More than 70% of muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC) express the cell-surface antigen sialyl-Tn (sTn) that promotes motility and invasive potential of tumor cells. Effective drug testing models to optimize therapy against these tumors are warranted.
Despite the wide acceptance that glycans are centrally implicated in immunity, exactly how they contribute to the tilt immune response remains poorly defined. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the malignant phenotype-associated glycan, sialyl-Tn (STn) in the function of the key orchestrators of the immune response, the dendritic cells (DCs). In high grade bladder cancer tissue, the STn antigen is significantly overexpressed and correlated with the increased expression of ST6GALNAC1 sialyltransferase. Bladder cancer tissue presenting elevated expression of ST6GALNAC1 showed a correlation with increased expression of CD1a, a marker for bladder immature DCs and showed concomitant low levels of Th1-inducing cytokines IL-12 and TNF-?. In vitro, human DCs co-incubated with STn(+) bladder cancer cells, had an immature phenotype (MHC-II(low), CD80(low) and CD86(low)) and were unresponsive to further maturation stimuli. When contacting with STn(+) cancer cells, DCs expressed significantly less IL-12 and TNF-?. Consistent with a tolerogenic DC profile, T cells that were primed by DCs pulsed with antigens derived from STn(+) cancer cells were not activated and showed a FoxP3(high) IFN-?(low) phenotype. Blockade of STn antigens and of STn(+) glycoprotein, CD44 and MUC1, in STn(+) cancer cells was able to lower the induction of tolerance and DCs become more mature. Overall, our data suggest that STn-expressing cancer cells impair DC maturation and endow DCs with a tolerogenic function, limiting their capacity to trigger protective anti-tumour T cell responses. STn antigens and, in particular, STn(+) glycoproteins are potential targets for circumventing tumour-induced tolerogenic mechanisms.
Little is known on the expression of the tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Tn (STn), in bladder cancer. We report here that 75% of the high-grade bladder tumours, presenting elevated proliferation rates and high risk of recurrence/progression expressed STn. However, it was mainly found in non-proliferative areas of the tumour, namely in cells invading the basal and muscle layers. STn was also found in tumour-adjacent mucosa, which suggests its dependence on a field effect of the tumour. Furthermore, it was not expressed by the normal urothelium, demonstrating the cancer-specific nature of this antigen. STn expression correlated with that of sialyltransferase ST6GalNAc.I, its major biosynthetic enzyme. The stable expression of ST6GalNAc.I in the bladder cancer cell line MCR induced STn expression and a concomitant increase of cell motility and invasive capability. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time a link between STn expression and malignancy in bladder cancer. Hence, therapies targeting STn may constitute new treatment approaches for these tumours.
Gastric cancer is preceded by a carcinogenesis pathway that includes gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic atrophic gastritis that may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and ultimately gastric carcinoma of the more common intestinal subtype. The identification of glycosylation changes in circulating serum proteins in patients with precursor lesions of gastric cancer is of high interest and represents a source of putative new biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. This study applies a glycoproteomic approach to identify altered glycoproteins expressing the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens T and STn in the serum of patients with gastritis, IM (complete and incomplete subtypes), and control healthy individuals. The immunohistochemistry analysis of the gastric mucosa of these patients showed expression of T and STn antigens in gastric lesions, with STn being expressed only in IM. The serum glycoproteomic analysis using 2D-gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry led to the identification of circulating proteins carrying these altered glycans. One of the glycoproteins identified was plasminogen, a protein that has been reported to play a role in H. pylori chronic infection of the gastric mucosa and is involved in extracellular matrix modeling and degradation. Plasminogen was further characterized and showed to carry STn antigens in patients with gastritis and IM. These results provide evidence of serum proteins displaying abnormal O-glycosylation in patients with precursor lesions of gastric carcinoma and include a panel of putative targets for the non-invasive clinical diagnosis of individuals with gastritis and IM.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.