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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The risks of acute exposure to black carbon in Southern Europe: results from the MED-PARTICLES project.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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While several studies have reported associations of daily exposures to PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5?µm) with mortality, few studies have examined the impact of its constituents such as black carbon (BC), which is also a significant contributor to global climate change.
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Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers.
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A novel common variant in DCST2 is associated with length in early life and height in adulthood.
Ralf J P van der Valk, Eskil Kreiner-Møller, Marjolein N Kooijman, Mònica Guxens, Evangelia Stergiakouli, Annika Sääf, Jonathan P Bradfield, Frank Geller, M Geoffrey Hayes, Diana L Cousminer, Antje Körner, Elisabeth Thiering, John A Curtin, Ronny Myhre, Ville Huikari, Raimo Joro, Marjan Kerkhof, Nicole M Warrington, Niina Pitkänen, Ioanna Ntalla, Momoko Horikoshi, Riitta Veijola, Rachel M Freathy, Yik-Ying Teo, Sheila J Barton, David M Evans, John P Kemp, Beate St Pourcain, Susan M Ring, George Davey Smith, Anna Bergström, Inger Kull, Hakon Hakonarson, Frank D Mentch, Hans Bisgaard, Bo Chawes, Jakob Stokholm, Johannes Waage, Patrick Eriksen, Astrid Sevelsted, Mads Melbye, , Cornelia M van Duijn, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Albert Hofman, Johan C de Jongste, H Rob Taal, André G Uitterlinden, Loren L Armstrong, Johan Eriksson, Aarno Palotie, Mariona Bustamante, Xavier Estivill, Juan R Gonzalez, Sabrina Llop, Wieland Kiess, Anubha Mahajan, Claudia Flexeder, Carla M T Tiesler, Clare S Murray, Angela Simpson, Per Magnus, Verena Sengpiel, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Alexandra Lewin, Alexessander Da Silva Couto Alves, Alexandra I Blakemore, Jessica L Buxton, Marika Kaakinen, Alina Rodriguez, Sylvain Sebert, Marja Vaarasmaki, Timo Lakka, Virpi Lindi, Ulrike Gehring, Dirkje S Postma, Wei Ang, John P Newnham, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Katja Pahkala, Olli T Raitakari, Kalliope Panoutsopoulou, Eleftheria Zeggini, Dorret I Boomsma, Maria Groen-Blokhuis, Jorma Ilonen, Lude Franke, Joel N Hirschhorn, Tune H Pers, Liming Liang, Jinyan Huang, Berthold Hocher, Mikael Knip, Seang-Mei Saw, John W Holloway, Erik Melén, Struan F A Grant, Bjarke Feenstra, William L Lowe, Elisabeth Widén, Elena Sergeyev, Harald Grallert, Adnan Custovic, Bo Jacobsson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Mustafa Atalay, Gerard H Koppelman, Craig E Pennell, Harri Niinikoski, George V Dedoussis, Mark I McCarthy, Timothy M Frayling, Jordi Sunyer, Nicholas J Timpson, Fernando Rivadeneira, Klaus Bønnelykke, Vincent W V Jaddoe.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We identified seven independent top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 1 × 10(-6)) for birth length, of which three were novel and four were in or near loci known to be associated with adult height (LCORL, PTCH1, GPR126 and HMGA2). The three novel SNPs were followed-up in nine replication studies (Stage 2; N = 11 995), with rs905938 in DC-STAMP domain containing 2 (DCST2) genome-wide significantly associated with birth length in a joint analysis (Stages 1 + 2; ? = 0.046, SE = 0.008, P = 2.46 × 10(-8), explained variance = 0.05%). Rs905938 was also associated with infant length (N = 28 228; P = 5.54 × 10(-4)) and adult height (N = 127 513; P = 1.45 × 10(-5)). DCST2 is a DC-STAMP-like protein family member and DC-STAMP is an osteoclast cell-fusion regulator. Polygenic scores based on 180 SNPs previously associated with human adult stature explained 0.13% of variance in birth length. The same SNPs explained 2.95% of the variance of infant length. Of the 180 known adult height loci, 11 were genome-wide significantly associated with infant length (SF3B4, LCORL, SPAG17, C6orf173, PTCH1, GDF5, ZNFX1, HHIP, ACAN, HLA locus and HMGA2). This study highlights that common variation in DCST2 influences variation in early growth and adult height.
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Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 ?g·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). An increase of 10 ?g·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4- -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3- -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.
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Early exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma up to 10 years of age: results of the HITEA study.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Inverse associations have been found between exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma and allergies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess whether early exposure to bio-contaminants in dust is associated with asthma and allergy later in childhood among children from (sub)-urban areas. In subsets of three European birth cohorts (PIAMA: n = 553; INMA: n = 481; and LISAplus: n = 395), endotoxin, (1,3,)-?-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were measured in dust from living rooms shortly after birth. Current asthma at 6 years and 10 years of age and ever asthma up to 10 years of age were assessed by parental questionnaires. Specific IgE levels at 8 years (PIAMA) and 10 years (LISAplus) were available. Adjusted, cohort-specific logistic regression analyses were performed. Higher endotoxin concentrations were positively associated with current asthma at 6 years of age in PIAMA (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07-3.58), but were inversely related with ever asthma up to 10 years of age in INMA (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). No associations with asthma were found for LISAplus. No associations were observed with atopic sensitisation in all cohorts. All associations with (1,3)-?-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were statistically nonsignificant. The suggested immunological mechanisms of early exposure to bio-contaminants with regards to asthma and allergy might be different for children growing up in (sub)-urban environments.
