morbidity in Brazil: linkage of the tuberculosis and AIDS databases.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study evaluated differences in AIDS patients with and without tuberculosis (TB) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Standard regional AIDS (SINAN, SISCEL, SICLOM and SIM) and tuberculosis (SINAN) databases were used. TB and AIDS databases were linked using Reclink software, version 3, with SPSS software support to identify co-infected cases. Data from July 2000 to June 2006 in Espírito Santo State were linked. The results showed 3,523 adult AIDS cases and 9,958 adult TB cases resulted in 430 co-infected patients, who were compared to 1,290 AIDS patients who never developed TB. Among 430 co-infected patients, TB was diagnosed first in 223 (51.9%), AIDS was first in 44 (10.2%), and AIDS and TB were diagnosed concurrently in 163 (37.9%). Median age did not differ between co-infected cases (36 years (interquartile range [IQR] 29-43) and non-co-infected cases (34 years; IQR 28-42). Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 239 (55.6%); 109 (25.3%) had extra-pulmonary TB and 82 (19.1%) had both presentations. In the final logistic regression model, living in a metropolitan area [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.43 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05-1.95)], education < 3 years [OR=3.03 (95%CI 1.56-5.88)] and CD4 counts < 200/mm(3) [OR=1.14 (95%CI 1.09-1.18)] were associated with co-infection. This report emphasizes the significance of tuberculosis among AIDS cases in Brazil, and highlights the importance of evaluating secondary data for purposes of improving data quality and developing public health interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of persistent colitis by a human commensal, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, in wild-type C57BL/6 mice.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) causes diarrhea and is implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. The only known ETBF virulence factor is the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT), which induces E-cadherin cleavage, interleukin-8 secretion, and epithelial cell proliferation. A murine model for ETBF has not been characterized. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6J or germfree 129S6/SvEv mice were orally inoculated with wild-type ETBF (WT-ETBF) strains, a nontoxigenic WT strain of B. fragilis (WT-NTBF), WT-NTBF overexpressing bft (rETBF), or WT-NTBF overexpressing a biologically inactive mutated bft (rNTBF). In SPF and germfree mice, ETBF caused colitis but was lethal only in germfree mice. Colonic histopathology demonstrated mucosal thickening with inflammatory cell infiltration, crypt abscesses, and epithelial cell exfoliation, erosion, and ulceration. SPF mice colonized with rETBF mimicked WT-ETBF, whereas rNTBF caused no histopathology. Intestinal epithelial E-cadherin was rapidly cleaved in vivo in WT-ETBF-colonized mice and in vitro in intestinal tissues cultured with purified BFT. ETBF mice colonized for 16 months exhibited persistent colitis. BFT did not directly induce lymphocyte proliferation, dendritic cell stimulation, or Toll-like receptor activation. In conclusion, WT-ETBF induced acute then persistent colitis in SPF mice and rapidly lethal colitis in WT germfree mice. Our data support the hypothesis that chronic colonization with the human commensal ETBF can induce persistent, subclinical colitis in humans.
Related JoVE Video
Malignancies in HIV/AIDS patients attending an outpatient clinic in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study investigated cancer prevalence and associated factors among HIV-infected individuals attending an AIDS outpatient clinic in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Related JoVE Video
Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA fingerprint clusters and its relationship with RD(Rio) genotype in Brazil.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains designated as RD(Rio) are responsible for a large cluster of new cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Rio de Janeiro. They were previously shown to be associated with severe manifestations of TB. Here, we used three genotyping methods (IS6110 RFLP, spoligotyping, and multiplex PCR) to characterize RD(Rio) and non-RD(Rio) strains from the metropolitan area of Vitória, State of Espirito Santo in southeast Brazil to determine strain diversity and transmission patterns. Strains with identical IS6110 RFLP patterns were considered to belong to a cluster indicative of recent transmission. Between 2000 and 2010, we identified 5470 new TB patients and genotyped 981 Mtb strains. Of these, 376 (38%) were RD(Rio). By RFLP, 180 (48%) of 376 RD(Rio) strains and 235 (40%) of 593 non-RD(Rio) strains belonged to RFLP cluster pattern groups (p = 0.023). Simpsons diversity index based on RFLP patterns was 0.96 for RD(Rio) and 0.98 for non-RD(Rio) strains. Thus, although RD(Rio) strains appear to be comprised of a fewer number of RFLP genotypes, they represent a heterogeneous group. While TB cases caused by RD(Rio) appear more likely to be due to recent transmission than cases caused by non-RD(Rio) strains, the difference is small. These observations suggest that factors other than inherent biological characteristic of RD(Rio) lineages are more important in determining recent transmission, and that public health measures to interrupt new transmissions need to be emphasized for TB control in Vitória.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of expanded testing for multidrug resistant tuberculosis using genotype [correction of geontype] MTBDRplus in South Africa: an observational cohort study.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Globally, multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains underdiagnosed. The Genotype MTBDRplus®, a rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) assay used to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin in the diagnosis of MDR-TB, has good diagnostic accuracy, but its impact on patient outcomes in routine practice is unproven. We assessed the clinical impact of routine DST using MTBDRplus in a single health district in South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
