JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hygroscopic behavior and degree of caking of grugru palm (Acrocomia aculeata) powder.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This work aims to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of grugru palm powder through adsorption isotherms and its degree of caking. The powders of grugru palm (T1 - without maltodextrin, T2 - with 8 % of maltodextrin) were obtained by oven drying at 65 °C for 25 h. The experimental data was obtained through static gravimetric method at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C with different saturated salt solutions. The models of GAB, BET, Henderson, and Oswin were fitted to experimental data. The values of hygroscopicity were 6.39 and 5.17 % and degrees of caking were 3.11 and 0.03 % for T1 and T2, respectively. The adsorption isotherms from mathematical models can be classified as Type III. The GAB and Oswin models were the best representing the behavior of the powder isotherms, T1 and T2, respectively. The grugru palm powder proved to be non-hygroscopic and non-agglomerating. The T2 with 8 % of maltodextrin presented the lowest hygroscopicity.
Related JoVE Video
The Use of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) to Assess the Quality and Stability of Fruit Products: An Example Using Red Mombin Pulp (Spondias purpurea L.).
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea) pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD) as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in the analysis of parameters such as the quality and stability of fruit products. Volatiles profiles of the pulp were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and compared to the profile of the powder stored at 0, 60 and 120 days in plastic (PP) or laminated packages (LP). The results showed that the technique was able to identify 36 compounds in the red mombin pulp, 17 out of which have been described for the first time in this fruit, showing that red mombin fresh pulp appears to be unique in terms of volatiles composition. However, only 24 compounds were detected in the powder. This decrease is highly correlated (r2 = 0.99), at least for the majority of compounds, to the degree of volatility of compounds. Furthermore, the powder stored in PP or LP showed no statistical differences in the amounts of its components for a period of 120 days of storage. Finally, this work shows how HS-SPME analysis can be a valuable tool to assess the quality and stability of fruit products.
Related JoVE Video
Urinary estrogen metabolites and self-reported infertility in women infected with Schistosoma haematobium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in 76 countries, that afflicts more than 240 million people. The impact of schistosomiasis on infertility may be underestimated according to recent literature. Extracts of Schistosoma haematobium include estrogen-like metabolites termed catechol-estrogens that down regulate estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estrogen responsive cells. In addition, schistosome derived catechol-estrogens induce genotoxicity that result in estrogen-DNA adducts. These catechol estrogens and the catechol-estrogen-DNA adducts can be isolated from sera of people infected with S. haematobium. The aim of this study was to study infertility in females infected with S. haematobium and its association with the presence of schistosome-derived catechol-estrogens.
Related JoVE Video
Carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini oxysterols detected by LC-MS/MS survey of soluble fraction parasite extract.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as an informative tool to investigate oxysterols (oxidized derivatives of cholesterol) in helminth parasite associated cancers. Here, we used LC-MS/MS to investigate in soluble extracts of the adult developmental stage of Opisthorchis viverrini from experimentally infected hamsters. Using comparisons with known bile acids and the metabolites of estrogens, the LC-MS data indicated the existence of novel oxysterol derivatives in O. viverrini. Most of these derivatives were ramified at C-17, in similar fashion to bile acids and their conjugated salts. Several were compatible with the presence of an estrogen core, and/or hydroxylation of the steroid aromatic ring A, hydroxylation of both C-2 and C-3 of the steroid ring and further oxidation into an estradiol-2,3-quinone.
Related JoVE Video
Mass spectrometry techniques in the survey of steroid metabolites as potential disease biomarkers: a review.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mass spectrometric approaches have been fundamental to the identification of metabolites associated with steroid hormones, yet this topic has not been reviewed in depth in recent years. To this end, and given the increasing relevance of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies on steroid hormones and their metabolites, the present review addresses this subject. This review provides a timely summary of the use of various mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques during the evaluation of steroidal biomarkers in a range of human disease settings. The sensitivity and specificity of these technologies are clearly providing valuable new insights into breast cancer and cardiovascular disease. We aim to contribute to an enhanced understanding of steroid metabolism and how it can be profiled by LC-MS techniques.