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Elaidic, vaccenic, and rumenic acid status during pregnancy: association with maternal plasmatic LC-PUFAs and atopic manifestations in infants.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Few studies have explored whether fetal exposure to trans fatty acids (TFAs) influences the inception of atopic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentration of specific TFAs (elaidic, vaccenic, and rumenic acids) in maternal plasma and the risk of developing atopic manifestations in the first year of life.
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High blood pressure and long-term exposure to indoor noise and air pollution from road traffic.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Traffic noise has been associated with prevalence of hypertension, but reports are inconsistent for blood pressure (BP). To ascertain noise effects and to disentangle them from those suspected to be from traffic-related air pollution, it may be essential to estimate people's noise exposure indoors in bedrooms.
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Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Persistent Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Identifies FBXO33 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for the Disorder.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. At least 30% of patients diagnosed in childhood continue to suffer ADHD during adulthood and genetic risk factors may play an essential role in the persistence of the disorder throughout lifespan. To date, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) of ADHD have been completed in seven independent datasets, six of which were pediatric samples and one on persistent ADHD using a DNA-pooling strategy, but none of them reported genome-wide significant associations. In an attempt to unravel novel genes for the persistence of ADHD into adulthood, we conducted the first two-stage GWAS in adults with ADHD. The discovery sample included 607 ADHD cases and 584 controls. Top signals were subsequently tested for replication in three independent follow-up samples of 2,104 ADHD patients and 1,901 controls. None of the findings exceeded the genome-wide threshold for significance (PGC<5e-08), but we found evidence for the involvement of the FBXO33 gene in combined ADHD in the discovery sample (P=9.02e-07) and in the joint analysis of both stages (P=9.7e-03). Additional evidence for a FBXO33 role in ADHD was found through gene-wise and pathway enrichment analyses in our genomic study. Risk alleles were associated with lower FBXO33 expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines and with reduced frontal grey matter volume in a sample of 1,300 adult subjects. Our findings point for the first time at the ubiquitination machinery as a new disease mechanism for adult ADHD and establish a rationale for searching for additional risk variants in ubiquitination-related genes.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 06 October 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.267.
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The n-back test and the attentional network task as measures of child neuropsychological development in epidemiological studies.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Computerized neuropsychological tests offered several advantages for large epidemiological studies to assess child neuropsychological development. We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and criterion validity of 2 computerized tests (n-back and attentional network task [ANT]) used to assess the working memory and attention function, respectively. As part of the BREATHE (BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn) project, we evaluated the neuropsychological development of 2,904 children between 7 to 9 years of age. The main outcomes of the n-back test were d' scores and hit reaction time (RT) (HRT). The outcomes measured for ANT were incorrect responses, omissions, alerting, orienting, and conflict. We also collected data of child's sex, age, school achievement, ADHD symptomatology, behavioral problems, and maternal education. We observed that the d' scores and HRT showed acceptable internal consistency, reasonable factorial structure, as well as good criterion validity and statistical dependencies. Regarding the ANT, incorrect responses, omissions, and conflict score had acceptable criterion validity although the internal consistency of the ANT was low. We strongly recommend the use of these tests in environmental epidemiological studies as valid, objective, and easy-to-apply measures of child neuropsychological development.
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Prenatal exposure to DDE and PCB 153 and respiratory health in early childhood: a meta-analysis.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Persistent organic pollutants may affect the immune and respiratory systems, but available evidence is based on small study populations. We studied the association between prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153) and children's respiratory health in European birth cohorts.
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Particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the Mediterranean Basin: results from the MED-PARTICLES project.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Previous studies reported significant variability of air pollutants across Europe with the lowest concentrations generally found in Northern Europe and the highest in Southern European countries. Within the MED-PARTICLES project the spatial and temporal variations of long-term PM and gaseous pollutants data were investigated in traffic and urban background sites across Southern Europe. The highest PM levels were observed in Greece and Italy (Athens, Thessaloniki, Turin and Rome) while all traffic sites showed high NO2 levels, frequently exceeding the established limit value. High PM2.5/PM10 ratios were calculated indicating that fine particles comprise a large fraction of PM10, with the highest values found in the urban background sites. It seems that although in traffic sites the concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 are significantly higher than those registered in urban background sites, the coarse fraction PM2.5-10 is more important at the traffic sites. This fact is probably due to the high levels of resuspended road dust in sites highly affected by traffic, a phenomenon particularly relevant for Mediterranean countries. The long-term trends of air pollutants revealed a significant decrease of the concentration levels for PM, SO2 and CO while for NO2 no clear trend or slightly increasing trends were observed. This reduction could be attributed to the effectiveness of abatement measures and strategies and also to meteorological conditions and to the economic crisis that affected Southern Europe.
