JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Altered Distribution of Hippocampal Interneurons in the Murine Down Syndrome Model Ts65Dn.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Down Syndrome, with an incidence of one in 800 live births, is the most common genetic alteration producing intellectual disability. We have used the Ts65Dn model, that mimics some of the alterations observed in Down Syndrome. This genetic alteration induces an imbalance between excitation and inhibition that has been suggested as responsible for the cognitive impairment present in this syndrome. The hippocampus has a crucial role in memory processing and is an important area to analyze this imbalance. In this report we have analysed, in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice, the expression of synaptic markers: synaptophysin, vesicular glutamate transporter-1 and isoform 67 of the glutamic acid decarboxylase; and of different subtypes of inhibitory neurons (Calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin, calretinin, NPY, CCK, VIP and somatostatin). We have observed alterations in the inhibitory neuropil in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice. There was an excess of inhibitory puncta and a reduction of the excitatory ones. In agreement with this observation, we have observed an increase in the number of inhibitory neurons in CA1 and CA3, mainly interneurons expressing calbindin, calretinin, NPY and VIP, whereas parvalbumin cell numbers were not affected. These alterations in the number of interneurons, but especially the alterations in the proportion of the different types, may influence the normal function of inhibitory circuits and underlie the cognitive deficits observed in DS.
Related JoVE Video
Antimutagenicity of Methanolic Extracts from Anemopsis californica in Relation to Their Antioxidant Activity.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anemopsis californica has been used empirically to treat infectious diseases. However, there are no antimutagenic evaluation reports on this plant. The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity in relation to the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity properties of leaf (LME) and stem (SME) methanolic extracts of A. californica collected in the central Mexican state of Querétaro. Antioxidant properties and total phenols of extracts were evaluated using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. Mutagenicity was evaluated using the Ames test employing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, and TA102), with and without an aroclor 1254 (S9 mixture). Antimutagenesis was performed against mutations induced on the Ames test with MNNG, 2AA, or 4NQO. SME presented the highest antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. None of the extracts exhibited mutagenicity in the Ames test. The extracts produced a significant reduction in 2AA-induced mutations in S. typhimurium TA98. In both extracts, mutagenesis induced by 4NQO or methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was reduced only if the exposure of strains was <10??g/Petri dish. A. californca antioxidant properties and its capacity to reduce point mutations render it suitable to enhance medical cancer treatments. The significant effect against antimutagenic 2AA suggests that their consumption would provide protection against carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds.
Related JoVE Video
Infrared thermography is useful for ruling out fractures in paediatric emergencies.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Musculoskeletal injuries are a leading cause of paediatric injuries and emergency department visits in Western countries. Diagnosis usually involves radiography, but this exposes children without fractures to unnecessary ionising radiation. We explored whether infrared thermography could provide a viable alternative in trauma cases. We compared radiography and thermal images of 133 children who had been diagnosed with a trauma injury in the emergency unit of a Spanish hospital. As well as the thermal variables in the literature, we introduced a new quantifier variable, the size of the lesion. Decision tree models were built to assess the technique's accuracy in diagnosing whether a bone had been fractured or not. Infrared thermography had a sensitivity of 0.91, a specificity of 0.88 and a negative predictive value of 0.95. The new lesion size variable introduced appeared to be of main importance to the discriminatory power of the method. Conclusion: The high negative predictive value of infrared thermography suggests that it is a promising method for ruling out fractures.
Related JoVE Video
The usefulness of densitometry in predicting the composition and fragility of urolithiasis.
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The choice of ideal treatment for a given lithiasis is a crucial factor for its success, minimizing the number of interventions and complications. Previous determination of stone composition and its fragility is desirable, to predict its behavior during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and for evaluation of its appropriateness, or to set the indication for other techniques.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of cluster yield components by image analysis.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Berry weight, berry number and cluster weight are key parameters for yield estimation for wine and tablegrape industry. Current yield prediction methods are destructive, labour-demanding and time-consuming. In this work, a new methodology, based on image analysis was developed to determine cluster yield components in a fast and inexpensive way.
Related JoVE Video
Brucella ceti infection in dolphins from the Western Mediterranean sea.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background Brucella ceti infections have been increasingly reported in cetaceans. Brucellosis in these animals is associated with meningoencephalitis, abortion, discospondylitis¿, subcutaneous abscesses, endometritis and other pathological conditions B. ceti infections have been frequently described in dolphins from both, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, only two reports have been made: one from the Italian Tyrrhenian Sea and the other from the Adriatic Sea.ResultsWe describe the clinical and pathological features of three cases of B. ceti infections in three dolphins stranded in the Mediterranean Catalonian coast. One striped dolphin had neurobrucellosis, showing lethargy, incoordination and lateral swimming due to meningoencephalitis, A B. ceti infected bottlenose dolphin had discospondylitis, and another striped dolphin did not show clinical signs or lesions related to Brucella infection. A detailed characterization of the three B. ceti isolates was performed by bacteriological, molecular, protein and fatty acid analyses.ConclusionsAll the B. ceti strains originating from Mediterranean dolphins cluster together in a distinct phylogenetic clade, close to that formed by B. ceti isolates from dolphins inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean. Our study confirms the severity of pathological signs in stranded dolphins and the relevance of B. ceti as a pathogen in the Mediterranean Sea.
Related JoVE Video
The electronic cigarette. Official statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy, safety and regulation of electronic cigarettes.