Related JoVE Video
Clinically relevant multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica in swine and meat handlers at the abattoir.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella serotypes in slaughtered swine, carcasses, meat and meat handlers is scarcely evaluated. Recently we demonstrated that diverse Salmonella serotypes are frequently present in swine, pork meat and carcasses, and meat handlers at Portuguese abattoirs. Here we have characterized their antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes, helping elucidate the flow of MDR Salmonella in the food chain. Testing 60 Salmonella isolates from different serotypes, the highest frequencies of resistance were observed for tetracycline (T) [70% (n=42/60), tet(A)/tet(B)/tet(G)], streptomycin (S) [63% (n=38/60), aadA2/strA/strB], sulfamethoxazole (Sul) [62% (n=37/60), sul1/sul2/sul3] and ampicillin (A) [57% (n=34/60), blaPSE-1/blaTEM]. Thirty-seven percent (n=22/60) carried class 1 integrons and multidrug resistance was frequently observed (63% n=38/60), including those serotypes common to human infections [S. Typhimurium 78% n=25/32; S. 4,[5],12:i:- 67% n=2/3; S. Rissen 75% (n=3/4); S. London 67% n=2/3; S. Derby 55%; n=6/11)]. The emergent S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were mostly characterized by ASSuT phenotype [blaTEM/strA-strB/sul2/tet(B)], typical of the European clone, while for the first time the ST phenotype [strA-strB-tet(A)-tet(B)] was also observed. Moreover, we report a first finding of a MDR phenotype in S. London [ANSSuT; blaTEM-strA-strB-sul2-tet(A)]. Our findings suggest that the abattoir environment and the slaughter operations seem not only to harbor MDR serotypes that originated in the pig reservoir, but also propagate them through cross-contamination processes, involving meat handlers. The present study suggests a probable relationship between swine and human salmonellosis throughout the food chain, which is of interest for epidemiological, animal health and public health purposes.
Related JoVE Video
Development and evaluation of a new lateral flow immunoassay for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human fasciolosis is a re-emerging disease worldwide and is caused by species of the genus Fasciola (F. hepatica and F. gigantica). Human fasciolosis can be diagnosed by classical coprological techniques, such as the Kato-Katz test, to reveal parasite eggs in faeces. However, although 100% specific, these methods are generally not adequate for detection of acute infections, ectopic infections, or infections with low number of parasites. In such cases immunological methods may be a good alternative and are recommended for use in major hospitals where trained personnel are available, although they are not usually implemented for individual testing.
Related JoVE Video
Targeting molecular signaling pathways of Schistosoma haemotobium infection in bladder cancer.
Virulence
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since 1911 epidemiological evidence indicates that S. haematobium is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. However, the mechanisms of this interaction are not clearly defined. Using normal epithelial cells, S. haematobium parasite extracts were able to induce cancer-like phenotypes such as proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis. The parasite extracts on normal urothelium also presented carcinogenic and mutagenic ability. To further elucidate the biological effects of this parasite, new estrogenic molecules were identified in its extracts. These estrogens are also present in the sera of Schistosoma-infected patients, and they have the ability to repress ER transcriptional activity both in estrogen-responsive MCF7 cells and normal urothelial HCV29 cells. This review will present some of the recent studies of mass spectrometry of S. haematobium extracts and sequence analysis of bladder tissue treated with the same extracts. Finally the molecular and cellular events that might be responsible for schistosomiasis-related bladder cancer will be discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Inactivation of estrogen receptor by Schistosoma haematobium total antigen in bladder urothelial cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We recently reported the expression of an estradiol-like molecule by a trematode parasite Schistosoma haematobium. We further established that this estradiol-like molecule is an antagonist of estradiol, repressing the transcriptional activity of the estrogen receptor (ER) in estrogen-responsive MCF7 cells and also that S. haematobium total antigen (Sh) contains estrogenic molecules detected by mass spectrometry. In the present study, we used HCV29 cells, a cell line derived from normal urothelial cells, as well as an in vivo model to evaluate the expression of ER in the bladders of Sh-instilled animals. We show that, similarly to MCF7 cells, Sh down-regulates the transcriptional activity of ER in HCV29 cells and also in the bladders of Sh-treated mice. The antiestrogenic activity of the S. haematobium extract and its repressive role in ER could have implications in the carcinogenic process in bladders with S. haematobium infection.
Related JoVE Video
Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in two areas of Galicia (NW Spain).