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In utero exposure to mixtures of xenoestrogens and child neuropsychological development.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To date, no epidemiological studies have explored the impact and persistence of in utero exposure to mixtures of xenoestrogens on the developing brain. We aimed to assess whether the cumulative effect of xenoestrogens in the placenta is associated with altered infant neuropsychological functioning at two and at four years of age, and if associations differ among boys and girls.
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Assessment of exposure to trace metals in a cohort of pregnant women from an urban center by urine analysis in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Prenatal exposure to trace metals, whether they are essential, non-essential, or toxic, must be assessed for their potential health effects in the offspring. Herein is reported an approach to this end which involved collection of urine samples during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy from 489 mothers from Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain), a highly industrialized town. These samples were analyzed for cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), antimonium (Sb), cesium (Cs), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). An acid digestion method was developed and validated for inductively coupled plasma quadruple mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) analysis of these 12 metals. The median concentrations of metals ranged from 0.13 to 290 ?g/g creatinine, the highest levels were found for Zn and the lowest for Th. The mean concentrations of most metals except As, Ni, Th, and Pb showed statistically significant differences between both trimesters. The concentrations of Mo, Se, Cd, Cs, and Sb were higher in the first than in the third trimester, whereas the opposite was found for Co, Cu, and Zn. The concentrations of all metals in both sampling periods showed statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 for Mo and Cu, p<0.001 for the others). The significant correlations of metal urine concentrations in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy suggest that the observed differences between both periods are related to physiological changes. Accordingly, the measured urine concentrations during either the first or third trimesters can be used as estimates of exposure during pregnancy and can serve as markers for prenatal intake of these metals in the studied cohort.
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Asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children living near a petrochemical site.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Residential proximity to environmental hazards has been related to adverse health outcomes. Respiratory health and allergies in children living near petrochemical sites have not been extensively studied. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to the petrochemical site of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) and the prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children. Children aged 6-7 (n=2672) and adolescents aged 13-14 (n=2524) residing near two large petrochemical sites and those living in a city with medium vehicular traffic were cross-sectionally compared with children from an area with low vehicular traffic and without industry. The prevalence of symptoms was measured using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood written and video questionnaires. Lung function measurements were done in a subsample of 959 adolescents in the four areas. Multivariable analyses were done to estimate the effects of the residential area on symptoms and lung function adjusted for potential confounders. Crude prevalence of symptoms was similar across the studied areas. After adjustment, children and adolescents living near a petrochemical site had a statistically significant higher prevalence of respiratory hospitalizations in the previous year (Prevalence Ratio (PR)=1.49; 95%CI, 1.06-2.09) and of nocturnal cough (PR=1.29; 95%CI 1.05-1.57), respectively. Reduced lung function values among adolescents residing near the petrochemical areas were not observed. Although a higher prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents living near the petrochemical sites could not be demonstrated, as described in other studies, respiratory hospitalizations and nocturnal cough could be related to short-term exposures to pollutants. Other clinical and sub-clinical respiratory health effects in the petrochemical industry areas should be investigated.
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Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.
JAMA Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children.
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Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges. This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment.
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Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohort studies (N total=15,980): BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), INMA (Spain), MAAS (United Kingdom) and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Annual average exposure to copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc, each respectively derived from particles with aerodynamic diameters ? 10 ?m (PM10) and 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), were estimated using standardized land use regression models and assigned to birth addresses. Cohort-specific associations between these exposures and parental reports of physician-diagnosed pneumonia between birth and two years were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for host and environmental covariates and total PM10 or PM2.5 mass. Combined estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. There was substantial within and between-cohort variability in element concentrations. In the adjusted meta-analysis, pneumonia was weakly associated with zinc derived from PM10 (OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.18) per 20 ng/m(3) increase). No other associations with the other elements were consistently observed. The independent effect of particulate matter mass remained after adjustment for element concentrations. In conclusion, associations between particulate matter mass exposure and pneumonia were not explained by the elements we investigated. Zinc from PM10 was the only element which appeared independently associated with a higher risk of early-life pneumonia. As zinc is primarily attributable to non-tailpipe traffic emissions, these results may suggest a potential adverse effect of non-tailpipe emissions on health.
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The human early-life exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure-health effect relationships. The "exposome" concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome.
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The development of the MeDALL Core Questionnaires for a harmonized follow-up assessment of eleven European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Numerous birth cohorts have been initiated in the world over the past 30 years using heterogeneous methods to assess the incidence, course and risk factors of asthma and allergies. The aim of the present work is to provide the stepwise proceedings of the development and current version of the harmonized MeDALL-Core Questionnaire (MeDALL-CQ) used prospectively in 11 European birth cohorts.