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The electronic cigarette (EC) is a device formed by three basic elements: battery, atomizer and cartridge. When assembled, it looks like a cigarette. The cartridge contains different substances: propylene glycol, glycerine and, sometimes, nicotine. When the user "vapes", the battery is activated, the atomizer is heated and the liquid is drawn in and vaporized. The smoker inhales the mist produced. Various substances have been detected in this mist: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein and some heavy metals. Although these are found in lower concentrations than in cigarettes, they may still be harmful for the human body. Several surveys show that 3-10% of smokers regularly use e-cigarettes. A randomized study has shown that the efficacy of e-cigarettes for helping smokers to quit is similar to nicotine patches. Nevertheless, the study has relevant methodological limitations and reliable conclusions cannot be deduced. This report sets down the Position Statement of the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes. This statement declares that e-cigarettes should be regulated as medicinal products.
Related JoVE Video
Astrocytes of the murine model for Down Syndrome Ts65Dn display reduced intracellular ionic zinc.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zinc is an essential trace element that is critical for a large number of structural proteins, enzymatic processes and transcription factors. In the brain, zinc ions are involved in synaptic transmission. The homeostasis of zinc is crucial for cell survival and function, and cells have developed a wide variety of systems to control zinc concentration. Alterations in free zinc concentration have been related with brain dysfunction. Down Syndrome individuals present alterations in free zinc concentration and in some of the proteins related with zinc homeostasis. We have analyzed the amount of free zinc and the zinc chelating protein metallothionein 3 in the astrocytes using primary cultures of the murine model Ts65Dn. We have observed a higher number of zinc positive spots in the cytoplasm of trisomic astrocytes but a decrease in the total concentration of total intracellular free zinc concentration (including the spots) respect to control astrocytes. Using FM1-43 staining, we found that the endocytic function remains unaltered. Therefore, a possible explanation for this lower concentration of free zinc could be the higher concentration of metallothionein 3 present in the cytoplasm of trisomic astrocytes. The blockade of metallothionein 3 expression using an specific siRNA induced an increase in the concentration of free zinc in basal conditions but failed to increase the uptake of zinc after incubation with zinc ions.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of legislation on passive smoking in Spain.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2005, the Spanish government approved Law 28/2005 on health measures against smoking; this was amended in 2010 by Law 42/2010.
Related JoVE Video
The Dendritic Spines of Interneurons Are Dynamic Structures Influenced by PSA-NCAM Expression.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Excitatory neurons undergo dendritic spine remodeling in response to different stimuli. However, there is scarce information about this type of plasticity in interneurons. The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is a good candidate to mediate this plasticity as it participates in neuronal remodeling and is expressed by some mature cortical interneurons, which have reduced dendritic arborization, spine density, and synaptic input. To study the connectivity of the dendritic spines of interneurons and the influence of PSA-NCAM on their dynamics, we have analyzed these structures in a subpopulation of fluorescent spiny interneurons in the hippocampus of glutamic acid decarboxylase-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. Our results show that these spines receive excitatory synapses. The depletion of PSA in vivo using the enzyme Endo-Neuraminidase-N (Endo-N) increases spine density when analyzed 2 days after, but decreases it 7 days after. The dendritic spine turnover was also analyzed in real time using organotypic hippocampal cultures: 24 h after the addition of EndoN, we observed an increase in the apparition rate of spines. These results indicate that dendritic spines are important structures in the control of the synaptic input of hippocampal interneurons and suggest that PSA-NCAM is relevant in the regulation of their morphology and connectivity.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans.
Related JoVE Video
Delayed haemorrhage in the splenium of the corpus callosum after aneurysm rupture.
Br J Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background and object. Delayed haemorrhage in the splenium of the corpus callosum after aneurysm rupture is a rare finding. It can be defined as a haemorrhage not present at the initial diagnosis of subarachnoid bleeding, in the context of an aneurysm not located in the corpus callosum vascularization. Only three such cases have been reported, all with focal and circumscribed haematomas. We describe a case of diffuse haemorrhage along the splenium fibres. Patient. A 75-year-old woman was attended for an acute cognitive deterioration. Imaging studies revealed an aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery, and subacute haematomas in both frontal lobes. An uneventful surgical clipping of the aneurysm was performed. Postoperative CT-scans showed a haemorrhage along the splenium fibres, and hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed, and subsequent CT scans demonstrated progressive, spontaneous improvement of the splenium haemorrhage. Conclusions. Delayed haemorrhage in the splenium of the corpus callosum has a sporadic incidence. Physiopathology is unknown, and proposed explanations include compression of the splenium against the falx due to hydrocephalus, and haemorrhagic transformation of an ischaemic infarct due to vasospasm. Treatment is therefore based on adequate treatment of hydrocephalus and discontinuation of vasodilator drugs. The three previous cases of focal haematomas are discussed, and the first case of diffuse haemorrhage is described.
Related JoVE Video
Lithiasis size estimation variability depending on image technical methodology.
