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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Highly efficient deep-blue phosphorescence from heptafluoropropyl-substituted iridium complexes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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New deep-blue iridium complexes, consisting of a heptafluoropropyl (HFP) substituent at the 3' position of 2',4''-difluorophenyl, have a deep HOMO level and decreased shoulder electronic transition and inhibit self-quenching due to the sterically hindered group without conjugation. An OLED using (HFP)2Ir(mpic) exhibited a maximum EQE of 21.4% with a CIE of (0.146, 0.165).
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Long-term outcomes of cytomegalovirus reactivation in patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis: a multicenter study.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivations are frequently observed in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), and ganciclovir therapy is effective in patients with steroid-refractory UC. This study aimed to determine the long-term outcomes of CMV reactivation and the long-term therapeutic efficacy of ganciclovir treatment.
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Cellular and regional specific changes in multidrug efflux transporter expression during recovery of vasogenic edema in the rat hippocampus and piriform cortex.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of drug efflux transporter expressions following status epilepticus (SE). In the hippocampus and piriform cortex (PC), vasogenic edema was peaked 3 - 4 days after SE. The expressions of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) and p-glycoprotein (p-GP) were decreased 4 days after SE when vasogenic edema was peaked, but subsequently increased at 4 weeks after SE. Multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) expression gradually decreased in endothelial cells until 4 weeks after SE. These findings indicate that SE-induced vasogenic edema formation transiently reduced drug efflux pump expressions in endothelial cells. Subsequently, during recovery of vasogenic edema drug efflux pump expressions were differentially up-regulated in astrocytes, neuropils and endothelial cells. Therefore, we suggest that vasogenic edema formation may be a risk factor in pharmacoresistent epilepsy.
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Phase I Dose-Escalation Study of Proton Beam Therapy for Inoperable Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal dose of proton beam therapy (PBT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
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The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of Baby Aloe Powder (BAP) for Nutraceutical Application Based Upon Toxicological Evaluation.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Aloe has been used in versatile herbal medications and nutraceuticals throughout history. Aloe is widely considered to be generally safe for humans and used globally. The effectiveness and pharmacological properties of aloe are dependent upon when the plant is collected. However, little is known about the toxicology of whole-body aloe collected within less than 1 yr. Based upon widespread exposure to aloe, it is important to determine a daily intake level of this chemical to ensure its safety for humans. To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for clinical application, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated orally for 4 wk with 4 different concentrations: 0, 0.125, 0.5, and 2 g/kg body weight (bw). In this study, no significant or dose-dependent toxicological effects of BAP were observed in biochemical or hematological parameters, urinalysis, clinical signs, body weight, and food and water consumption. There were changes in some biomarkers in certain treated groups compared to controls; however, all values were within their reference ranges and not dose-dependent. Based on these results, the NOAEL of BAP was estimated to be greater than 2 g/kg bw in male and 2 g/kg bw in female SD rats. Collectively, these data suggest that BAP used in this study did not produce any marked subacute toxic effects up to a maximum concentration of 2 g/kg bw, and thus use in nutraceuticals and in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications at a concentration of >2 g/kg is warranted.
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The Relationship Between Colonoscopy Procedure Order and Adenoma Detection Rates: A Prospective Study.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the effects of the order of colonoscopic procedures and other possible factors on the adenoma detection rate (ADR).
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Hepatic fat, not visceral fat, is associated with gallbladder polyps - a study of 2643 healthy subjects.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) appear to be strongly associated with obesity and metabolic disease. To date, the relationship between GBPs and fatty liver has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GBPs are associated with fatty liver, which is an ectopic regional fat deposit, independent of visceral adipose tissue (VAT).
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Radical prostatectomy versus external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer : Comparison of treatment outcomes.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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We retrospectively compared the treatment outcomes of localized prostate cancer between radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).
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Predictors of lymph node metastasis in patients with non-curative endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Although surgery is recommend for non-curative endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer (EGC), only a part of patients are found to have lymph node (LN) metastasis. This study aimed to identify the predictors of LN metastasis in patients with non-curative endoscopic resection.
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Long-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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We aimed to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer (EGC).
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Fluoxetine Inhibits Hyperresponsive Lamina Propria Mononuclear Cells and Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells, and Ameliorates Chronic Colitis in IL-10-Deficient Mice.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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We aimed to study the effect of fluoxetine on chronic colitis and its anti-inflammatory mechanism in interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice.
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Synergistic effect of viral load and alcohol consumption on the risk of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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This prospective study aimed to examine the combined effect of viral load and alcohol consumption on the risk of persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
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Risk factors for synchronous or metachronous tumor development after endoscopic resection of gastric neoplasms.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Despite many advantages, the development of synchronous or metachronous neoplasm is one of the main concerns with endoscopic resection. We aimed to clarify the independent risk factors for synchronous or metachronous gastric neoplasm.
