JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dysuria and acute urinary retencion as initial presentation of primary vaginal lymphoma. Case report and bibliographic review.
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a case of primary vaginal lymphoma. The clinical presentation was an episode of dysuria and acute urinary retention. We performed a bibliographic review.
Related JoVE Video
Indium-catalyzed intramolecular hydroarylation of aryl propargyl ethers.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Indium(iii) halides catalyze efficiently the intramolecular hydroarylation (IMHA) of aryl propargyl ethers. The reaction proceeds regioselectively with terminal and internal alkynes bearing electron-rich and electron-deficient substituents in the benzenes and alkynes affording only the 6-endo dig cyclization product. Additionally, a sequential indium-catalyzed IMHA and palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling can be performed in one reaction vessel. Experiments with deuterium support a mechanism through electrophilic aromatic substitution.
Related JoVE Video
[The effects of methylmercury on health in children and adults; national and international studies].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.
Related JoVE Video
[Methylmercury exposure in the general population; toxicokinetics; differences by gender, nutritional and genetic factors].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.
Related JoVE Video
A Functional Selectivity Mechanism at the Serotonin-2A GPCR Involves Ligand-Dependent Conformations of Intracellular Loop 2.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With recent progress in determination of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structure with crystallography, a variety of other experimental approaches (e.g., NMR spectroscopy, fluorescent-based assays, mass spectrometry techniques) are also being used to characterize state-specific and ligand-specific conformational states. MD simulations offer a powerful complementary approach to elucidate the dynamic features associated with ligand-specific GPCR conformations. To shed light on the conformational elements and dynamics of the important aspect of GPCR functional selectivity, we carried out unbiased microsecond-length MD simulations of the human serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) in the absence of ligand and bound to four distinct serotonergic agonists. The 5-HT2AR is a suitable system to study the structural features involved in the ligand-dependent conformational heterogeneity of GPCRs because it is well-characterized experimentally and exhibits a strong agonist-specific phenotype in that some 5-HT2AR agonists induce LSD-like hallucinations, while others lack this psychoactive property entirely. Here we report evidence for structural and dynamic differences in 5-HT2AR interacting with such pharmacologically distinct ligands, hallucinogens, and nonhallucinogens obtained from all-atom MD simulations. Differential ligand binding contacts were identified for structurally similar hallucinogens and nonhallucinogens and found to correspond to different conformations in the intracellular loop 2 (ICL2). From the different ICL2 conformations, functional selective phenotypes are suggested through effects on dimerization and/or distinct direct interaction with effector proteins. The findings are presented in the context of currently proposed hallucinogenesis mechanisms, and ICL2 is proposed as a fine-tuning selective switch that can differentiates modes of 5-HT2AR activation.
Related JoVE Video
Immigrant women living with HIV in Spain: a qualitative approach to encourage medical follow-up.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Immigrant women living with HIV generally have worse adherence to medical treatment and follow-up when compared to native women and immigrant or native men. The general aim of this study was to improve healthcare services for HIV-positive women and to better understand why some of them discontinue treatment. The specific objectives were: (1) to explore the barriers and facilitators to medical follow-up among women and (2) to use the findings to create a guide for healthcare professionals with strategies and tools to encourage the immigrant women to continue with their healthcare treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Oligomycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity suppresses boar sperm motility and in vitro capacitation achievement without modifying overall sperm energy levels.
Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Incubation of boar spermatozoa in a capacitation medium with oligomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the F0 component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, induced an immediate and almost complete immobilisation of cells. Oligomycin A also inhibited the ability of spermatozoa to achieve feasible in vitro capacitation (IVC), as measured through IVC-compatible changes in motility patterns, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the acrosomal p32 protein, membrane fluidity and the ability of spermatozoa to achieve subsequent, progesterone-induced in vitro acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Both inhibitory effects were caused without changes in the rhythm of O2 consumption, intracellular ATP levels or mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). IVAE was accompanied by a fast and intense peak in O2 consumption and ATP levels in control spermatozoa. Oligomycin A also inhibited progesterone-induced IVAE as well as the concomitant peaks of O2 consumption and ATP levels. The effect of oligomycin on IVAE was also accompanied by concomitant alterations in the IVAE-induced changes on intracellular Ca(2+) levels and MMP. Our results suggest that the oligomycin A-sensitive mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity is instrumental in the achievement of an adequate boar sperm motion pattern, IVC and IVAE. However, this effect seems not to be linked to changes in the overall maintenance of adequate energy levels in stages other than IVAE.