Urolithiasis
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The lithiasic size is a determining factor in selecting the most suitable treatment, surgical or medical. However, the method for obtaining a reliable lithiasic size is not standardized. Our objetives are to determine the differences between the estimated lithiasic sizes shown by plain radiography test and by computerized axial tomography (CT) scan (using different techniques) in relation to the actual size, and to establish which is the ideal type of imaging for this purpose. We present an in vitro model with lithiasis obtained in cooperation with four centers. Inclusion criteria: lithiasis >0.5 cm, intact, and visible via simple radiography. A sample of 245 lithiases was obtained, with 87 rejected as they did not fulfill the inclusion criteria. Initially the three main actual diameters of each lithiasis were measured with a calibrator, then a plain X-ray and a CT scan were taken of the samples to determine the surface size in cm(2) for simple radiography; surface size and volume in cm(3) for CT scan, in bone window and soft tissue (Toshiba Aquillion 64, sections of 0.5 mm, 120 Kv, 250 mA). The tomographic area was calculated by employing the formula recommended by the European Association of Urology and scanner software. The actual, radiographic and tomographic measurements were taken by three different researchers who were unaware of the results obtained by the each other. The statistics program IBM SPSS Statistics(®) 19 was used. Differences were analyzed using the Wilcoxon sign test. The bone window CT scan slightly overestimated the actual lithiasic size (0.12 vs. 0.17 cm(3)), while in soft tissue window the actual volume was practically doubled (0.12 vs. 0.21 cm(3)) (p < 0.05). We did not find statistically significant differences in the comparison between actual surface size (0.39 cm(2)) and bone window CT scan size when using the EAU formula or scanner software (0.36/0.37 cm(2)). Resulting measurements in soft tissue window tended to significantly overestimate the surface size, although only slightly (0.42/0.44 cm(2)), whilst the plain radiography underestimated it slightly but significantly (0.37 cm(2)). CT scan, using the bone window, is the technical methodology with which the greatest in vitro accuracy in which actual lithiasis measurements can be estimated, although the craniocaudal diameter measurement will be overestimated. Using soft tissue window gives an overestimated size.
Related JoVE Video
The circuits of the olfactory bulb. The exception as a rule.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The connectivity of the neurons of the olfactory bulb is highly idiosyncratic and constitutes an exception to the general plan of how neurons, and especially cortical neurons, construct circuits. The majority of synaptic contacts in the circuits of the cortex are axo-dendritic. In these contacts, the axon is the presynaptic element, which transmits the signal, and the dendrite is the postsynaptic element, which receives the signal. However, the majority of synaptic contacts in the circuits of the olfactory bulb are dendro-dendritic. In fact, most of the neurons of the olfactory bulb lack an axon. Moreover, a high percentage of the dendro-dendritic synapses are reciprocal. This means that the roles of presynaptic and postsynaptic element are not clearly defined, in clear contrast with the universality of unidirectional synaptic transmission in the cortex and elsewhere in the central nervous system. In this review, we analyze and discuss some peculiarities of the circuits of the olfactory bulb.
Related JoVE Video
Pathogenic brucellae replicate in human trophoblasts.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brucellae replicate in a vacuole derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In animals, trophoblasts are also key cellular targets where brucellae efficiently replicate in association with the ER. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Brucella spp. to infect human trophoblasts using both immortalized and primary trophoblasts. Brucella extensively proliferated within different subpopulations of trophoblasts, suggesting that they constitute an important niche in cases where the fetal-maternal barrier is breached. In extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), B. abortus and B. suis replicated within single-membrane acidic lysosomal membrane-associated protein 1-positive inclusions, whereas B. melitensis replicated in the ER-derived compartment. Furthermore, B. melitensis but not B. abortus nor B. suis interfered with the invasive capacity of EVT-like cells in vitro. Because EVTs are essential for implantation during early stages of pregnancy, the nature of the replication niche may have a central role during Brucella-associated abortion in infected women.
Related JoVE Video
Thrombocytosis and hematocrit as prognostic factors in renal carcinoma.
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the connection between preoperative thrombocytosis and hematocrit and survival in a group of patients operated for renal cell carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Cross-linked ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene liner and ceramic femoral head in total hip arthroplasty: a prospective study at 5 years follow-up.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent data indicate that enhanced wear resistance can be obtained with new cross-linked ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (CL-UHMWPE) liners, in comparison with previous-generation liners. The current prospective, cohort study was undertaken to analyse whether the use of a new CL-UHMWPE (Rexpol) results in a lower wear rate than ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in a group of similar patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study provides the first clinical data with this particular CL-UHMWPE.
Related JoVE Video
Polysialic acid is required for dopamine D2 receptor-mediated plasticity involving inhibitory circuits of the rat medial prefrontal cortex.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Decreased expression of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R), dysfunction of inhibitory neurotransmission and impairments in the structure and connectivity of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and major depression, but the relationship between these changes remains unclear. The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, may serve as a link. This molecule is expressed in cortical interneurons and dopamine, via D2R, modulates its expression in parallel to that of proteins related to synapses and inhibitory neurotransmission, suggesting that D2R-targeted antipsychotics/antidepressants may act by affecting the plasticity of mPFC inhibitory circuits. To understand the role of PSA-NCAM in this plasticity, rats were chronically treated with a D2R agonist (PPHT) after cortical PSA depletion. PPHT-induced increases in GAD67 and synaptophysin (SYN) neuropil expression were blocked when PSA was previously removed, indicating a role for PSA-NCAM in this plasticity. The number of PSA-NCAM expressing interneuron somata also increased after PPHT treatment, but the percentages of these cells belonging to different interneuronal subpopulations did not change. Cortical pyramidal neurons did not express PSA-NCAM, but puncta co-expressing this molecule and parvalbumin could be found surrounding their somata. PPHT treatment increased the number of PSA-NCAM and parvalbumin expressing perisomatic puncta, but decreased the percentage of parvalbumin puncta that co-expressed SYN. PSA depletion did not block these effects on the perisomatic region, but increased further the number of parvalbumin expressing puncta and increased the percentage of puncta co-expressing SYN and parvalbumin, suggesting that the polysialylation of NCAM may regulate perisomatic inhibition of mPFC principal neurons. Summarizing, the present results indicate that dopamine acting on D2R influences structural plasticity of mPFC interneurons and point to PSA-NCAM as a key player in this remodeling.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of PSA-NCAM and synaptic proteins in the amygdala of psychiatric disorder patients.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neuroimaging has revealed structural abnormalities in the amygdala of different psychiatric disorders. The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a molecule related to neuronal structural plasticity, which expression is altered in schizophrenia, major depression and in animal models of these disorders, may participate in these changes. However, PSA-NCAM has not been studied in the human amygdala. To know whether its expression and that of presynaptic markers, was affected in psychiatric disorders, we have analyzed post-mortem sections from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium, which includes controls, schizophrenia, bipolar and major depression patients. PSA-NCAM was expressed in neuronal somata and neuropil puncta, many of which corresponded to interneurons. Depressed patients showed decreases in PSA-NCAM expression in the basolateral and basomedial amygdala; synaptophysin and GAD67 were also decreased, while VGLUT-1 was increased, in different nuclei. Increases in PSA-NCAM expression were found in the lateral nucleus of bipolar patients; synaptophysin and GAD67 were reduced, and VGLUT-1 increased, in their basolateral and lateral nuclei. The expression of synaptophysin and GAD67 was downregulated in the basolateral nucleus of schizophrenics. These results indicate that inhibitory and excitatory amygdaloid circuits are affected in these disorders and that abnormal PSA-NCAM expression in depressive and bipolar patients may underlie these alterations.