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Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are among the most promising organic semiconductor devices. The recently reported external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 29-30% for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are considered to be near the limit for isotropically oriented iridium complexes. The preferred orientation of transition dipole moments has not been thoroughly considered for phosphorescent OLEDs because of the lack of an apparent driving force for a molecular arrangement in all but a few cases, even though horizontally oriented transition dipoles can result in efficiencies of over 30%. Here we use quantum chemical calculations to show that the preferred orientation of the transition dipole moments of heteroleptic iridium complexes (HICs) in OLEDs originates from the preferred direction of the HIC triplet transition dipole moments and the strong supramolecular arrangement within the co-host environment. We also demonstrate an unprecedentedly high EQE of 35.6% when using HICs with phosphorescent transition dipole moments oriented in the horizontal direction.
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GenoType HelicoDR test in the determination of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Korea.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori is most important factor in eradication success. GenoType HelicoDR test has been developed for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance. The present study evaluated the clinical usefulness of GenoType HelicoDR test in Korea.
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A milk protein, casein, as a proliferation promoting factor in prostate cancer cells.
World J Mens Health
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Despite most epidemiologic studies reporting that an increase in milk intake affects the growth of prostate cancer, the results of experimental studies are not consistent. In this study, we investigated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells treated with casein, the main protein in milk.
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Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin induces apoptosis via activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in dendritic cells.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) are observed on the Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa. DCs generally play an important role in the regulation of inflammation. Although stimulation of gastric epithelial cells with H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) has been reported to induce apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the effects of VacA on the DC apoptotic response have not been well elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate the role of H. pylori VacA on the apoptotic process and ER stress in DCs.
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Dioscin induces caspase-independent apoptosis through activation of apoptosis-inducing factor in breast cancer cells.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Dioscin, a saponin extracted from the roots of Polygonatum zanlanscianense, shows several bioactivities such as antitumor, antifungal, and antiviral properties. Although, dioscin is already known to induce cell death in variety cancer cells, the molecular basis for dioscin-induced cell death was not definitely known in cancer cells. In this study, we found that dioscin treatment induced cell death in dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and T47D cells. Dioscin decreased expressions of Bcl-2 and cIAP-1 proteins, which were down-regulated at the transcriptional level. Conversely, Mcl-1 protein level was down-regulated by facilitating ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated Mcl-1 degradation in dioscin-treated cells. Pretreatment with z-VAD fails to attenuate dioscin-induced cell death as well as caspase-mediated events such as cleavages of procaspase-3 and PARP. In addition, dioscin treatment increased the population of annexin V positive cells and induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was released from the mitochondria and translocated to the nucleus. Suppression in AIF expression by siRNA reduced dioscin-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that dioscin-induced cell death was mediated via AIF-facilitating caspase-independent pathway as well as down-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, cIAP-1, and Mcl-1 in breast cancer cells.
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Anti-inflammatory mechanism of metformin and its effects in intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated colon cancer.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of metformin on intestinal inflammation.
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Effects of 16-week functional movement screen training program on strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.
J Exerc Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a way to pretest functional movement. This study examined the effects of the FMS training program on the strength and flexibility of 62 elite male high school baseball players (31 in the training group, 31 in the control group). All players who received less than two points on each FMS test item had to join the 16-week, three times weekly FMS training program. To analyze results among the FMS participants, measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repeated measure ANOVA were utilized. The Kappa coefficient was 0.805 when the intraclass correlation coefficient of the three participants was inspected. Strength showed a significant interaction depending on time and group (hand grip strength: P=0.011, bench press and squat both for one-repetition maximum (1RM): P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). Back muscle strength did not show a significant difference (P=0.660). Trunk forward flexion showed no interaction depending on time and groups (P=0.983) but trunk extension backward showed significant differences depending on groups (P=0.004) and time (P=0.001). Splits showed a significant difference depending on time and groups (P=0.004). The FMS training program improved the strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.
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A fluorescent organic light-emitting diode with 30% external quantum efficiency.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Almost 100% internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is achieved with a green fluorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) exhibiting 30% external quantum efficiency (EQE). The OLED comprises an exciplex-forming co-host system doped with a fluorescent dye that has a strong delayed fluorescence as a result of reverse intersystem crossing (RISC); the exciplex-forming co-hosts stimulate energy transfer and charge balance in the system. The orientation of the transition dipole moment of the fluorescent dye is shown to have an influence on the EQE of the device.
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The association of SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR and TRPV1 945G>C with functional dyspepsia in Korea.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The association of various genetic polymorphisms with functional dyspepsia (FD) has been suggested, but the results were still controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of GNB3 825C>T, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, ADRA2A-1291C>G, CCK-1R intron 779T>C, and TRPV1 945G>C polymorphisms with FD based on Rome III criteria in Korea.