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the environmental dispersal of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in two distinct areas (coastal and inland) in Galicia (NW Spain). Faecal samples were collected from healthy asymptomatic domestic (cows and sheep) and wild animals (deer and wild boars) in the selected areas. In each of the selected areas, samples of untreated water (influent) and of treated water (final effluent) were collected from each of the 12 drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) and 12 wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) under study. Analysis of a single sample from each of the 635 (coastal) and 851 (inland) domestic and wild animals selected at random revealed that the prevalences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in coastal area were 9.2% and 15.9% respectively, and in inland area, 13.7% and 26.7% respectively. In the coastal area, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in influent and effluent samples from 2/12 (16.6%) DWTPs and 8/12 (66.6%) WTPs, while G. duodenalis cysts were detected in influent and effluent samples from 3/12 (25.0%) DWTPs and 12/12 (100%) WTPs. The concentrations were notably higher in WTPs; the mean parasite concentrations in the final treated effluent were 10 oocysts per litre and 137.8 cysts per litre for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. The mean concentration of G. duodenalis cysts per litre was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre in both the influent and the effluent samples from all the treatment plants. In the coastal area, C. parvum, C. hominis and G. duodenalis assemblages A (I and II) and E were most repeatedly detected. In the inland area, C. parvum, C. andersoni and G. duodenalis assemblages A (I and II), B and E were most frequently identified.
Related JoVE Video
Granulomatous-like immune reaction and hepatic fibrosis induced by Schistosoma haematobium immature worms.
Virulence
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Golden hamsters were inoculated with Schistosoma haematobium cercariae to examine histological lesions at different time points over an 18 month period of infection. Hamsters were sacrificed 26 weeks and 82 weeks after inoculation. The parasite was found in the blood and in the liver of infected animals as was expected, but we found exclusively male worms, no female worms nor eggs. Interestingly we observed unexpected hepatic lesions induced by S. haematobium adult male worms alone in the golden hamster, characteristic of schistosome eggs. Samples from liver, kidneys, lungs, bladder and gastrointestinal tract were collected during necropsy to evaluate injuries induced by S. haematobium. Notably we observed hepatitis in the liver of infected hamsters, no lesions were found in other organs. We also found liver fibrosis in infected hamsters. This study provides further experimental evidence for the role that schistosome worms, and their derived antigens, may play in the pathology of the infection and modulation of liver chronic inflammation in the murine model of schistosomiasis.
Related JoVE Video
Schistosoma haematobium and bladder cancer: what lies beneath?
Virulence
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schistosoma haematobium is a parasitic flatworm that infects millions of people, mostly in the developing world, and is associated with high incidence of bladder cancer although why is not clear. But our group was able to define the mechanistic relationship for the first time between infection of S. haematobium and cancer. We used in vitro models to demonstrate the presence of informative carcinogenesis-associated phenotypes in CHO cells exposed to Sh total antigen, in which we showed increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, up regulation of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2, down regulation of the tumor suppressor protein p27, and increased cell migration and invasion. We further discuss the molecular and cellular events that might be responsible for schistosomiasis-related bladder cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Biological and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolates from five hydrographical basins in northern Portugal.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and beta-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal.
Related JoVE Video
Schistosoma haematobium: identification of new estrogenic molecules with estradiol antagonistic activity and ability to inactivate estrogen receptor in mammalian cells.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously identified the expression of an estradiol (E2)-related molecule by Schistosoma haematobium total antigen (Sh). We now show that this molecule has an antagonistic effect of estradiol in vitro. Our results are consistent with the existence of an estrogenic molecule that antagonizes the activity of estradiol. We found evidence for this molecule as we identified and characterized by mass spectrometry new estrogenic molecules previously unknown, present in schistosome worm extracts and sera of Schistosoma-infected individuals. We also show that Sh is able to interact in vitro with estrogen receptor (ER), explaining how host endocrine system can favor the establishment of schistosomes. These findings highlight the exploitation of the host endocrine system by schistosomes and represent an additional regulatory component of schistosome development that defines a novel paradigm enabling host-parasite interactions. The identification of these molecules opens new ways for the development of alternative drugs to treat schistosomiasis.