Related JoVE Video
Altered expression of neuropeptides in the primary somatosensory cortex of the Down syndrome model Ts65Dn.
Neuropeptides
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Down syndrome is the most common genetic disorder associated with mental retardation. Subjects and mice models for Down syndrome (such as Ts65Dn) show defects in the formation of neuronal networks in both the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. The principal neurons display alterations in the morphology, density and distribution of dendritic spines in the cortex as well as in the hippocampus. Several evidences point to the possibility that the atrophy observed in principal neurons could be mediated by changes in their inhibitory inputs and, in fact, an imbalance between excitation and inhibition has been observed in Ts65Dn mice in these regions, which are crucial for learning and information processing. These animals have an increased density of interneurons in the primary somatosensory cortex, especially of those expressing calretinin and calbindin D-28k. Here, we have analysed the expression and distribution of several neuropeptides in the primary somatosensory cortex of Ts65Dn mice in order to investigate whether these subpopulations of interneurons are affected. We have observed an increase in the total density of somatostatin expressing interneurons and of those expressing VIP in layer IV in Ts65Dn mice. The typology of the somatostatin and VIP interneurons was unaltered as attested by the pattern of co-expression with other markers. Somatostatin immunoreactive neurons co-express mainly D-28k calbindin and VIP expressing interneurons maintain its pattern of co-expression with calcium binding proteins. These alterations, in case they were also present in subjects with Down syndrome, could be related to their impairment in cognitive profile and could be involved in the neurological defects observed in this disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Uncommon fungi isolated from diabetic patients toenails with or without visible onychomycoses.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kodamaea ohmeri and Prototheca wickerhamii are rare pathogens for humans, and even more rare as cause of onychomycosis. This work reports the second case of onychomycosis by K. ohmeri and the fourth of onycoprotothecosis; it was made in public health institutions in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, studying 261 diabetic patients during 2005 and 2006. Kodamaea ohmeri was isolated from toenails of a 51-year-old female patient, and P. wickerhamii from three female patients of 48, 49, and 61 years old, respectively, all of them with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2). Identifications were done by standard microbiological methods and a commercial system. Only one patient infected with P. wickerhamii showed mixed infection with dermatophytes. Out of the total studied DM 2 patients, 1.15% presented onycoprotothecosis and 0.38% onychomycosis by K. ohmeri, high percentages if it is considered that few cases have been reported of K. ohmeri and P. wickerhamii as onychomycosis causal agents.
Related JoVE Video
Control and eradication of Brucella melitensis infection in sheep and goats.
Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brucella melitensis is the main etiological agent of brucellosis in sheep and goats, and is also the main agent responsible for human brucellosis, a predominantly occupational disease related to professions in direct contact with livestock. As there is currently no viable method of preventing human brucellosis to safeguard people attention must be directed toward effectively controlling the disease in sheep and goats. This review focuses on the different strategies in different socioeconomic and epidemiologic situations that can be applied to either control or eradicate brucellosis in sheep and goats.
Related JoVE Video
PSA-NCAM is Expressed in Immature, but not Recently Generated, Neurons in the Adult Cat Cerebral Cortex Layer II.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neuronal production persists during adulthood in the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb, where substantial numbers of immature neurons can be found. These cells can also be found in the paleocortex layer II of adult rodents, but in this case most of them have been generated during embryogenesis. Recent reports have described the presence of similar cells, with a wider distribution, in the cerebral cortex of adult cats and primates and have suggested that they may develop into interneurons. The objective of this study is to verify this hypothesis and to explore the origin of these immature neurons in adult cats. We have analyzed their distribution using immunohistochemical analysis of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and their phenotype using markers of mature neurons and different interneuronal populations. Additionally, we have explored the origin of these cells administering 5bromodeoxyuridine (5BrdU) during adulthood. Immature neurons were widely dispersed in the cerebral cortex layers II and upper III, being specially abundant in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, in the ventral portions of the frontal and temporoparietal lobes, but relatively scarce in dorsal regions, such as the primary visual areas. Only a small fraction of PSA-NCAM expressing cells in layer II expressed the mature neuronal marker NeuN and virtually none of them expressed calcium binding proteins or neuropeptides. By contrast, most, if not all of these cells expressed the transcription factor Tbr-1, specifically expressed by pallium-derived principal neurons, but not CAMKII, a marker of mature excitatory neurons. Absence of PSA-NCAM/5BrdU colocalization suggests that, as in rats, these cells were not generated during adulthood. Together, these results indicate that immature neurons in the adult cat cerebral cortex layer II are not recently generated and that they may differentiate into principal neurons.