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Persistent organic pollutants and children's respiratory health: the role of cytokines and inflammatory biomarkers.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Evidence of adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on the developmental respiratory and immune systems in children is still limited, and the biological mechanisms behind such effects are not fully understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal DDE, HCB and ?PCB exposure on children's respiratory health from birth to 14 years and to evaluate the role of immune biomarkers in these associations. We measured prenatal DDE, HCB and ?PCB levels in 405 participants of the INMA-Menorca birth cohort (Spain) and collected information on wheeze, chest infections, atopy and asthma from birth until the age of 14 years. At age 4 years, 275 children provided serum samples and IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF? and C-reactive protein were measured. We applied linear and logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations. Prenatal DDE was associated with wheeze at age 4 years [RR (95% CI) per doubling of concentration=1.35 (1.07, 1.71)], but not thereafter. Prenatal HCB was associated with wheeze [1.58 (1.04, 2.41)] and chest infections [1.89 (1.10, 3.25)] at age 10years. No associations were found with ?PCBs. IL10 levels increased with increasing POP concentration, with HCB showing the strongest association [? (95% CI)=0.22 (0.02, 0.41)]. IL8, IL10 and TNF? were associated with wheeze and/or chest infections and IL10 was associated with asthma. Prenatal DDE and HCB exposure was associated with respiratory health of children at different ages. This study further suggests a possible role of IL10, but not of the other immune biomarkers examined, as an early marker of chronic immune-related health effects of POPs.
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Does motion-related brain functional connectivity reflect both artifacts and genuine neural activity?
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Imaging research on functional connectivity is uniquely contributing to characterize the functional organization of the human brain. Functional connectivity measurements, however, may be significantly influenced by head motion that occurs during image acquisition. The identification of how motion influences such measurements is therefore highly relevant to the interpretation of a study's results. We have mapped the effect of head motion on functional connectivity in six different populations representing a wide range of potential influences of motion on functional connectivity. Group-level voxel-wise maps of the correlation between a summary head motion measurement and functional connectivity degree were estimated in 80 young adults, 71 children, 53 older adults, 20 patients with Down syndrome, 24 with Prader-Willi syndrome and 20 with Williams syndrome. In highly compliant young adults, motion correlated with functional connectivity measurements showing a system-specific anatomy involving the sensorimotor cortex, visual areas and default mode network. Further characterization was strongly indicative of these changes expressing genuine neural activity related to motion, as opposed to pure motion artifact. In the populations with larger head motion, results were more indicative of widespread artifacts, but showing notably distinct spatial distribution patterns. Group-level regression of motion effects was efficient in removing both generalized changes and changes putatively related to neural activity. Overall, this study endorses a relatively simple approach for mapping distinct effects of head motion on functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings support the intriguing hypothesis that a component of motion-related changes may reflect system-specific neural activity.
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Association of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with blood pressure and hypertension in an adult population-based cohort in Spain (the REGICOR study).
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase blood pressure (BP) and induce hypertension. However, evidence supporting these associations is limited, and they may be confounded by exposure to traffic noise and biased due to inappropriate control for use of BP-lowering medications.
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In utero exposure to compounds with dioxin-like activity and birth outcomes.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Maternal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds may affect fetal growth and development. We evaluated the association between in utero dioxin-like activity and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother-child study.
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Green and Blue Spaces and Behavioral Development in Barcelona Schoolchildren: The BREATHE Project.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Background: Green spaces have been associated with improved mental health in children; however, available epidemiological evidence on their impact on child behavioral development is scarce. Objectives: To investigate the impact of contact with green spaces and blue spaces (beaches) on indicators of behavioral development and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schoolchildren. Methods: This study was based on a sample of 2,111 schoolchildren (7-10 years) from 36 schools in Barcelona (2012). We obtained data on time spent in green spaces and beaches, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) from parents, and ADHD/DSM-IV questionnaires from teachers. Surrounding greenness was abstracted as the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 100m, 250m, and 500m around each home address. Proximity to green spaces was defined as living within 300m of a major green space (?0.05 km(2)). We applied quasi-Poisson mixed effects models (with school random effect) to separately estimate associations between indicators of contact with green spaces and SDQ and ADHD total and subscale scores. Results: We generally estimated beneficial associations between behavioral indicators and longer time spent in green spaces and beaches, and with residential surrounding greenness. Specifically, we found statistically significant inverse associations between green space playing time and SDQ total difficulties, emotional symptoms, and peer relationship problems; between residential surrounding greenness and SDQ total difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention and ADHD/DSM-IV total and inattention scores; and between annual beach attendance and SDQ total difficulties, peer relationship problems, and prosocial behavior. For proximity to major green spaces the results were not conclusive. Conclusion: Our findings support beneficial impacts of contact with green and blue spaces on behavioral development in schoolchildren.
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Association of ambient air pollution with the prevalence and incidence of COPD.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The role of air pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. The aim was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to air pollution on COPD in four cohorts using the standardised ESCAPE exposure estimates. Annual average particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic exposure were assigned to home addresses using land-use regression models. COPD was defined by NHANES reference equation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than the lower limit of normal) and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criterion (FEV1/FVC <0.70) and categorised by severity in non-asthmatics. We included 6550 subjects with assigned NOx and 3692 with PM measures. COPD was not associated with NO2 or PM10 in any individual cohort. In meta-analyses only NO2, NOx, PM10 and the traffic indicators were positively, although not significantly, associated with COPD. The only statistically significant associations were seen in females (COPD prevalence using GOLD: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.23; and incidence: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.68). None of the principal results were statistically significant, the weak positive associations of exposure with COPD and the significant subgroup findings need to be evaluated in further well standardised cohorts followed up for longer time, and with time-matched exposure assignments.