Related JoVE Video
Urothelial dysplasia and inflammation induced by Schistosoma haematobium total antigen instillation in mice normal urothelium.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder has been associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection in many parts of Africa. The epidemiologic association is based on case control studies and on the close correlation of urinary bladder cancer incidence with prevalence of S. haematobium infection within different geographic areas. A parasite-tumor linkage is further suggested by the predominance of squamous cell (as opposed to transitional cell) morphology of bladder carcinomas seen in S. haematobium-endemic areas. The cellular mechanisms linking S. haematobium infection with cancer formation are not yet defined. In the present study, we hypothesized that the parasite antigens might induce alterations in urothelium.
Related JoVE Video
Tumourigenic effect of Schistosoma haematobium total antigen in mammalian cells.
Int J Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schistosoma haematobium is endemic in several regions of Africa and has been shown to be associated with predominantly squamous cell bladder carcinoma. The mechanisms underlying the association between S. haematobium and bladder squamous cell carcinoma is largely unknown. All the reports so far, demonstrate exclusively an epidemiological evidence linking S. haematobium infection with squamous cell bladder carcinoma. We hypothesized that these parasite antigens might induce tumourigenesis. For this, we used normal mammalian cells of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and treated the cells in culture with S. haematobium total antigen (Sh). Our results showed increased proliferation in Sh-treated cells in comparison with the controls. The CHO cells exposed to Sh were inoculated subcutaneously into male nude mice and formed sarcomas (n = 5/5). The cells from the sarcomas expressed vimentin filaments and were negative to cytokeratin. Our results demonstrate for the first time that S. haematobium antigens induce tumour development in nude mice.
Related JoVE Video
Serotyping of naturally Toxoplasma gondii infected meat-producing animals.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serotyping was previously described as a promising method for typing strains of Toxoplasma gondii. The majority of precedent studies utilized serum samples collected from human patients with different T. gondii-associated pathologies. The aim of this work was to study the applicability of the same procedure for serotyping naturally infected meat-producing animals. An ELISA test based on GRA6 and GRA7 C-terminal polymorphic peptides was used. Peptide GRA6II has polymorphisms specific for the archetypal strains type II, GRA6I/III for strains type I and III, GRA7I for strains type I and GRA7III for strains type III. As reference material, and to validate this approach, serum samples from eleven free-range chickens and fifteen pigs used for Toxoplasma genotypes isolation were selected. These strains integrate the Biological Resource Centre (BRC) ToxoBS Bank. Three serum samples from chickens and two from pigs had serotyping results in agreement with genotyping. Thirty-five serum samples from chickens, twenty-nine from pigs and fifty from sheep, seropositive for T. gondii, from which no isolate was obtained, were also serotyped. Serotype III appeared significantly more frequent among sheep. Our results show that serotyping still need refinement, but may become a valuable tool for typing Toxoplasma strains from animal origin.
Related JoVE Video
Selection of polymorphic peptides from GRA6 and GRA7 sequences of Toxoplasma gondii strains to be used in serotyping.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from geographical environments other than Europe and North America revealed the existence of atypical strains that are not included in the three archetypal clonal lineages (lineages I, II, and III). GRA6 and GRA7 are polymorphic genes that have been used for the genotyping of Toxoplasma. The coding regions of GRA6 and GRA7 from 49 nonarchetypal strains were sequenced and compared with the sequences of type I, II, and III reference strains. Eighteen and 10 different amino acid sequences were found for GRA6 and GRA7, respectively. The polymorphisms found between the different sequences were analyzed, with the objective of defining peptides to be used for the serotyping of Toxoplasma infections. Two peptides specific for clonal lineages I and III (peptides GRA7I and GRA7III, respectively) were selected from the GRA7 locus. Three peptides specific for some atypical strains (peptides Am6, Af6, and Am7) were selected from both the GRA6 and the GRA7 loci. Serum samples from humans infected with Toxoplasma strains of known genotypes were serotyped with the selected peptides. Peptide GRA7III seems to be a good candidate for the serotyping of infections caused by type III strains. Peptide GRA7I had a very low sensitivity. Peptides Am6 and Af6 had low specificities, since they reacted with serum samples from patients infected with strains belonging to the three archetypal lineages. Although peptide Am7 was specific, it had low sensitivity.