Related JoVE Video
The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is expressed in a subpopulation of mature cortical interneurons characterized by reduced structural features and connectivity.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Principal neurons in the adult cerebral cortex undergo synaptic, dendritic, and spine remodeling in response to different stimuli, and several reports have demonstrated that the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) participates in these plastic processes. However, there is only limited information on the expression of this molecule on interneurons and on its role in the structural plasticity of these cells. We have found that PSA-NCAM is expressed in mature interneurons widely distributed in all the extension of the cerebral cortex and have excluded the expression of this molecule in most principal cells. Although PSA-NCAM expression is generally considered a marker of immature neurons, birth-dating analyses reveal that these interneurons do not have an adult or perinatal origin and that they are generated during embryonic development. PSA-NCAM expressing interneurons show reduced density of perisomatic and peridendritic puncta expressing different synaptic markers and receive less perisomatic synapses, when compared with interneurons lacking this molecule. Moreover, they have reduced dendritic arborization and spine density. These data indicate that PSA-NCAM expression is important for the connectivity of interneurons in the adult cerebral cortex and that its regulation may play an important role in the structural plasticity of inhibitory networks.
Related JoVE Video
Gene expression changes in spleens of the wildlife reservoir species, Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), naturally infected with Brucella suis biovar 2.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brucella suis is responsible for swine brucellosis worldwide. Of the five different B. suis biovars (bv.), bv. 2 appears restricted to Europe where it is frequently isolated from wild boar and hares, can infect pigs and can cause human brucellosis. In this study, the differential gene expression profile was characterized in spleens of Eurasian wild boar naturally infected with B. suis bv. 2. Of the 20,201 genes analyzed in the microarray, 633 and 1,373 were significantly (fold change > 1.8; P < 0.01) upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in infected wild boar. The analysis was focused on genes that were over represented after conditional test for biological process gene ontology. Upregulated genes suggested that B. suis bv. 2 infection induced cell maturation, migration and/or proliferation in infected animals. The genes downregulated in infected wild boar impaired the activity of several important cellular metabolic pathways such as metabolism, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, immune response and lysosomal function and vesicle-mediated transport. In addition, the response to stress, sperm fertility, muscle development and apoptosis seemed to be also impaired in infected animals. These results suggested that B. suis bv. 2 may use strategies similar to other smooth brucellae to facilitate intracellular multiplication and the development of chronic infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of gene expression profile in hosts infected with B. suis bv. 2, which is important to understand the molecular mechanisms at the host-pathogen interface in the main reservoir species with possible implications in the zoonotic cycle of the pathogen.
Related JoVE Video
Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates.
Related JoVE Video
Antimutagenicity mechanisms of the Rhoeo discolor ethanolic extract.
Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rhoeo discolor, a medical plant from Mexico, is known to be an antioxidant and chemoprotective antimutagen. Rhoeo discolor ethanolic extract (EERD) is a complex mixture, so in this study its antimutagenic mechanisms were further evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of particulate acellular vaccines against Brucella ovis infection in rams.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The attenuated Brucella melitensis Rev 1 vaccine, used against brucellosis infection, interferes with serological diagnosis tests, may induce abortions in pregnant animals, and may infect humans. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we developed acellular vaccines based on a Brucella ovis antigenic complex (HS) containing outer membrane proteins and R-LPS entrapped in poly(anhydride) conventional and mannosylated nanoparticles (NP-HS and MAN-NP-HS) or in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microparticles (HS-PEC) as antigen delivery systems and immunoadjuvants. Brucellosis free rams were vaccinated subcutaneously with a single dose of particles containing 3mg of HS, and challenged 6 months thereafter. Protection was evaluated by clinical, bacteriological and serological examinations, in comparison with non-vaccinated control rams. HS-PEC vaccine induced protection (7 out of 13 animals were infected) equivalent to that induced by the reference Rev 1 vaccine (8/14). In contrast, animals immunized with NP-HS were not protected, showing similar results to that obtained in the control unvaccinated rams. Furthermore HS-PEC vaccine did not interfere against B. melitensis serodiagnostic tests. In summary, HS-PEC microparticles could be used as a safe and effective vaccine against brucellosis in rams.
Related JoVE Video
Differential evolution of PSA-NCAM expression during aging of the rat telencephalon.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Changes in the ability of neuronal networks to undergo structural remodeling may be involved in the age-associated cognitive decline. The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) declines dramatically during postnatal development, but persists in several regions of the young-adult rat telencephalon, where it participates, through its anti-adhesive properties, in neuronal structural plasticity. However, PSA-NCAM expression during aging has only been studied in the dentate gyrus and the piriform cortex layer II, where it is strongly downregulated in adult (middle-aged) individuals. Using immunohistochemistry, we have observed that in most of the telencephalic areas studied the number of PSA-NCAM expressing cells and the intensity of PSA-NCAM expression in the neuropil remains stable during aging. Old rats only show decreases in the number of PSA-NCAM expressing cells in the lateral amygdala and retrosplenial cortex, and in neuropil expression of stratum lucidum. Given the role of PSA-NCAM in neuronal plasticity, the present results indicate that, even during aging, many regions of the CNS may display neurite, spine or synaptic remodeling.
Related JoVE Video
DNA polymorphism analysis of Brucella lipopolysaccharide genes reveals marked differences in O-polysaccharide biosynthetic genes between smooth and rough Brucella species and novel species-specific markers.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The lipopolysaccharide is a major antigen and virulence factor of Brucella, an important bacterial pathogen. In smooth brucellae, lipopolysaccharide is made of lipid A-core oligosaccharide and N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide. B. ovis and B. canis (rough species) lack the O-polysaccharide.