Related JoVE Video
A Novel In Vitro Approach for Simultaneous Evaluation of CYP3A4 Inhibition and Kinetic Aqueous Solubility.
J Biomol Screen
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the early stages of the drug discovery process, evaluation of the drug metabolism and physicochemical properties of new chemical entities is crucial to prioritize those candidates displaying a better profile for further development. In terms of metabolism, drug-drug interactions mediated through CYP450 inhibition are a significant safety concern, and therefore the effect of new candidate drugs on CYP450 activity should be screened early. In the initial stages of drug discovery, when physicochemical properties such as aqueous solubility have not been optimized yet, there might be a large number of candidate compounds showing artificially low CYP450 inhibition, and consequently potential drug-drug interaction toxicity might be overlooked. In this work, we present a novel in vitro approach for simultaneous evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition potential and kinetic aqueous solubility (NIVA-CYPI-KS). This new methodology is based on fluorogenic CYP450 activities and turbidimetric measurements for compound solubility, and it provides a significant improvement in the use of resources and a better understanding of CYP450 inhibition data.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle, and social determinants: a cross-sectional population study.
Br J Gen Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The influence of socioeconomic development is often disregarded in epidemiological studies into the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term effects of varying consumption of ?3 fatty acids in ear, nose and throat cancer patients: assessment 1 year after radiotherapy.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract A prospective 1-year follow-up study in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) cancer patients was carried out one year after radiotherapy to assess the effect of varying consumption of ?3 fatty acid according to whether they consumed more or less than the 50th percentile of ?3 fatty acids. Clinical, analytical, inflammatory (CRP and IL-6), and oxidative variables (TAC, GPx, GST, and SOD) were evaluated. The study comprised 31 patients (87.1% men), with a mean age of 61.3?±?9.1 years. Hematological variables showed significant differences in the patients with a lower consumption of ?3 fatty acids. A lower mortality and longer survival were found in the group with ?3 fatty acid consumption ?50th percentile but the differences were not significant. No significant difference was reached in toxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers. The group with ?3 fatty acid consumption <50th percentile significantly experienced more hematological and immune changes.
Related JoVE Video
Rationale and design of the RIBS IV randomised clinical trial (drug-eluting balloons versus everolimus-eluting stents for patients with drug-eluting stent restenosis).
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aims: This study will compare the efficacy of drug-eluting balloons (DEB) and everolimus-eluting stents (EES) in patients with drug-eluting stent (DES) in-stent restenosis (ISR). Methods and results: This is a prospective, multicentre, randomised clinical trial comparing DEB and EES in patients with DES-ISR. The study is an investigator-driven initiative generated within the RIBS study programme. A total of 310 patients with DES-ISR will be included and randomised (1:1) to DEB or EES. Angiographic follow-up has been scheduled at six to nine months. Quantitative coronary analyses will be performed in a centralised core lab by blinded personnel. The primary endpoint of the study is minimal lumen diameter at angiographic follow-up. Other secondary angiographic endpoints include % diameter stenosis, late loss, net gain and binary restenosis rate. An independent clinical events committee will adjudicate clinical events after reviewing source documents. The main clinical outcome measure is a combined endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularisation at one year. Individual components of the combined clinical endpoint and rates of target lesion revascularisation and stent thrombosis will also be compared. Conclusions: This randomised clinical trial will determine the relative efficacy of EES versus DEB in patients presenting with DES-ISR. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01239940).