Related JoVE Video
Formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit-type cookies supplemented with fruit powders.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cashew apple and guava residues from fruit juice industry were prepared as dehydrated fruit powders and used at different levels of wheat flour substitution for cookies formulations. The effects of guava and cashew apple fruit powders supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the cookies were evaluated. The pH, fibre and protein content were significantly affected. Biscuits with 15 g and 20 g/100g cashew apple and guava fruit powders showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The supplementation seems to be suited for wheat flour substitution and it is possible to obtain cookies with value-added food ingredient within the standards.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in surface water: a health risk for humans and animals.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the present study was to determine the degree of contamination by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in a river basin in a livestock farming area in Galicia (NW, Spain). Water samples (50 l) were collected at 22 points in the main basin (including 5 recreational areas), and at the source and mouth of the 3 most important rivers and at the mouth of a smaller, secondary river. Faecal samples were collected from dairy cattle selected at random from 18 herds farmed in the area. A total of 139 neonatal calves, 480 heifers and 697 cows were sampled. The prevalence, intensity of infection and the risk associated with the spread of infection by both enteropathogens were determined. Water and faecal samples were collected in spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2007. The species and genotypes of these parasites present in the water samples were identified. In both water and faecal samples, more parasitic stages were collected in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. In spring, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 33 (9.4%) cows from 13 (72.2%) herds, and G. duodenalis cysts were detected in 56 (16.0%) cows from 15 farms (83.3%); the intensity of infection ranged from 5 to 7895 G. duodenalis cysts per gram of faeces. Infective stages of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were also detected in respectively 26 (89.6%) and 27 (93.1%) water samples, in spring. The mean concentrations of parasites ranged from 2 to 1200 Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre and from 2 to 400 G. duodenalis cysts per litre. Cryptosporidium parvum, C. andersoni, C. hominis and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were detected. The presence of both protozoans must be monitored in cattle, in sources of water used for recreational purposes and in artificial waterways used by farmers (water channels, animal drinking water and drainage systems).
Related JoVE Video
Schistosoma haematobium total antigen induces increased proliferation, migration and invasion, and decreases apoptosis of normal epithelial cells.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schistosome worms are blood-dwelling flukes that cause chronic infection in more than 200 million people and are thought to be responsible for 500,000 deaths annually. During infection with Schistosoma haematobium, eggs are deposited in the mucosa and submucosa of the bladder and lower ureters. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder is a long-term sequela of chronic infection. The mechanisms underlying the association between S. haematobium and SCC of the bladder are largely unknown, with all reports to date exclusively demonstrating epidemiological evidence linking S. haematobium infection with SCC of the bladder. We hypothesised that the parasite antigens might induce alterations in epithelial cells towards cancer. For this we used Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and treated the cells in culture with S. haematobium total antigen (Sh). Our results showed increased proliferation, increased S-phase and decreased apoptosis, as well as down-regulation of tumour suppressor p27 and up-regulation of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in Sh-treated cells compared with controls. We also found increased migration and invasion. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating alterations of normal epithelial cells as a direct effect of S. haematobium antigens.
Related JoVE Video
Tumour-like phenotypes in urothelial cells after exposure to antigens from eggs of Schistosoma haematobium: an oestrogen-DNA adducts mediated pathway?
Int. J. Parasitol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic infection with the blood fluke, Schistosoma haematobium, is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Previously, it has been shown that soluble extracts of mixed sex adult S. haematobium worms (SWAP) are tumourigenic, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, oestrogen-related molecules in SWAP of S. haematobium down-regulate oestrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta in oestrogen responsive cells. Moreover, schistosome oestrogens occur in sera of persons with schistosomiasis haematobia and repress transcription of ERs in urothelial cells. Given that eggs of S. haematobium are the developmental stage directly responsible for urogenital disease during schistosomiasis haematobia, we suspected that soluble antigens from S. haematobium eggs exhibit similar or more potent tumorigenic capacity. Here we investigated the tumorigenic potential of soluble egg antigens (Sh-SEA) of S. haematobium and the endocrine system in favouring parasitism by schistosomes. The findings confirmed that 6.25?g/ml of Sh-SEA was enough to stimulate cell proliferation, reduce apoptosis and increase oxidative stress of Sh-SEA-exposed urothelial cells. In addition, genotoxic effects of Sh-SEA on these cells were determined by using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet). Furthermore, Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection Electron Spray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry indicated the presence of catechol-oestrogens in S. haematobium SEA. A prospective oestrogen-DNA adduct mediated pathway in S. haematobium egg induced bladder cancer is also discussed.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.