Related JoVE Video
Differential expression of inflammatory and immune response genes in rams experimentally infected with a rough virulent strain of Brucella ovis.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infection of sheep with Brucella ovis results in ovine brucellosis, a disease characterized by infertility in rams, abortion in ewes and increased perinatal mortality in lambs. During the course of the infection both the ovine immune response and host cell gene expression are modified. The objective of this research was to conduct a preliminary characterization of differential gene expression in rams experimentally infected with B. ovis by microarray hybridization and real-time RT-PCR. Of the 600 ruminant inflammatory and immune response genes that were analyzed in the microarray, 20 and 14 genes displayed an expression fold change >1.75 with a P-value <0.05 at 15 and 60 days post-challenge (dpc), respectively. Of these genes, 16 were upregulated and 4 were downregulated in infected rams at 15 dpc. At 60 dpc, 11 and 3 genes were up- and down-regulated in infected rams, respectively. Only four genes, desmoglein, epithelial sodium channel, alpha subunit (ENaC-alpha), interleukin 18 binding protein (IL18BP) and macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF) were found upregulated in infected rams at both 15 and 60 dpc. The analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated activation of inflammatory and innate immune pathways in infected animals. B. ovis infection also resulted in upregulation of genes involved in phagocytosis and downregulation of protective host defense mechanisms, both of which may contribute to the chronicity of B. ovis infection. The gene expression profiles differed between rams with severe and moderate B. ovis infection. This is the first analysis of differential gene expression in rough brucellae and particularly in B. ovis-infected rams. The characterization of the genes and their expression profiles in response to B. ovis infection further contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of infection and the pathogenesis of brucellosis.
Related JoVE Video
Automatic sex detection of individuals of Ceratitis capitata by means of computer vision in a biofactory.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is acknowledged around the world as an effective method for biological pest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Sterile insects are produced in biofactories where one key issue is the selection of the progenitors that have to transmit specific genetic characteristics. Recombinant individuals must be removed as this colony is renewed. Nowadays, this task is performed manually, in a process that is extremely slow, painstaking and labour intensive, in which the sex of individuals must be identified. The paper explores the possibility of using vision sensors and pattern recognition algorithms for automated detection of recombinants.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of possible correlates of protective response against Brucella ovis infection in rams immunized with the B. melitensis Rev 1 vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vaccination with the live attenuated Brucella melitensis Rev 1 vaccine is used to control ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis in sheep. The objective of this study was to identify possible correlates of protective response to B. ovis infection through the characterization by microarray hybridization and real-time RT-PCR of inflammatory and immune response genes differentially expressed in rams previously immunized with B. melitensis Rev 1 and experimentally challenged with B. ovis. Gene expression profiles were compared before and after challenge with B. ovis between rams protected and those vaccinated but found infected after challenge. The TLR10, Bak and ANXI genes were expressed at higher levels in vaccinated and protected rams. These genes provide possible correlates of protective response to B. ovis infection in rams immunized with the B. melitensis Rev 1 vaccine.
Related JoVE Video
Diels-Alder exo selectivity in terminal-substituted dienes and dienophiles: experimental discoveries and computational explanations.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Diels-Alder reactions of a series of silyloxydienes and silylated dienes with acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones and N-acyloxazolidinones have been investigated. The endo/exo stereochemical outcome is strongly influenced by the substitution pattern of the reactants. High exo selectivity was observed when the termini of the diene and the dienophile involved in the shorter of the forming bonds were both substituted, while the normal endo preference was found otherwise. The exo-selective asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions using Evans oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary furnished a high level of pi-facial selectivity in the same sense as their well-documented endo-selective counterparts. Computational results for these Diels-Alder reactions were consistent with the experimental endo/exo selectivity in most cases. A twist-asynchronous model accounts for the geometries and energies of the computed transition structures.
Related JoVE Video
Rough mutants defective in core and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export induce antibodies reacting in an indirect ELISA with smooth lipopolysaccharide and are less effective than Rev 1 vaccine against Brucella melitensis infection of sheep.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Classical brucellosis vaccines induce antibodies to the O-polysaccharide section of the lipopolysaccharide that interfere in serodiagnosis. Brucella rough (R) mutants lack the O-polysaccharide but their usefulness as vaccines is controversial. Here, Brucella melitensis R mutants in all main lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic pathways were evaluated in sheep in comparison with the reference B. melitensis Rev 1 vaccine. In a first experiment, these mutants were tested for ability to induce anti-O-polysaccharide antibodies, persistence and spread through target organs, and innocuousness. Using the data obtained and those of genetic studies, three candidates were selected and tested for efficacy as vaccines against a challenge infecting 100% of unvaccinated ewes. Protection by R vaccines was 54% or less whereas Rev 1 afforded 100% protection. One-third of R mutant vaccinated ewes became positive in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with smooth lipopolysaccharide due to the core epitopes remaining in the mutated lipopolysaccharide. We conclude that R vaccines interfere in lipopolysaccharide immunosorbent assays and are less effective than Rev 1 against B. melitensis infection of sheep.
