Abstract The aim of the present study was to examine, in highly trained young soccer players, the mechanical horizontal determinants of acceleration (Acc) and maximal sprinting speed (MSS). Eighty-six players (14.1 ± 2.4 year) performed a 40-m sprint to assess Acc and MSS. Speed was measured with a 100-Hz radar, and theoretical maximal velocity (V0), horizontal force (F0) and horizontal power (Pmax) were calculated. Within each age group, players were classified as high Acc/fast MSS (>2% faster than group mean), medium (between -2% and +2%), and low/slow (>2% slower). Acc and MSS were very largely correlated (-0.79; 90% confidence limit [-0.85; -0.71]). The determinants (multiple regression r(2) = 0.84 [0.78; 0.89]) of Acc were V0 (partial r: 0.80 [0.72; 0.86]) and F0 (0.57 [0.44; 0.68]); those of MSS (r(2) = 0.96 [0.94; 0.97]) were V0 (0.96 [0.94; 0.97]) and Pmax (0.73 [0.63; -0.80]). High/Med have likely greater F0 (Cohen's d: +0.8 [0.0; 1.5]), V0 (+0.6 [-0.1; 1.3]) and Pmax (+0.9 [0.2; 1.7]) than Low/Med. High/Fast have an almost certainly faster V0 (+2.1 [1.5; 2.7]) and a likely greater Pmax (+0.6 [-0.1; 1.3]) than High/Med, with no clear differences in F0 (-0.0 [-0.7; 0.6]). Speed may be a generic quality, but the mechanical horizontal determinants of Acc and MSS differ. While maximal speed training may improve both Acc and MSS, improving horizontal force production capability may be efficient to enhance sprinting performance over short distances.
A subject-specific angle-driven computer model of a tennis player, combined with a forward dynamics, equipment-specific computer model of tennis ball-racket impacts, was developed to determine the effect of ball-racket impacts on loading at the elbow for one-handed backhand groundstrokes. Matching subject-specific computer simulations of a typical topspin/slice one-handed backhand groundstroke performed by an elite tennis player were done with root mean square differences between performance and matching simulations of < 0.5 degrees over a 50 ms period starting from ball impact. Simulation results suggest that for similar ball-racket impact conditions, the difference in elbow loading for a topspin and slice one-handed backhand groundstroke is relatively small. In this study, the relatively small differences in elbow loading may be due to comparable angle-time histories at the wrist and elbow joints with the major kinematic differences occurring at the shoulder. Using a subject-specific angle-driven computer model combined with a forward dynamics, equipment-specific computer model of tennis ball-racket impacts allows peak internal loading, net impulse, and shock due to ball-racket impact to be calculated which would not otherwise be possible without impractical invasive techniques. This study provides a basis for further investigation of the factors that may increase elbow loading during tennis strokes.
Zebra Chip (ZC) is an emerging plant disease that causes aboveground decline of potato shoots and generally results in unusable tubers. This disease has led to multi-million dollar losses for growers in the central and western United States over the past decade and impacts the livelihood of potato farmers in Mexico and New Zealand. ZC is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, a fastidious alpha-proteobacterium that is transmitted by a phloem-feeding psyllid vector, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. Research on this disease has been hampered by a lack of robust culture methods and paucity of genome sequence information for Ca. L. solanacearum. Here we present the sequence of the 1.26 Mbp metagenome of Ca. L. solanacearum, based on DNA isolated from potato psyllids. The coding inventory of the Ca. L. solanacearum genome was analyzed and compared to related Rhizobiaceae to better understand Ca. L. solanacearum physiology and identify potential targets to develop improved treatment strategies. This analysis revealed a number of unique transporters and pathways, all potentially contributing to ZC pathogenesis. Some of these factors may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Taxonomically, Ca. L. solanacearum is related to Ca. L. asiaticus, a suspected causative agent of citrus huanglongbing, yet many genome rearrangements and several gene gains/losses are evident when comparing these two Liberibacter. species. Relative to Ca. L. asiaticus, Ca. L. solanacearum probably has reduced capacity for nucleic acid modification, increased amino acid and vitamin biosynthesis functionalities, and gained a high-affinity iron transport system characteristic of several pathogenic microbes.
FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are phylogenetically distinct families of FtsZ in plants that co-localize to mid-plastid rings and facilitate division of chloroplasts. In plants, altered levels of either FtsZ1 or FtsZ2 cause dose-dependent defects in chloroplast division; thus, studies on the functional relationship between FtsZ genes require careful manipulation of FtsZ levels in vivo. To define the functional relationship between the two FtsZ2 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2, we expressed FtsZ2-1 in an ftsZ2-2 null mutant, and vice versa, and determined whether the chloroplast division defects were rescued in plants expressing different total levels of FtsZ2. Full rescue was observed when either the FtsZ2-1 or FtsZ2-2 level approximated total FtsZ2 levels in wild-type (WT). Additionally, FtsZ2-2 interacts with ARC6, as shown previously for FtsZ2-1. These data indicate that FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2 are functionally redundant for chloroplast division in Arabidopsis. To rigorously validate the requirement of each FtsZ family for chloroplast division, we replaced FtsZ1 with FtsZ2 in vivo, and vice versa, while maintaining the FtsZ level in the transgenic plants equal to that of the total level in WT. Chloroplast division defects were not rescued, demonstrating conclusively that FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are non-redundant for maintenance of WT chloroplast numbers. Finally, we generated ftsZ triple null mutants and show that plants completely devoid of FtsZ protein are viable and fertile. As plastids are presumably essential organelles, these findings suggest that an FtsZ-independent mode of plastid partitioning may occur in higher plants.
Chloroplast division in plant cells is accomplished through the coordinated action of the tubulin-like FtsZ ring inside the organelle and the dynamin-like ARC5 ring outside the organelle. This coordination is facilitated by ARC6, an inner envelope protein required for both assembly of FtsZ and recruitment of ARC5. Recently, we showed that ARC6 specifies the mid-plastid positioning of the outer envelope proteins PDV1 and PDV2, which have parallel functions in dynamin recruitment. PDV2 positioning involves direct ARC6-PDV2 interaction, but PDV1 and ARC6 do not interact indicating that an additional factor functions downstream of ARC6 to position PDV1. Here, we show that PARC6 (paralog of ARC6), an ARC6-like protein unique to vascular plants, fulfills this role. Like ARC6, PARC6 is an inner envelope protein with its N-terminus exposed to the stroma and Arabidopsis parc6 mutants exhibit defects of chloroplast and FtsZ filament morphology. However, whereas ARC6 promotes FtsZ assembly, PARC6 appears to inhibit FtsZ assembly, suggesting that ARC6 and PARC6 function as antagonistic regulators of FtsZ dynamics. The FtsZ inhibitory activity of PARC6 may involve its interaction with the FtsZ-positioning factor ARC3. A PARC6-GFP fusion protein localizes both to the mid-plastid and to a single spot at one pole, reminiscent of the localization of ARC3, PDV1 and ARC5. Although PARC6 localizes PDV1, it is not required for PDV2 localization or ARC5 recruitment. Our findings indicate that PARC6, like ARC6, plays a role in coordinating the internal and external components of the chloroplast division complex, but that PARC6 has evolved distinct functions in the division process.
Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited ?- proteobacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Ca. Liberibacter africanus or Ca. Liberibacter americanus. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for Ca. L. asiaticus is limited. The availability of the Ca. L. asiaticus genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of Ca. L. asiaticus from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed.
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