The immune response modifier Canova® is a homeopathic remedy indicated for patients with depressed immune system, since this drug appears to increase adaptive immunity and induce an immune response against multiple and severe pathological conditions, including cancer. We evaluated the pattern of immune cellular response in non-human primates of the species Cebus apella exposed to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with and without Canova®. Twelve animals were divided into four groups, with three animals each: negative control and three experimental groups, MNU-alone (35 days); MNU (35 days)-plus-Canova® (3 days) and Canova®-alone (3 days). The animals received MNU orally and Canova® by three intravenous injections. Evaluation of the cellular immune response was performed by immunophenotyping of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+)), B-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Analysis was also performed of the cell cycle. Our results suggest an increase of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+)CD3(+)) only in the Canova® group, while in the MNU-plus-Canova® group only B-lymphocytes increased.
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is of interest for reproductive studies because of their high and variable fertility in captivity. However, to understand this variability, much basic information still needs to be gathered. This study is the first to characterize marmoset semen comparing a German and a Brazilian colony.
Callithrix penicillata belongs to the family Callitrichidae, Callithrix genus. They are basically insectivorous, but they consume fruits. The mucosa of the tongue is composed of some papillary types, revealing different levels of expertise. The present study attempted to describe the morphological and ultrastructural aspects of the dorsal surface of the C. penicillata, describing the characteristics and distribution of papillae found. Five tongues of C. penicillata (two females and three males), obtained from breeding colonies of CENP-Ananindeua-PA, died from natural causes. The material was fixed partly in a buffer solution paraformaldehyde 10% and partly in modified Karnovsky solution, divided into apex, body, and root, and then the fragments were used in light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The average length of the tongue of the females was 22 mm and for males 20.5 mm. Three types of papillae were described: filiform (along all tissue extension with 154 ?m of diameter), fungiform (along all tissue extension with 275 ?m of diameter), and vallate (just three units in caudal (dorsal) portion with 672 ?m of diameter). Data analysis indicates that the distribution and ultrastructural morphology of the C. penicillata lingual papillae are some similar to other primates.
The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th) day though on the 14(th) day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th) day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments.
Saimiri sciureus is one of the smallest Cebidae native of Amazon region and also found at the biological reserve of northeast Atlantic forest. It is an omnivore animal, with diversified diet that directly influences the lingual mucosa, which includes certain types of papillae with different organization levels. The present study attempted to describe the morphological and ultrastructure aspects of the dorsal surface of the S. sciureus. Five tongues of de S. sciureus were analyzed from three males and two females who died from natural causes and were obtained from breeding colonies of CENP-Ananindeua-PA. Main macroscopic features were a general triangular shape with a craniocaudal elongation pointed apex. Tissue samples--apex, body, and root of tongue--were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution, following standard scanning protocol, mounted in stubs, coated by gold, and analyzed by Scanning Electron Macroscopy (SEM). Four types of papillae were described: filiform (along all tissue extension with 154 ?m of diameter), fungiform (along all tissue extension with 272 ?m of diameter), vallate [just three units in caudal (dorsal) portion with 830 ?m of diameter] and foliate (one pair at caudolateral surface with ? 13 projections and 3000 ?m in length). Data analysis indicates that the distribution and ultra structural morphology of the S. sciureus lingual papillae are some similar to other primates.
Animal experimentation contributes significantly to the progression of science. Nonhuman primates play a particularly important role in biomedical research not only because of their anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral similarities with humans but also because of their close phylogenetic affinities. In order to investigate the use of New World primates (NWP) in biomedical research over the last four decades (1966-2005), we performed a quantitative study of the literature listed in bibliographic databases from the Health Sciences. The survey was performed for each genus of NWP that has been bred in the National Center of Primates in Brazil. The number of articles published was determined for each genus and sorted according to the country from which the studies originated and the general scientific field. The data obtained suggests that Brazil is a leader in generating knowledge with NWP models for translational medicine.
This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).
Despite the high incidence, the molecular events involved in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. We previously established an intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis model in Cebus apella, a New World monkey. In the present study, we evaluated hTERT and TP53 mRNA expression, as well as their protein immunoreactivity, in normal mucosa, non-atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and intestinal-type gastric cancer samples of non-human primates treated with N-methyl-nitrosourea. In addition, we evaluated the number of TP53 copies in these samples. Although hTERT immunoreactivity was only detected in gastric cancer, a continuous increase of hTERT mRNA expression was observed from non-atrophic gastritis to gastric tumors. No sample presented p53 immunoreactivity. However, we also observed a continuous decrease of TP53 mRNA expression during the sequential steps of gastric carcinogenesis. Moreover, loss of TP53 copies was observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer samples. Our study highlights that hTERT and TP53 have a key role in intestinal-type gastric cancer initiation.
Canova is a complex homeopathic medicine that enhances a specific immunologic responses against several exogenous and endogenous conditions. Canova activates macrophages both in vivo and in vitro.
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