Related JoVE Video
Antimutagenic evaluation of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in vitro and in vivo, with the Ames test.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this work is to evaluate vitamins B antimutagenic effect against alkylatings methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), ethyl-N-nitro-N- nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), frameshift mutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 2-acetyl-amino-fluorene (2AF) and ROS-generating antibiotics norfloxacin (NOR) and nalidixic acid (NLX), using the in vitro Ames test. In vivo antimutagenesis studies were performed against urinary mutagens induced by NOR (70 mg/kg) or NLX (100 mg/kg) in CD1 mice. Vitamin B1 was antimutagenic against alkylatings MNNG (P<0.05) or ENNG (P<0.001). In fact as per the results observed during the current study, none of the vitamins reduced mutagenesis caused by frameshift mutagens. All of them reduced mutagenesis of NOR or NLX (P<0.001). In vivo studies showed that vitamins B1 and B6 (10 or 100 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens from NOR (P<0.001) or NLX (P<0.02) either free or ?-glucoronidase-conjugates. None of the studied samples were toxic for the employed antimutagenic system. Vitamin B12 (4 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens of NOR or NLX (P<0.02). Vitamins B inhibited DNA mutations induced by ROS generated by NLX or NOR, both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamin B1is antimutagenic against mutations induced by the alkylating MNNG or ENNG. Based on the observations, employment of vitamins B in vivo can be a promising alternative to reduce genotoxic risk exposure to ROS.
Related JoVE Video
Cells expressing markers of immature neurons in the amygdala of adult humans.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The polysialylated form of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is expressed by immature neurons in the amygdala of adult mammals, including non-human primates. In a recent report we have also described the presence of PSA-NCAM-expressing cells in the amygdala of adult humans. Although many of these cells have been classified as mature interneurons, some of them lacked mature neuronal markers, suggesting the presence of immature neurons. We have studied, using immunohistochemistry, the existence and distribution of these immature neurons using post mortem material. We have also analysed the presence of proliferating cells and the association between immature neurons and specialised astrocytes. These parameters have also been studied for comparative purposes in the amygdalae of cats and squirrel monkeys. Our results demonstrate that cells coexpressing doublecortin and PSA-NCAM, but lacking neuronal nuclear antigen expression, were present in the amygdala of adult humans. These cells were organised in elongated clusters, which were located between the white matter of the dorsal hippocampus and the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus. These clusters were not associated with astroglial specialised structures. No cells expressing the proliferative marker Ki67 were observed in the amygdaloid parenchyma, although some of them were found in the vicinity of the lateral ventricle. Immature neurons were also present in the amygdala of squirrel monkeys and cats. These cells also appeared clustered in monkeys, although not as organised as in humans. In cats these cells are scarce, appear isolated and most of the PSA-NCAM-expressing structures corresponded to processes apparently originating from the paleocortical layer II.
Related JoVE Video
Alterations in the expression of PSA-NCAM and synaptic proteins in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of psychiatric disorder patients.
Neurosci. Lett.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alterations in the structure and physiology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been found in different psychiatric disorders and some of them involve inhibitory networks, especially in schizophrenia and major depression. Changes in the structure of these networks may be mediated by the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a molecule related to neuronal structural plasticity, expressed in the PFC exclusively by interneurons. Different studies have found that PSA-NCAM expression in the hippocampus and the amygdala is altered in schizophrenia, major depression and animal models of these disorders, in parallel to changes in the expression of molecules related to inhibitory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. We have analyzed post-mortem sections of the dorsolateral PFC from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium, which includes controls, schizophrenia, bipolar and major depression patients, to check whether similar alterations occur. PSA-NCAM was found in neuronal somata and neuropil puncta, many of which corresponded to interneurons. PSA-NCAM expression was only reduced significantly in schizophrenic patients, in parallel to a decrease in glutamic acid-decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) and to an increased expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) in the white matter. Depressed patients showed significant decreases in synaptophysin (SYN) and VGLUT1 expression. Whereas in bipolar patients, decreases in VGLUT1 expression have also been found, together with a reduction of GAD67. These results indicate that the expression of synaptic proteins is altered in the PFC of patients suffering from these disorders and that, particularly in schizophrenia, abnormal PSA-NCAM and GAD67 expression may underlie the alterations observed in inhibitory neurotransmission.
Related JoVE Video
Cervical cord compression due to intradiscal gouty tophus: brief report.
Spine
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe an unusual cause of myelopathy with a discussion of similar cases previously reported in the literature.
Related JoVE Video
Two types of periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulb of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
Brain Struct Funct
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals is the brain region that receives the sensory information coming from the olfactory epithelium. The entrance of the olfactory information occurs in spherical structures of neuropil named olfactory glomeruli and is modulated by a population of interneurons known as periglomerular cells (PG). It has been demonstrated that there are two types of PG in the OB of some macrosmatic mammals, including rats and mice. Type 1 PG (PG-1) receive synapses from the olfactory nerve, whereas type 2 PG (PG-2) do not receive synapses from the olfactory axons. To date, the presence of the two types of PG has not been investigated in microsmatic mammals. In this context, we analyze the presence of PG-1 and PG-2 in the OB of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). For that, we used the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, the neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase and the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k and calretinin as neurochemical markers. Our results demonstrate that the OB of the macaque contains PG-1 and PG-2. A subpopulation of PG-1 expresses tyrosine hydroxylase and another expresses the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, a subpopulation of PG-2 expresses calbindin D-28k and another expresses calretinin. Double immunofluorescence demonstrates that there is no colocalization of two markers in the same PG. These results mimic those found in macrosmatic animals. The presence of two types of PG in the glomerular circuits seems to be a key principle for the organization of the OB of mammals.
Related JoVE Video
What have we learned from brucellosis in the mouse model?