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Hyperforin attenuates microglia activation and inhibits p65-Ser276 NF?B phosphorylation in the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus.
Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Hyperforin, a lipophilic constituent of medicinal herb St. John's Wort, has neurobiological effects including antidepressant activity, antibiotic potency, anti-inflammatory activity and anti-tumoral properties. Furthermore, hyperforin activates transient receptor potential conical channel-6 (TRPC6), a nonselective cation channel. To elucidate the roles of hyperforin and TRPC6 in neuroinflammation in vivo, we investigated the effect of hyperforin on neuroinflammatory responses and its related events in the rat piriform cortex (PC) following status epilepticus (SE). Hyperforin attenuated microglial activation, p65-serine 276 NF?B phosphorylation, and suppressed TNF-? expression in the PC following SE. Hyperforin also effectively alleviated SE-induced vasogenic edema formation, neuronal damage, microglial TRPC6 induction and blood-derived monocyte infiltration. Our findings suggest that hyperforin may effectively attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the TRPC6-independent manner.
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Methoxychlor and triclosan stimulates ovarian cancer growth by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes via an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Methoxychlor and triclosan are emergent or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methoxychlor [MXC; 1,1,1-trichlor-2,2-bis (4-methoxyphenyl) ethane] is an organochlorine pesticide that has been primarily used since dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was banned. In addition, triclosan (TCS) is used as a common component of soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, and other hygiene products at concentrations up to 0.3%. In the present study, the potential impact of MXC and TCS on ovarian cancer cell growth and underlying mechanism(s) was examined following their treatments in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. As results, MXC and TCS induced BG-1 cell growth via regulating cyclin D1, p21 and Bax genes related with cell cycle and apoptosis. A methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay confirmed that the proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells was stimulated by MXC (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)M) or TCS (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)M). Treatment of BG-1 cells with MXC or TCS resulted in the upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of p21 and Bax transcriptions. In addition, the protein level of cyclin D1 was increased by MXC or TCS while p21 and Bax protein levels appeared to be reduced in these cells. Furthermore, MXC- or TCS-induced alterations of these genes were reversed in the presence of ICI 182,780 (10(-7)M), suggesting that the changes in these gene expressions may be regulated by an ER-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, the results of our investigation indicate that two potential EDCs, MXC and TCS, may stimulate ovarian cancer growth by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes via an ER-dependent pathway.
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Specific visual symptoms and signs of Meares-Irlen syndrome in Korean.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To discriminate the visual symptoms and signs of Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) and nonspecific dyslexia from other ophthalmologic diseases (NODs).
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Multilayer epitaxial growth of lead phthalocyanine and C(70) using CuBr as a templating layer for enhancing the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The molecular orientation and crystallinity of donor and acceptor molecules are important for high-efficiency organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) because they significantly influence both the absorption of light and charge-transport characteristics. We report that the templating effect extends to multilayers to increase the crystallinity and to modify the orientation of the crystals of lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and C70 layers at the same time by adopting CuBr as a new templating layer on indium tin oxide (ITO). The formation of a monoclinic phase with a preferred orientation of (320) for PbPc and a fcc phase with a preferred orientation of (220) for C70 on the PbPc layer is revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The multilayer epitaxy results in an increase of the exciton diffusion lengths from 5.6 to 8.8 nm for PbPc and from 6.9 to 13.8 nm for C70 to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the planar heterojunction OPVs composed of PbPc and C70 from 1.4 to 2.3%. The quasi-epitaxy model is proposed to explain the multilayer epitaxy.
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Proton beam therapy reduces the incidence of acute haematological and gastrointestinal toxicities associated with craniospinal irradiation in pediatric brain tumors.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The benefits of proton beam craniospinal irradiation (PrBCSI) in children have been extensively reported in dosimetric studies. However, there is limited clinical evidence supporting the use of PrBCSI. We compared the acute toxicity of PrBCSI relative to that of conventional photon beam CSI (PhBCSI) in children with brain tumours.
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Long-term oncologic outcomes of endoscopic stenting as a bridge to surgery for malignant colonic obstruction: comparison with emergency surgery.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) are now regarded as an effective and safe intervention for malignant colorectal obstruction (MCO). However, manipulation of the tumor might lead to the spillage of tumor cells and result in distant metastases. We aimed to compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of SEMS as a bridge to surgery with those of emergency surgery for MCO.
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Helicobacter pylori and Molecular Markers as Prognostic Indicators for Gastric Cancer in Korea.
J Cancer Prev
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The prognosis of H. pylori infection-negative gastric cancer (HPIN-GC) has been rarely investigated. Applying a strict definition of H. pylori status, the prognosis and molecular prognostic markers in HPIN-GC were evaluated.