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Food sources of arsenic in pregnant Mediterranean women with high urine concentrations of this metalloid.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Seafood consumption provides a significant amount of arsenic, although in its organic, nontoxic forms. Mediterranean populations may incorporate high levels of this metalloid as a consequence of seafood consumption. In the present study, the significance of this input among pregnant women from a Mediterranean city (Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain) is assessed. Total urinary arsenic was analyzed in 489 pairs of urine samples, corresponding to the 12th and 32 th weeks of pregnancy. Association of arsenic content with seafood and other dietary items were studied. Geometric mean concentrations were 34 and 37 ?g/g creatinine during the first and third trimesters, respectively. The observed concentrations were similar to those reported in studies from other Mediterranean countries. The differences between both periods were not statistically significant. The only dietary factor significantly and positively associated with total urinary arsenic in both series of samples was seafood, particularly lean fish. Moreover, lean fish consumption during both periods was found to be the main determinant for differences in levels of arsenic between the first and third trimesters, which confirms the association between high levels of total urinary arsenic and seafood consumption.
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A common 16p11.2 inversion underlies the joint susceptibility to asthma and obesity.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The prevalence of asthma and obesity is increasing worldwide, and obesity is a well-documented risk factor for asthma. The mechanisms underlying this association and parallel time trends remain largely unknown but genetic factors may be involved. Here, we report on a common ~0.45 Mb genomic inversion at 16p11.2 that can be accurately genotyped via SNP array data. We show that the inversion allele protects against the joint occurrence of asthma and obesity in five large independent studies (combined sample size of 317 cases and 543 controls drawn from a total of 5,809 samples; combined OR = 0.48, p = 5.5 × 10(-6)). Allele frequencies show remarkable worldwide population stratification, ranging from 10% in East Africa to 49% in Northern Europe, consistent with discordant and extreme genetic drifts or adaptive selections after human migration out of Africa. Inversion alleles strongly correlate with expression levels of neighboring genes, especially TUFM (p = 3.0 × 10(-40)) that encodes a mitochondrial protein regulator of energy balance and inhibitor of type 1 interferon, and other candidates for asthma (IL27) and obesity (APOB48R and SH2B1). Therefore, by affecting gene expression, the ~0.45 Mb 16p11.2 inversion provides a genetic basis for the joint susceptibility to asthma and obesity, with a population attributable risk of 39.7%. Differential mitochondrial function and basal energy balance of inversion alleles might also underlie the potential selection signature that led to their uneven distribution in world populations.
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Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother-child study (NewGeneris).
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Maternal diet can result in exposure to environmental contaminants including dioxins which may influence foetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal diet and birth outcomes by defining a dioxin-rich diet. We used validated food frequency questionnaires to assess the diet of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify a dioxin-rich dietary pattern based on dioxin-like activity (DR-CALUX®) levels in maternal plasma, and calculated a dioxin-diet score as an estimate of adherence to this dietary pattern. In the five country population, dioxin-diet score was characterised by high consumption of red and white meat, lean and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders. A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.
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Impacts of atmospheric chlor-alkali factory emissions in surrounding populations.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Environmental exposures need to be assessed for the understanding of the health risks of general population. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) from chlor-alkali plants (CAPs) are significant for the exposomes of individuals living in locations receiving their emissions and have to be determined. The aims of the study are to identify the area of influence of past and present OC emissions from CAPs and to set quantitative body burden estimates. A CAP situated in a rural area was selected for study. The geographic distribution of the atmospheric emissions was monitored using olive tree leaves. Human biomonitoring was assessed by serum analysis from general population (n=1340). OC concentrations followed exponential decay functions with maxima in the immediate vicinity of the factory. The individuals living within 1km exhibited hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDT-DDE (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) concentrations that were 12, 1.3-1.9 and 3.9 times higher than in sites not influenced by the emissions from this factory. Individuals from municipalities situated 15-25km away from the CAP showed 1.5, 1.2-1.4 and 1.3 times higher serum HCB, PCB and DDT concentrations than in distant sites. The high serum concentrations of DDT and PCBs were observed even 23-31years and 9-17years after manufacture completion of these compounds, respectively. Our methodology provides a way for assessment of the influence of past and present atmospheric OCs emissions from CAPs into the exposome of individuals living in nearby areas.