Related JoVE Video
Estradiol and Progesterone Administration After pMCAO Stimulates the Neurological Recovery and Reduces the Detrimental Effect of Ischemia Mainly in Hippocampus.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological studies have suggested a differential response, males versus female, in stroke incidence and prognosis. These divergences in brain response after damage are based mostly on hormonal differences. To date, estradiol and progesterone administered independently have demonstrated neuroprotection after ischemia in animal models. Nonetheless, contradictory results were revealed using a combined administration. In order to evaluate the effects of combinatorial treatment administered after ischemia induction, we used two different approaches: in vivo and in vitro models. Male rats which underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with a combination of estradiol/progesterone at 6, 24 and 48 h after injury and sacrificed at 54 h post-ischemia. The rat brains were evaluated for reactive gliosis, NeuN-positive neurons, levels of synapse-associated proteins and activity levels of PI3K/Akt/GSK3/?-catenin survival pathway. Also, primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation for 17 h and returned to a normal environment in the presence of estradiol or estradiol/progesterone. Cell viability was evaluated, and activity levels of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3/?-catenin pathway. Our results indicate that some beneficial effects of estradiol were abolished in the presence of progesterone, particularly in the cerebral cortex (core). However, the combinatorial treatment showed positive effects in the hippocampus.
Related JoVE Video
Protective role of DDAH2 (rs805304) gene polymorphism in patients with myocardial infarction.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to establish the role of DDAH gene polymorphisms in the risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI) in a clinical cohort of Mexican patients. One polymorphism (rs1498373) in the DDAH1 and three in the DDAH2 (rs805304, rs3131383, and rs805305) genes were performed by TaqMan genotyping assays in 473 patients with MI and 447 healthy unrelated controls. Similar distribution of DDAH1 and DDAH2 polymorphisms was observed in MI patients and healthy controls. Under a recessive model adjusted for age, gender, and obesity, the rs805304 C allele was associated with decreased risk of MI (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.51-0.96, P=0.030). The effect of the polymorphisms on various cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed. Under a recessive model adjusted for age and gender, the DDAH2 rs805304 C allele was associated with decreased risk of obesity (OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.22-0.57, P=0.001). The three DDAH2 polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium. Our results suggest that the rs805304 C allele was associated with decreased risk of MI and decreased risk of obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Headspace generation coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the automated determination and quantification of endogenous compounds in urine. Aldehydes as possible markers of oxidative stress.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A methodology for the determination of five aldehydes in urine has been developed based on the coupling of a headspace generation sampler with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system equipped with a programmed temperature vaporizer. This instrumental configuration minimizes sample manipulation and allows the determination of these compounds without the need for a derivatization step so that the methodology is largely shortened and simplified. An experimental design was carried out in order to optimize the headspace sampling. Sample matrix effect was eliminated by means of dilution of urine samples. The calibration models displayed good linearity (0.1-10?g/L) and their validity was checked using ANOVA, and it was observed that they did not exhibit any lack of fit. The LODs obtained ranged between 0.04 and 0.08?g/L and the LOQs between 0.12 and 0.24?g/L. The accuracy of the method was evaluated in terms of apparent recoveries which were between 86 and 120%. The method developed was applied to the analysis of 17 samples of urine from different subjects in order to quantify these endogenous compounds.
Related JoVE Video
Management of Trypanosoma cruzi coinfection in HIV-positive individuals outside endemic areas.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chagas disease has spread beyond the geographical barriers of the American continent in the past decade. Consequently, physicians treating HIV-infected patients in nonendemic countries have to face an opportunistic infection they have little experience with. This review examines the literature on Chagas disease in HIV-infected patients, with special emphasis on recent findings.
Related JoVE Video
Immediate Effects of Active Versus Passive Scapular Correction on Pain and Pressure Pain Threshold in Patients With Chronic Neck Pain.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of active vs passive scapular correction on pain and pressure pain threshold at the most symptomatic cervical segment in patients with chronic neck pain.
Related JoVE Video
[Pd(C^N)(X)(PPh?)] palladacycles react with 2,4,6-trifluorophenyl boronic acid to give stable transmetallation products of the type [Pd(C^N)(2,4,6-F?C?H?)(PPh?)].
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Direct transmetallation between palladacyclic complexes and arylboronic acid occurs to give isolable transmetallation products. In THF, the reaction occurs <0.5 h. Prolonged reaction leads to the generation of a dinuclear Pd complex bearing bridging ?-hydroxo and ?-acetoxy ligands. Insight into precatalyst activation for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-couplings mediated by palladacycles has been gained, where acetate and N-imidate anions activate a neutral arylboronic acid.