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Effectiveness and safety of proton beam therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of proton beam therapy (PBT) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT).
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Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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A high-efficiency blue-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) approaching theoretical efficiency using an exciplex-forming co-host composed of N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) and bis-4,6-(3,5-di-3-pyridylphenyl)- 2-methylpyrimidine (B3PYMPM) is fabricated. Iridium(III)bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)- pyridinato-N,C2']picolinate (FIrpic) is used as the emitter, which turns out to have a preferred horizontal dipole orientation in the emitting layer. The OLED shows a maximum external quantum efficiency of 29.5% (a maximum current efficiency of 62.2 cd A(-1) ), which is in perfect agreement with the theoretical prediction.
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Simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Do we need colonoscopy following acute diverticulitis detected on computed tomography to exclude colorectal malignancy?
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Although colonoscopy verification is warranted after an acute event of diverticulitis to exclude underlying malignancy, little evidence is available to support the recommendations.
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Prediction of Tumor Recurrence in Patients with Non-Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Following Resection according to the Modified National Institutes of Health Criteria.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Few studies have investigated the prognosis of non-gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) under the modified National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria in Korea. This study aims to clarify the clinical usefulness of the modified NIH criteria for risk stratification.
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Formation of perfect ohmic contact at indium tin oxide/N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine interface using ReO3.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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A perfect ohmic contact is formed at the interface of indium tin oxide (ITO) and N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB) using ReO3 as the interfacial layer. The hole injection efficiency is close to 100% at the interface, which is much higher than those for interfacial layers of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatripheylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) and MoO3. Interestingly, the ReO3 and MoO3 interfacial layers result in the same hole injection barrier, ?0.4?eV, to NPB, indicating that the Fermi level is pinned to the NPB polaron energy level. However, a significant difference is observed in the generated charge density in the NPB layer near the interfacial layer/NPB interface, indicating that charge generation at the interface plays an important role in forming the ohmic contact.
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High-efficiency orange and tandem white organic light-emitting diodes using phosphorescent dyes with horizontally oriented emitting dipoles.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Tandem white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) using horizontally oriented phosphorescent dyes in an exciplex-forming co-host are presented, along with an orange OLED. A high external quantum efficiency of 32% is achieved for the orange OLED at 1000 cd m(-2) and the tandem WOLEDs exhibit a high maximum EQE of 54.3% (PE of 63 lm W(-1)).
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Effect of gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics on peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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To investigate the effect of gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics on peritonitis development in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
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Comparison of clinical outcomes of adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma in uterine cervical cancer patients receiving surgical resection followed by radiotherapy: a multicenter retrospective study (KROG 13-10).
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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To evaluate the prognostic influence of adenocarcinoma (AC) and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) in patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).
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Ursolic acid inhibits nuclear factor-?B signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and attenuates experimental colitis in mice.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid acid, has been reported to show immunomodulatory activity. This study investigated the effects of UA on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling in cells and experimental murine colitis.
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Physical status of human papillomavirus integration in cervical cancer is associated with treatment outcome of the patients treated with radiotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome is a critical aetiological event in the progression from normal cervix to intraepithelial neoplasm, and finally to invasive cervical cancer. However, there has been little work on how HPV integration status relates to treatment outcome for cervical carcinomas. In the current study, HPV E2 and E6 gene copy numbers were measured in 111 cervical cancer tissues using real-time QPCR. Integration patterns were divided into four groups: single copy-integrated with episomal components (group 1), single copy-integrated without episomal components (group 2), multicopy tandem repetition-integrated (group 3), and low HPV (group 4) groups. A relapse-predicting model was constructed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to classify patients into different risk groups for disease-free survival (DFS). The model was internally validated using bootstrap resampling. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed to evaluate gene expression patterns in relation to the different integration groups. DFS rate was inferior in the order of the patients in group 4, group 2/3, and group 1. Multivariate analysis showed that histologic grade, clinical stage group, and integration pattern were significant prognostic factors for poor DFS. The current prognostic model accurately predicted the risk of relapse, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.74 (bootstrap corrected, 0.71). In conclusion, these data suggest that HPV integration pattern is a potent prognostic factor for tailored treatment of cervical cancer.
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Vacuum nano-hole array embedded organic light emitting diodes.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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We demonstrated a nano-hole array (NHA) embedded structure that was fabricated for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a robust reverse transfer process. The NHA structure is proposed in this study as a strategy for maximizing the diffraction strength of two dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) by engineering vacuum nano-holes inside a dielectric slab. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the OLED was improved by more than twice. Such an optical enhancement was evaluated by using the angular dependence of photoluminescence (PL). The FDTD simulation was carried out to optimize the NHA structure for extraction of the emission induced from both vertical and horizontal dipoles. We explored the effect of the NHA structure on the extraction improvement converted from waveguide mode by measuring EL intensities of the devices with a hemisphere lens. In addition, the transfer process employed in this study yielded extremely low surface roughness, and thus outstanding electrical characteristics.