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Continuous Performance Test II Outcomes in 11-Year-Old Children With Early ADHD Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Objective: This study aimed to assess the association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at preschool age and attention functioning at 11 years old. Method: Four-year-old children (n = 422) were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) ADHD form list for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms. Cognitive development and social behavior were also assessed at this age. The Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II) was used to assess attention function when the children were 11 years old. Results: The presence of inattention symptoms predicted more omission errors (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.07, 95% CI [1.02, 1.12]) and slower hit reaction time (HRT; ? = 3.27, 95% CI [0.72, 5.81]) in CPT-II. Both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms predicted greater standard error in the HRT (HRT [SE]) (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI [1.01, 1.03]). The inclusion of social competence and cognitive scores in the multivariate regression models diminished the association with omissions, whereas their inclusion did not change associations with the two HRT outcomes. Stronger associations between inattention symptoms and HRT were observed in the last 2 time-duration blocks of the CPT-II. No associations were found with commissions and detectability. Conclusions: The presence of ADHD symptoms in preschool children was longitudinally associated with a lower performance on the CPT-II. Omission errors seemed to be partly explained by early social and cognitive competences. Slower HRTs showed a direct association with inattention symptoms, particularly in the latest CPT-II blocks. HRT (SE) was strongly related to hyperactivity symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Prenatal bisphenol a urine concentrations and early rapid growth and overweight risk in the offspring.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Increasing experimental evidence suggests that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure induces offspring weight gain, but these effects remain largely unexplored in humans. We examined the effects of prenatal BPA exposure on postnatal growth and obesity.
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A cohort study on full breastfeeding and child neuropsychological development: the role of maternal social, psychological, and nutritional factors.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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This study investigated whether duration of full breastfeeding is associated with child neuropsychological development and whether this association is explained by social, psychological, and nutritional factors within families.
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Bulky dna adducts in cord blood, maternal fruit-and-vegetable consumption, and birth weight in a European mother-child study (NewGeneris).
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Tobacco-smoke, airborne, and dietary exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with reduced prenatal growth. Evidence from biomarker-based studies of low-exposed populations is limited. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood reflect the prenatal effective dose to several genotoxic agents including PAHs.
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Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects? An illustration of the bias-variance trade-off in air pollution epidemiology.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may also enhance the potential for confounding. We aimed to discuss some analytical approaches to handle this trade-off.
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Prenatal exposure to cooking gas and respiratory health in infants is modified by tobacco smoke exposure and diet in the INMA birth cohort study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Studies that have evaluated the association between exposure to gas appliances emissions at home with respiratory health in children obtained heterogeneous and limited results. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between the use of gas cooking at home during pregnancy and respiratory problems in children during their first year of life.
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Ten-year follow-up of cluster-based asthma phenotypes in adults. A pooled analysis of three cohorts.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The temporal stability of adult asthma phenotypes identified using clustering methods has never been addressed. Longitudinal cluster-based methods may provide novel insights in the study of the natural history of asthma.
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Maternal prepregnancy obesity is an independent risk factor for frequent wheezing in infants by age 14 months.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Maternal prepregnancy obesity has been linked to the offsprings risk for subsequent asthma. We determined whether maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of wheezing phenotypes early in life.
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Storage conditions and stability of global DNA methylation in placental tissue.
Epigenomics
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The placenta is an informative and easily available tissue for many epidemiological studies. We analyzed the extent to which storage delay affects DNA methylation.
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Thyroxine levels during pregnancy in healthy women and early child neurodevelopment.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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The fetus depends on maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy for normal brain development. Little is known about the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism and mild hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the child.
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Mediterranean diet adherence during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in the first year of life: INMA (Spain) and RHEA (Greece) mother-child cohort studies.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the RHEA study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and processed meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.
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Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children: a prospective birth cohort study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life.In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial exposures, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school age.
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Communication of results and disclosure of incidental findings in longitudinal paediatric research.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Communicating results to research participants is an issue frequently discussed in terms of ethics. It has specific features when involving large-scale paediatric cohorts. High-throughput biological explorations reveal also incidental findings of medical relevance. This work analyses existing frameworks for managing such issues and proposes a policy grounded in the experience acquired in the FP7 EU project MeDALL-Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy.
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Parental psychological distress during pregnancy and wheezing in preschool children: The Generation R Study.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy might affect fetal lung development and subsequently predispose children to childhood asthma.
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Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity, and child neuropsychological development: two Southern European birth cohort studies.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may be associated with impaired infant neuropsychological development; however, there are few studies and it is unclear if reported associations are due to intrauterine mechanisms.
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Exposure to metals during pregnancy and neuropsychological development at the age of 4 years.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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There is insufficient epidemiological evidence for deciding whether prenatal exposure to the current low-levels of metals in developed countries may affect neuropsychological function in early childhood.
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Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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To examine the effects of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and overweight at 14 months of age.
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Ambient air pollution: a cause of COPD?
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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The role of ambient air pollution in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be uncertain. We review the evidence in the light of recent studies. Eight morbidity and six mortality studies were identified. These were heterogeneous in design, characterisation of exposure to air pollution and methods of outcome definition. Six morbidity studies with objectively defined COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio) were cross-sectional analyses. One longitudinal study defined incidence of COPD as the first hospitalisation due to COPD. However, neither mortality nor hospitalisation studies can unambiguously distinguish acute from long-term effects on the development of the underlying pathophysiological changes. Most studies were based on within-community exposure contrasts, which mainly assess traffic-related air pollution. Overall, evidence of chronic effects of air pollution on the prevalence and incidence of COPD among adults was suggestive but not conclusive, despite plausible biological mechanisms and good evidence that air pollution affects lung development in childhood and triggers exacerbations in COPD patients. To fully integrate this evidence in the assessment, the life-time course of COPD should be better defined. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods, specific definitions of COPD phenotypes, and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments are needed.