Vet. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucellosis research in natural hosts is often precluded by practical, economical and ethical reasons and mice are widely used. However, mice are not natural Brucella hosts and the course of murine brucellosis depends on bacterial strain virulence, dose and inoculation route as well as breed, genetic background, age, sex and physiological statu of mice. Therefore, meaningful experiments require a definition of these variables. Brucella spleen replication profiles are highly reproducible and course in four phases: i), onset or spleen colonization (first 48?h); ii), acute phase, from the third day to the time when bacteria reach maximal numbers; iii), chronic steady phase, where bacterial numbers plateaus; and iv), chronic declining phase, during which brucellae are eliminated. This pattern displays clear physiopathological signs and is sensitive to small virulence variations, making possible to assess attenuation when fully virulent bacteria are used as controls. Similarly, immunity studies using mice with known defects are possible. Mutations affecting INF-?, TLR9, Myd88, T?? and TNF-? favor Brucella replication; whereas IL-1?, IL-18, TLR4, TLR5, TLR2, NOD1, NOD2, GM-CSF, IL/17r, Rip2, TRIF, NK or Nramp1 deficiencies have no noticeable effects. Splenomegaly development is also useful: it correlates with IFN-? and IL-12 levels and with Brucella strain virulence. The genetic background is also important: Brucella-resistant mice (C57BL) yield lower splenic bacterial replication and less splenomegaly than susceptible breeds. When inoculum is increased, a saturating dose above which bacterial numbers per organ do not augment, is reached. Unlike many gram-negative bacteria, lethal doses are large (? 108 bacteria/mouse) and normally higher than the saturating dose. Persistence is a useful virulence/attenuation index and is used in vaccine (Residual Virulence) quality control. Vaccine candidates are also often tested in mice by determining splenic Brucella numbers after challenging with appropriate virulent brucellae doses at precise post-vaccination times. Since most live or killed Brucella vaccines provide some protection in mice, controls immunized with reference vaccines (S19 or Rev1) are critical. Finally, mice have been successfully used to evaluate brucellosis therapies. It is concluded that, when used properly, the mouse is a valuable brucellosis model.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of performance of selected serological tests for diagnosing brucellosis in pigs.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis is considered an emerging zoonotic disease whose control is based on serological testing and the subsequent culling of seropositive animals or the full depopulation of affected flocks. Here we assessed the performance of several serological tests (Rose Bengal Test [RBT], indirect ELISA [i-ELISA], blocking ELISA [b-ELISA], and two competitive ELISAs [c-ELISA]) for diagnosing swine brucellosis caused by B. suis biovar 2. Both frequentistic and Bayesian statistical inference were used. A frequentistic analysis, using sera from known gold standard (GS) populations (i.e., from truly infected or brucellosis free animals), resulted in maximum (100%) diagnostic sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) in the RBT, i-ELISA and b-ELISA tests. However, c-ELISAs resulted in lower diagnostic Se (ranging from 68.5% to 92.6%, according to the different cut-offs selected). A Bayesian analysis of tests yielding the best diagnostic performance with GS sera (RBT, i-ELISA and b-ELISA), but using a large collection of field sera, resulted in similar Se among tests but markedly lower (? 80%) than that resulting from the frequentistic analysis using the GS serum populations. By contrast, the estimated Sp in the Bayesian analysis was only slightly lower than 100%, thus similar to that obtained frequentistically. Our results show that adequate diagnostic tests for brucellosis in swine are available, but also emphasize the need for more extensive validation studies before applying these tests under field conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Spontaneous excision of the O-polysaccharide wbkA glycosyltranferase gene is a cause of dissociation of smooth to rough Brucella colonies.
J. Bacteriol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The brucellae are Gram-negative pathogens that cause brucellosis, a zoonosis of worldwide importance. The genus Brucella includes smooth and rough species that differ in that they carry smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides, respectively. Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis are typical smooth species. However, these smooth brucellae dissociate into rough mutants devoid of the lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide, a major antigen and a virulence determinant encoded in regions wbo (included in genomic island-2) and wbk. We demonstrate here the occurrence of spontaneous recombination events in those three Brucella species leading to the deletion of a 5.5-kb fragment carrying the wbkA glycosyltranferase gene and to the appearance of rough mutants. Analysis of the recombination intermediates suggested homologous recombination between the ISBm1 insertion sequences flanking wbkA as the mechanism generating the deletion. Excision of wbkA was reduced but not abrogated in a recA-deficient mutant, showing the existence of both RecA-dependent and -independent processes. Although the involvement of the ISBm1 copies flanking wbkA suggested a transpositional event, the predicted transpositional joint could not be detected. This absence of detectable transposition was consistent with the presence of polymorphism in the inverted repeats of one of the ISBm1 copies. The spontaneous excision of wbkA represents a novel dissociation mechanism of smooth brucellae that adds to the previously described excision of genomic island-2. This ISBm1-mediated wbkA excision and the different %GC levels of the excised fragment and of other wbk genes suggest that the Brucella wbk locus is the result of at least two horizontal acquisition events.
Related JoVE Video
Chronic fluoxetine treatment in middle-aged rats induces changes in the expression of plasticity-related molecules and in neurogenesis.
BMC Neurosci
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antidepressants promote neuronal structural plasticity in young-adult rodents, but little is known of their effects on older animals. The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) may mediate these structural changes through its anti-adhesive properties. PSA-NCAM is expressed in immature neurons and in a subpopulation of mature interneurons and its expression is modulated by antidepressants in the telencephalon of young-adult rodents.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of flower number per inflorescence in grapevine by image analysis under field conditions.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flowers, flowering and fruit set are key determinants of grapevine yield. Currently, practical methods to assess the flower number per inflorescence, necessary for fruit-set estimation, are time and labour demanding. This work aims at developing a simple, cheap, fast, accurate and robust machine vision methodology to be applied to RGB images taken under field conditions, to estimate the number of flowers per inflorescence automatically.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.