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Clinical differences in Clostridium difficile infection based on age: A multicenter study.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Abstract Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, age-specific clinical differences in CDI are uncertain. A retrospective comparative analysis was performed based on age in 1367 patients with CDI in Korea. Most clinical features were similar in the two age groups studied, however malignancy was more common in the older group (age ? 65 y) (p < 0.001), while chemotherapy and transplantation were more common in the younger group (age < 65 y) (p < 0.001). Endoscopic examinations were more commonly performed in the older group (p = 0.010), which had a high positive predictive value (88.3%). More patients recovered from CDI without specific antibiotic treatment in the younger group than in the older group (p < 0.001). Although advancing age is an important risk factor for CDI, the clinical features of younger patients are similar to those of the older patient population.
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Feasibility for a large scale mouse mutagenesis by injecting CRISPR/Cas plasmid into zygotes.
Dev. Growth Differ.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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The recombinant clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system has opened a new era for mammalian genome editing. Here, we constructed pX330 plasmids expressing humanized Cas9 (hCas9) and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) against mouse genes and validated them both in vitro and in vivo. When we randomly chose 291 target sequences within protein coding regions of 73 genes, an average number of off-target candidates (exact match 13 nucleotides from 3 target and NGG) found by Bowtie software was 9.2 ± 21.0 (~1.8 times more than the estimated value, 5.2). We next validated their activity by observing green fluorescence reconstituted by homology dependent repair (HDR) of an EGFP expression cassette in HEK293T cells. Of the pX330 plasmids tested, 81.8% (238/291) were found to be functional in vitro. We finally injected the validated pX330 plasmids into mouse zygotes in its circular form against 32 genes (including two genes previously tested) and obtained mutant mice at a 52.9 ± 22.3% (100/196) mutation frequency. Among the pups carrying mutations on the autosomes, 43.6% (47/96) carried the mutations in both alleles. When off-target candidate sites were examined in 63 mutant mice, 0.8% (3/382) were mutated. We conclude that our method provides a simple, efficient, and cost-effective way for mammalian gene editing that is applicable for large scale mutagenesis in mammals.
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Deep-blue phosphorescence from perfluoro carbonyl-substituted iridium complexes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The new deep-blue iridium(III) complexes, (TF)2Ir(pic), (TF)2Ir(fptz), (HF)2Ir(pic), and (HF)2Ir(fptz), consisting of 2,4?-difluororphenyl-3-methylpyridine with trifluoromethyl carbonyl or heptafluoropropyl carbonyl at the 3 position as the main ligand and a picolinate or a trifluoromethylated-triazole as the ancillary ligand, were synthesized and characterized for applications in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Density function theory (DFT) calculations showed that these iridium complexes had a wide band gap, owing to the introduction of the strong electron withdrawing perfluoro carbonyl group. Time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations suggested that their lowest triplet excited state was dominated by a HOMO ? LUMO transition and that the contribution of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) was higher than 34% for all four complexes, indicating that strong spin-orbit coupling exists in the complexes. The 10 wt % (TF)2Ir(pic) doped 9-(3-(9H-carbazole-9-yl)phenyl)-3-(dibromophenylphosphoryl)-9H-carbazole (mCPPO1) film exhibited the highest photoluminescence quantum yield of 74 ± 3% among the films based on the four complexes. Phosphorescent OLEDs based on (TF)2Ir(pic) and (TF)2Ir(fptz) exhibited maximum external quantum efficiencies of 17.1% and 8.4% and Commission Internationale de lEclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.141, 0.158) and (0.147, 0.116), respectively. These CIE coordinates represent some of the deepest blue emissions ever achieved from phosphorescent OLEDs with considerably high EQEs.
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Enalapril inhibits nuclear factor-?B signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and peritoneal macrophages and attenuates experimental colitis in mice.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, has pleiotropic effects such as anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of enalapril on the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway and on experimental colitis.