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Association between Child Cortisol Levels in Saliva and Neuropsychological Development during the Second Year of Life.
Stress Health
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Exposure to highly elevated levels of cortisol has been linked with impairments in cognitive capacities in both children and adults. By contrast, moderate levels of cortisol may engender beneficial effects. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between child cortisol levels and neuropsychological development during the second year of life. A population-based birth cohort was established in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain) as part of the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project. We assessed the cognitive and psychomotor development at the age of 14?months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). We included 302 children assessed during their second year of life for whom we had information on neuropsychological assessment and measurements of cortisol in saliva. Higher levels of cortisol were associated with better scores in BSIDs mental scale. There was no association between cortisol levels and psychomotor test scores. We found a small positive association between duration of breastfeeding and child cortisol levels. This association was only found in boys. The results of this study suggest that moderate levels of cortisol in children could have small beneficial effects on their early neuropsychological development. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Dietary and sociodemographic determinants of bisphenol A urine concentrations in pregnant women and children.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during early life may have endocrine-disrupting effects, but the dietary and sociodemographic predictors of BPA exposure during pregnancy and childhood remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations between, and sociodemographic and dietary predictors of, serial urinary BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy and childhood in a Spanish birth cohort study. BPA was measured in two spot urine samples collected from 479 women during the first and third trimester of pregnancy and in one urine sample from their 4-year old children (n=130). Average dietary intakes were reported in food frequency questionnaires during the first and third pregnancy trimester and at age 4years. Multivariate mixed models and linear regression models were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and dietary factors and BPA concentrations. A small, but statistically significant correlation was found between serial maternal BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy (r=0.17). Pregnant women who were younger, less-educated, smoked, and who were exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) had higher BPA concentrations than others. BPA concentrations were also higher in children exposed to SHS. High consumption of canned fish during pregnancy was associated with 21% [GM ratio=1.21; 95%CI 1.02, 1.44] and 25% [GM ratio=1.25; 95%CI 1.05, 1.49] higher urinary BPA concentrations in the first and third pregnancy trimester, respectively, compared to the lowest consumption group. This study suggests that canned fish may be a major source of BPA during pregnancy in Spain, a country of high canned fish consumption. Further evaluation of specific BPA exposure sources in the sociodemographic group of younger women who smoke, are exposed to SHS, and have a low educational level is needed. Studies identifying sources of exposure would benefit from repeat BPA measurements and questionnaires specifically focused on dietary and packaging sources.
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Differences on the effect of heat waves on mortality by sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Mortality increases during heat waves have been reported worldwide. The magnitude of these increases can vary within regions according to sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics. The objectives of this study were to explore this variation and its determinants, and to identify the most heat-vulnerable areas by mapping heat vulnerability.
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Parental psychological distress during pregnancy and early growth in preschool children: the generation R study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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This study separately assessed the associations of maternal and paternal psychological distress during pregnancy with early growth in preschool children. The study was based on data from a population-based cohort study involving 5,283 children and their parents (with data collected beginning in early pregnancy) in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, from 2002 to 2006. Information on parental psychological distress (symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, and family stress) was obtained by questionnaire in the second trimester of gestation by using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the "general functioning" subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Child height, weight, and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) were measured repeatedly from age 3 months to age 4 years. We observed no consistent associations between overall maternal psychological symptoms, depression, anxiety, or hostility and child height, weight, or body mass index after adjustment for confounders. All maternal psychological distress scores were positively associated with the risk of overweight in childhood; however, these associations attenuated toward the null and became nonsignificant after adjusting for potential confounders. We did not observe consistent associations between paternal psychological distress and growth in childhood. These results indicate that social, behavioral, or environmental factors that cluster with parental psychological distress may explain the previously suggested associations between maternal psychological distress and early childhood growth and risk of overweight.
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Mould and dampness in dwelling places, and onset of asthma: the population-based cohort ECRHS.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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To study new onset of adult asthma in relation to dampness and moulds in dwelling places.
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Influence of socio-demographic and diet determinants on the levels of mercury in preschool children from a Mediterranean island.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Mercury levels measured in 302 hair samples of 4 year-old children from Menorca (western Mediterranean Sea) are reported. Their concentrations, arithmetic mean 1.4 ?g/g, ranging between 0.040 ?g/g and 10 ?g/g, were higher than in other children inland populations but lower than in previously studied island cohorts, e.g. Faroe, Madeira and Seychelles. 20% of the samples were above the WHO recommended values. Higher concentrations in females than males were observed. Frequent consumption of fish and other seafood were significantly related to the observed mercury concentrations. Oily fish was the main source of this pollutant but shellfish and squid consumption were also associated with high mercury concentrations. Maternal smoking, occupational status or previous siblings were also found to significantly influence the levels of this pollutant. McCarthy Scales of Childrens Abilities used to assess childrens motor and cognitive abilities did not show association with mercury concentrations at 4 years of age.