An evaluation of p16(INK4a) expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia specimens, including women with HIV-1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although several studies have evaluated the role of p16(INK4a) as a diagnostic marker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its association with disease progression, studies regarding the role of p16(INK4a) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remain scarce. The present study was designed to determine the potential utility of p16(INK4a) as a diagnostic marker for CIN and invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive and negative cervical specimens. An immunohistochemical analysis of p16(INK4a) was performed in 326 cervical tissue microarray specimens. Performance indicators were calculated and compared using receiving operating characteristics curve (ROC)/area under the curve. In HIV-1-negative women, the percentage of cells that was positive for p16(INK4a) expression was significantly correlated with the severity of CIN (p < 0.0001). A ROC curve with a cut-off value of 55.28% resulted in a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 81%, a positive predictive value of 91% and a negative predictive value of 78%. HIV-seropositive women exhibited decreased expression of p16(INK4a) in CIN2-3 specimens compared with HIV-negative specimens (p = 0.031). The ROC data underscore the potential utility of p16(INK4a) under defined conditions as a diagnostic marker for CIN 2-3 staging and invasive cervical cancer. HIV-1 infection, however, is associated with relatively reduced p16(INK4a) expression in CIN 2-3.
Related JoVE Video
Prior history of sexually transmitted diseases in women living with AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil.
Braz J Infect Dis
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the epidemiological profile, risk behaviors, and the prior history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Related JoVE Video
Heterogeneity in tuberculosis transmission and the role of geographic hotspots in propagating epidemics.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The importance of high-incidence "hotspots" to population-level tuberculosis (TB) incidence remains poorly understood. TB incidence varies widely across countries, but within smaller geographic areas (e.g., cities), TB transmission may be more homogeneous than other infectious diseases. We constructed a steady-state compartmental model of TB in Rio de Janeiro, replicating nine epidemiological variables (e.g., TB incidence) within 1% of their observed values. We estimated the proportion of TB transmission originating from a high-incidence hotspot (6.0% of the citys population, 16.5% of TB incidence) and the relative impact of TB control measures targeting the hotspot vs. the general community. If each case of active TB in the hotspot caused 0.5 secondary transmissions in the general community for each within-hotspot transmission, the 6.0% of people living in the hotspot accounted for 35.3% of city-wide TB transmission. Reducing the TB transmission rate (i.e., number of secondary infections per infectious case) in the hotspot to that in the general community reduced city-wide TB incidence by 9.8% in year 5, and 29.7% in year 50-an effect similar to halving time to diagnosis for the remaining 94% of the community. The importance of the hotspot to city-wide TB control depended strongly on the extent of TB transmission from the hotspot to the general community. High-incidence hotspots may play an important role in propagating TB epidemics. Achieving TB control targets in a hotspot containing 6% of a citys population can have similar impact on city-wide TB incidence as achieving the same targets throughout the remaining community.
Related JoVE Video
Time from symptom onset to the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in a city with a high incidence of the disease.
J Bras Pneumol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis among treatment-naïve patients with positive results in sputum smear microscopy, and to evaluate the variables associated with delays in diagnosis and in treatment initiation.
Related JoVE Video
Behavior assessment of women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Vitória, Brazil.
An Bras Dermatol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies about sexual risk behaviors can provide information to support design strategies to control the spread of HIV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of MCM-2 expression in TMA cervical specimens.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) are highly expressed in actively replicating cells. The need for biological markers for cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions is emerging. Our main aim was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of MCM-2 in HIV-positive and -negative dysplastic cervical specimens.
Related JoVE Video
Community-based targeted case finding for tuberculosis and HIV in household contacts of patients with tuberculosis in South Africa.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
South Africa has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-coinfected adults in whom TB is often diagnosed late in the course of disease.
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.