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Proton-radiography-based quality assurance of proton range compensator.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of proton radiography (pRad) as a patient-specific range compensator (RC) quality assurance (QA) tool and to validate its clinical utility by performing QA on RCs having three kinds of possible defects. In order to achieve pRad for a single EBT film, proton beam currents were modulated with new weighting factors, maximizing the linearity of optical-density-to-thickness ratio. Two RCs, examined to be accurately manufactured as planned, were selected to estimate the feasibility of our pRad. The optical densities of the EBT film on which the RC was irradiated with the modulated proton beam were digitized to pixel values (pv) and then converted to thickness using a thickness-pv calibration curve. The thickness information on the pRad was compared with plan data that had been extracted from treatment planning system. The mean thickness difference (TD) over the flat RC regions was calculated as 0.39 mm, and the standard deviation as 0.22 mm, and the proton scattering effect was analyzed by step phantom measurement. Even proton scattering effected a TD of over 1 mm in the large gradient region, the percentage of pixels over the acceptance criterion was only within 1.11% and 3.49%, respectively, when a 1 mm distance to agreement tolerance limit was applied. The QA results for both precisely and imprecisely manufactured RCs demonstrated the high potential utility and clinical applicability of the pRad-based RC QA tool.
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RanBPM protein acts as a negative regulator of BLT2 receptor to attenuate BLT2-mediated cell motility.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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BLT2, a low affinity receptor for leukotriene B4 (LTB4), is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and is involved in many signal transduction pathways associated with various cellular phenotypes, including chemotactic motility. However, the regulatory mechanism for BLT2 has not yet been demonstrated. To understand the regulatory mechanism of BLT2, we screened and identified the proteins that bind to BLT2. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay with the BLT2 C-terminal domain as bait, we found that RanBPM, a previously proposed scaffold protein, interacts with BLT2. We demonstrated the specific interaction between BLT2 and RanBPM by GST pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay. To elucidate the biological function of the RanBPM-BLT2 interaction, we evaluated the effects of RanBPM overexpression or knockdown. We found that BLT2-mediated motility was severely attenuated by RanBPM overexpression and that knockdown of endogenous RanBPM by shRNA strongly promoted BLT2-mediated motility, suggesting a negative regulatory function of RanBPM toward BLT2. Furthermore, we observed that the addition of BLT2 ligands caused the dissociation of BLT2 and RanBPM, thus releasing the negative regulatory effect of RanBPM. Finally, we propose that Akt-induced BLT2 phosphorylation at residue Thr(355), which occurs after the addition of BLT2 ligands, is a potential mechanism by which BLT2 dissociates from RanBPM, resulting in stimulation of BLT2 signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that RanBPM acts as a negative regulator of BLT2 signaling to attenuate BLT2-mediated cell motility.
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Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Virtual chromoendoscopy (CE) is expected to enhance adenoma yield and reduce variation in performance between colonoscopists. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of narrow band imaging (NBI), flexible spectral imaging CE (FICE) and white light (WL) colonoscopy and their impact for less experienced endoscopists.
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Incidence of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in Korea, 1999-2010.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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To investigate the recent incidence of and trends in cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in Korean females.
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Elevated serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Inverse correlations of high serum bilirubin with metabolic and cardiovascular disease have been suggested. However, anti-atherogenic effects of bilirubin have not been well-established in terms of the presence of plaques and stenosis identified in coronary computed tomography (CT).
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Eradication of Helicobacter pylori After Endoscopic Resection of Gastric Tumors Does Not Reduce Incidence of Metachronous Gastric Carcinoma.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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It is not clear whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection reduces the risk for metachronous gastric carcinoma. We performed a prospective, randomized, open-label trial of the effects of H pylori eradication on the incidence of metachronous carcinoma after endoscopic resection of gastric tumors.
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Individualized prediction of overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy in patients with early-stage cervical cancer: a Korean Radiation Oncology Group study (KROG 13-03).
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer.
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An infant with prenatally diagnosed congenital anaplastic astrocytoma who remains disease-free after proton therapy.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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The authors present a rare of prenatally diagnosed congenital anaplastic astrocytoma. A 9-month-old boy had three recurrences despite two surgical resections and various chemotherapeutic regimens. He underwent the 3rd gross tumor removal at 11 months of age, followed by proton therapy, and now he remains disease-free for 3 yr without a significant neurocognitive dysfunction. This is the 1st case of a pediatric tumor treated by proton therapy in Korea, and proton therapy may be a treatment of choice for a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma in infants and young children, considering limitation of radiation therapy.
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The size of the metastatic lymph node is an independent prognostic factor for the patients with cervical cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Lymph node (LN) metastasis is a well-known prognostic factor of the cervical cancer. In the current study, the size of metastatic LN was evaluated for its significance in the patients treated with definitive radiotherapy.
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Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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A new highly twisted asymmetric anthracene derivative with naphthalene and triphenylamine substituted xylene was synthesized as an extremely deep blue emitting material. A non-doped device using the new asymmetric blue emitter displays a maximum EQE of 4.62% with CIE color coordinates of (0.154, 0.049).