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The relation of circulating YKL-40 to levels and decline of lung function in adult life.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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YKL-40 is a chitinase-like protein that, in cross-sectional clinical studies, has been associated with severe asthma and COPD in smokers.
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Early life exposures to home dampness, pet ownership and farm animal contact and neuropsychological development in 4 year old children: a prospective birth cohort study.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Exposure to biocontaminants is associated with behavioural problems and poorer cognitive function. Our study assesses the associations between early life exposure to home dampness, pets and farm animal contact and cognitive function and social competences in 4-year old children, and the associations between these indoor factors and microbial compounds (bacterial endotoxin and fungal extracellular polysaccharides). A Spanish population-based birth-cohort enrolled 482 children, and 424 of them underwent psychometric testing at 4 years of age, including the McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities (MSCA) and the California Preschool Social Competence Scale (CPSCS). Information on pet ownership, farm animal contact and home dampness was periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. Microbial compounds were measured in living room sofa dust collected at the age of 3 months. Persistent home dampness during early life significantly decreased the general score of MSCA by 4.9 points (95% CI: -8.9; -0.8), and it decreased the CPSCS by 6.5 points (95% CI: -12.2; -0.9) in the childs bedroom. Cat or dog ownership were not associated with the outcomes, but occasional farm animal contact increased the general cognitive score of MSCA by 5.6 points (95% CI: 1.8; 9.3). Cat and dog ownership were associated with higher levels of endotoxins in home dust. None of the measured microbial compounds were related with the psychometric tests scores. In conclusion, damp housing in early life may have adverse effects on neuropsychological development at 4 years old. More research is needed to explore the possible involvement of mycotoxins in the observed results.
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Associations between blood persistent organic pollutants and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in pregnancy.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are suggested to contribute to lower vitamin D levels; however, studies in humans are scarce and have never focused on pregnancy, a susceptibility period for vitamin D deficiency. We investigated whether serum levels of POPs were associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentration in pregnancy. Cross-sectional associations of serum concentrations of eight POPs with plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration were analyzed in 2031 pregnant women participating in the Spanish population-based cohort INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. Serum concentrations of POPs were measured by gas chromatography and plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in pregnancy (mean 13.3±1.5weeks of gestation). Multivariable regression models were performed to assess the relationship between blood concentrations of POPs and 25(OH)D3. An inverse linear relationship was found between serum concentration of PCB180 and circulating 25(OH)D3. Multivariate linear regression models showed higher PCB180 levels to be associated with lower 25(OH)D3 concentration: quartile Q4 vs. quartile Q1, coefficient=-1.59, 95% CI -3.27, 0.08, p trend=0.060. A non-monotonic inverse relationship was found between the sum of predominant PCB congeners (PCB 180, 153 and 138) and 25(OH)D3 concentration: coefficient (95% CI) for quartile Q2 vs. Q1 [-0.50 (-1.94, 0.94)], quartile Q3 vs. Q1 [-1.56 (-3.11, -0.02)] and quartile Q4 vs. Q1 [-1.21 (-2.80, 0.38)], p trend=0.081. No significant associations were found between circulating 25(OH)D3 and serum levels of p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT, HCB, and ß-HCH. Our results suggest that the background exposure to PCBs may result in lower 25(OH)D3 concentration in pregnant women.
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Swimming pool attendance, respiratory symptoms and infections in the first year of life.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We evaluated the relationship between indoor and outdoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and infections during the first year of life. A population-based mother-child cohort study was conducted in four Spanish areas (INMA project). Study subjects were recruited at pregnancy, followed to delivery and 14 months after birth. Information on swimming pool attendance and health manifestations during the first year of life was collected at 14 months: low respiratory tract infection (LRTI), persistent cough, wheezing, atopic eczema and otitis. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence interval (OR 95 %CI) were calculated by logistic regression adjusting for confounders. Among the 2,205 babies included, 37 % reported having LRTI, 37 % wheezing, 16 % persistent cough, 22 % atopic eczema, 33 % otitis and 50 % attended swimming pools during the first year of life. Around 40 % went to outdoor pools in summer with a median cumulative duration of 7.5 h/year, and 20 % attended indoor pools with a median cumulative duration of 18 h/year. Pool attendance differed by area, season of birth and sociodemographic characteristics, and was not associated with LRTI, wheezing, persistent cough, atopic eczema or otitis. Adjusted OR of wheezing and LRTI were, respectively, 1.06 (95 %CI, 0.88-1.28) and 1.09 (0.90-1.31) for babies attending vs. babies not attending pools. Stratification by type of swimming pool, cumulative duration or parental atopy did not modify the results. Conclusion: No association was detected between pool attendance and LRTI, wheezing, persistent cough, atopic eczema or otitis during the first year of life in Spain.
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Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research question.
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Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood: results from 8 European Birth Cohorts--a Global Allergy and Asthma European Network initiative.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed are lacking.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.