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Comparison of capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil in chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Although capecitabine has theoretical advantages in the pharmacokinetics, such as higher intratumoral and lower systemic concentration, relative to bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), outcomes of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with capecitabine or bolus 5-FU have not been directly compared in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Therefore, we retrospectively compared the outcomes, including toxicity, tumor response, and overall survival, of oral capecitabine plus radiotherapy (RT) with bolus 5-FU plus RT, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.
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Phase II trial of proton beam accelerated partial breast irradiation in breast cancer.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Here, we report the results of our phase II, prospective study of proton beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (PB-APBI) in patients with breast cancer after breast conserving surgery (BCS).
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Reliable and Uniform Thin-Film Transistor Arrays Based on Inkjet-Printed Polymer Semiconductors for Full Color Reflective Displays.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Stable uniform performance inkjet-printed polymer transistor arrays, which allow demonstration of flexible full-color displays, were achieved by new ambient processable conjugated copolymer semiconductor, and OTFT devices incorporating this material showed high mobility values > 1.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . Bias-stress stability of the devices was improved with a channel-passivation layer, which suppresses the density of trap states at the channel interface.
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Endothelial transient receptor potential conical channel (TRPC)-3 activation induces vasogenic edema formation in the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Transient receptor potential canonical channel (TRPC) is a nonselective cation channel permeable to Ca(2+), which express in many cell types, including neurons. However the alterations in TRPC receptor expressions in response to status epilepticus (SE) have not been explored. Therefore, the present study was designated to elucidate the roles of TRPC3 in neuronal death and vasogenic edema within the rat piriform cortex (PC) following SE. In non-SE animals, TRPC3 immunoreactivity was abundantly detected in the PC. Following SE, TRPC3 immunoreactivity was increased in neurons. Furthermore, TRPC3 expression was detected in endothelial cells that did not contain it in non-SE animals. Loss of SMI-71 (a blood-brain barrier antigen) immunoreactivity was also observed in TRPC3 positive endothelial cells. In addition, FJB positive neurons and vasogenic edema were noticeably detected in the PC. To directly determine whether TRPC3 activation is correlated to SE-induced vasogenic edema formation and neuronal damages in the PC, the effect of Pyr-3 (a TRPC3 antagonist) on SE-induced insults were investigated. Pyr-3 infusion effectively attenuated vasogenic edema in the PC as compared to the vehicle. Therefore, our findings indicate that TRPC3 activation/overexpression induced by SE may involve BBB disruption and neuronal damages in the rat PC following SE. Therefore, the present study was TRPC3 may play an important role in SE-induced vasogenic edema formation through BBB disruptions in the rat PC.
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Condylar Positional Changes Up to 12 Months After Bimaxillary Surgery for Skeletal Class III Malocclusions.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Postsurgical changes in the condylar position are of great importance to surgical stability, especially in asymmetric double-jaw surgery. The aims of this study were to evaluate positional changes of the condyle up to 12 months after surgery in patients with Class III malocclusion and to identify the factors affecting postsurgical condylar position.
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Lost to follow-up in asthmatics does not mean treatment failure: causes and clinical outcomes of non-adherence to outpatient treatment in adult asthma.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Long-term asthma management is recommended to asthmatics; however, many patients do not adhere to follow-up treatment. It is unclear why many asthmatics do not adhere to follow-up treatment and long-term clinical course after discontinuation of asthma management. This study investigates the factors associated with loss to follow-up and observes the clinical course in asthmatics who discontinued asthma treatment.
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Withaferin A inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by suppressing the Akt signaling pathway.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Withaferin A (Wit A), a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, exhibits anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory and anti-angiogenic properties and antitumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wit A on protease-mediated invasiveness of the human metastatic cancer cell lines Caski and SK-Hep1. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in marked inhibition of the TGF???induced increase in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?9 in Caski cell line. These effects of Wit A were dose-dependent and showed a correlation with suppression of MMP?9 mRNA expression levels. Treatment with Wit A resulted in an ~1.6-fold induction of MMP-9 promoter activity, which was also suppressed by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in inhibition of TGF???induced phosphorylation of Akt, which was involved in the downregulation of expression of MMP-9 at the protein level. Introduction with constitutively active (CA)?Akt resulted in a partial increase in the secretion of TGF-?-induced MMP-9 blocked by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. According to these results, Wit A may inhibit the invasive and migratory abilities of Caski cells through a reduction in MMP-9 expression through suppression of the pAkt signaling pathway. These findings indicate that use of Wit A may be an effective strategy for control of metastasis and invasiveness of tumors.
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Retrospective analysis of treatment outcome of pediatric ependymomas in Korea: analysis of Korean multi-institutional data.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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We analyzed the treatment outcomes of intracranial ependymomas in Korean children aged <18 years. Data for 96 patients were collected from five hospitals. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank tests for univariate analyses and Cox regression model for multivariate analysis were conducted to identify prognostic factors for survival. The median age of the patients was 4 years (range, 0.3-17.9 years). The median follow-up was 55 months (range, 2-343 months). Age <3 years was an important factor for selecting adjuvant therapy after surgery. Among children aged <3 and ? 3 years, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) was applied to 55 and 84 %, respectively, and adjuvant chemotherapy to 52 and 10 %, respectively. The 5 year local progression-free survival (LPFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 54, 52, and 79 %, respectively. Gross total resection was the most significant prognostic factor for all survival endpoints. Age ? 3 years and RT were significant prognostic factors for superior LPFS and DFS. However, the significance of age was lost in multivariate analysis for DFS. LPFS, DFS, and OS were superior in patients who started RT within 44 days after surgery (the median time) than in patients who started RT later in the patients aged ? 3 years. Postoperative RT was a strong prognostic factor for intracranial ependymomas. Our results suggest that early use of RT is an essential component of treatment, and should be considered in young children.
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IK induced by coxsackievirus B3 infection transiently downregulates expression of MHC class II through increasing cAMP.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression is critical for the presentation of antigens in the immune response to viral infection. Consequently, some viruses regulate the MHC class II-mediated presentation of viral antigens as a mechanism of immune escape. In this study, we found that Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection transiently increased IK expression, which reduced the expression of MHC class II (I-A/I-E) on splenic B cells. Interestingly, CVB3-induced IK elevated cAMP, a downstream molecule of the G protein-coupled receptors, which inhibited MHC class II presentation on B cells. Transgenic mice expressing truncated IK showed lower expression of MHC class II on B cells than did wild-type mice after CVB3 infection. Taken together, these results imply that IK plays a role in downregulating MHC class II expression on B cells during CVB3 infection through the induction of cAMP.
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Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Extremely high light out-coupling efficiency from a transparent organic light-emitting diode integrated with microstructures on both sides of the device is reported. The metal free device offers dramatically reduced surface plasmonic and intrinsic absorption losses. Moreover, high refractive index micropatterns with optimal light extraction condition are fabricated based on the well-matched analysis of optical simulations.
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A phase II study of hypofractionated proton therapy for prostate cancer.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Hypofractionated radiotherapy potentially offers therapeutic gain for prostate cancer. We investigated the feasibility of hypofractionated proton therapy (PT).
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Combined primary tumor and extracranial metastasis status as constituent factor of prognostic indices for predicting the overall survival in patients with brain metastases.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic factors on overall survival (OS) in patients with brain metastasis (BM) and evaluated the role of combined primary tumor and extracranial metastasis (ECM) status as a constituent factor for prognostic index. This study involved 897 patients with BMs who underwent radiotherapy between April 2003 and December 2009. Among the clinical parameters, multivariate analysis showed that age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), combined primary tumor and ECM status, number of BMs, and treatment group were significant prognostic factors for OS (P < 0.05). To compare the discriminatory ability of 5 prognostic indices, i.e., recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), basic score for BMs (BSBM), score index for radiosurgery (SIR), graded prognostic assessment (GPA), and modified GPA including the combined primary tumor and ECM status (mGPA), the Akaike information criteria (AIC) were calculated. The mGPA showed the lowest AIC value, followed by RPA, GPA, SIR, and BSBM, in that order. It is implicated that modified score of pre-existing factors (i.e., age and KPS) and addition of the combined primary tumor and ECM status to the prognostic index can improve its discriminatory ability and the combined primary tumor and ECM status may be useful as one of constituent factors for prognostic index.
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Prolonged activation of ERK contributes to the photorejuvenation effect in photodynamic therapy in human dermal fibroblasts.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is known to be effective in the photorejuvenation of photoaged skin. However, the molecular mechanisms of rejuvenation by PDT remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to understand the molecular events occurring during the photorejuvenation after PDT in dermal fibroblasts in vitro. First, we found that PDT conditions resulted in an increased fibroblast proliferation and motility in vitro. Under this condition, cells had increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Importantly, PDT induced a prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) with a corresponding increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and collagen type I? messenger RNA and protein. Moreover, inhibition of PDT-induced ERK activation significantly suppressed fibroblast proliferation and expression of MMP-3 and collagen type I? following PDT. In addition, NAC (an antioxidant) inhibited PDT-induced fibroblast proliferation and ERK activation indicating that prolonged ERK activation and intracellular ROS contribute to the proliferation of fibroblasts and the dermal remodeling process for skin rejuvenation. We also identified increased collagen volume and decreased elastotic materials that are used as markers of photoaging in human skin samples using histochemical studies. Results from this study suggest that intracellular ROS stimulated by PDT in dermal fibroblasts lead to prolonged activation of ERK and, eventually, fibroblast proliferation and activation. Our data thus reveal a molecular mechanism underlying the skin rejuvenation effect of PDT.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.