Related JoVE Video
High-resolution HLA analysis of primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome: a common immunogenetic background in Mexican patients.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the distribution of HLA-A, B, DRB1 and DQB1 alleles among Mexican patients with primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS), secondary SS (sSS), connective tissue disease (CTD) without (w/o) SS and historical ethnically healthy controls. We included 28 pSS, 30 sSS, 96 CTD w/o SS patients and 234 controls. HLA-A, B, DRB1 and DQB1 were amplified and sequenced using the Allele SEQR Sequenced Based Typing Kits and analyzed on the ABI Prism*3130 DNA Analyzer using the Assign software. Gene frequencies were obtained by direct counting. Contingence tables of 2 × 2 were generated and analyzed by the Mantel-Haenzel ? (2) or Fisher's test (EPIINFO program). We reported odds ratios (OR) and corrected p values. SS patients showed increased frequencies of A*68:01 and DRB1*14:06 alleles when compared to CTD w/o SS (OR 4.43, 95 % CI 1.35-14.14, p = 0.007 and OR 14, 95 % CI 1.68-116, p = 0.001, respectively) and a higher prevalence of DRB1*01:01 (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 2.13-16.56, p = 0.003) and HLA-B*35:01 (OR 3.70, 95 % CI 1.92-7.12, p = 0.004) when compared with controls. pSS patients had a higher frequency of DRB1*14:06 allele than sSS (OR 16, 95 % CI 1.59-390, p = 0.001). Anti-Ro/SSA positivity was associated with B*51:01 (OR 10.11, 95 % CI 1.09-245, p = 0.02) and DRB1*03:01 alleles (OR 4.26, 95 % CI 1.01-18.89, p = 0.029), whereas the A*01:01 allele was associated with anti-La/SSB positivity (OR 4.75, 95 % CI 1.32-16.92, p = 0.003). In our population, the DRB1*14:06 allele was associated with primary and secondary SS implying that both varieties bear a similar immunogenetic background.
Related JoVE Video
Role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the management of marginal zone B cell lymphoma.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of PET in patients with marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZL) is controversial because of variability of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity. We analyzed 40 PET/CT in 25 consecutive patients to compare its performance with CT at staging and as a first-line response assessment. Sensitivity of PET/CT and CT was 96 and 76%. Mean standard uptake value was 6.1, 6.9 and 3.4 (p?=?0.3) in nodal, extranodal and splenic subtypes, respectively. Of 17 patients (extranodal: n?=?9; nodal: n?=?6; splenic subtype: n?=?2) with both imaging tests available at diagnosis, 8 (47%) had more involved areas with PET/CT than with CT, 75% of which were extranodal lesions. PET/CT resulted in upstaging of five patients although treatment of only two of them was changed. Responses of 15 patients with post-treatment PET/CT were the following: 9 negative and 6 positive of which 3 were isolated residual lesions. Progression was documented in two of these three patients. Response was also assessed by CT in 11 patients. Discrepancies were found in three: Two were in complete remission by CT while PET/CT detected localized residual disease; another patient was in partial remission by CT, whereas PET/CT showed only one positive lesion. Two of these three patients relapsed. Patients with negative post-treatment PET/CT did not relapse. With a median follow-up of 50?months (10-152?months), 3-year overall survival was 100 and 80% for patients with negative and positive post-treatment PET/CT (p?=?0.2). Three-year disease-free survival was 86%; the negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 83.3%. Although a larger number of patients will be required to further confirm these data, we can conclude that PET/CT is a useful imaging tool for both staging and response assessment in patients with nodal and extranodal MZL as a result of its high sensitivity, NPV and PPV. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of treadmill running and fatigue on impact acceleration in distance running.
Sports Biomech
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects of treadmill running on impact acceleration were examined together with the interaction between running surface and runner's fatigue state. Twenty recreational runners (11 men and 9 women) ran overground and on a treadmill (at 4.0 m/s) before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a 30-minute run at 85% of individual maximal aerobic speed. Impact accelerations were analysed using two lightweight capacitive uniaxial accelerometers. A two-way repeated-measure analysis of variance showed that, in the pre-fatigue condition, the treadmill running decreased head and tibial peak impact accelerations and impact rates (the rate of change of acceleration), but no significant difference was observed between the two surfaces in shock attenuation. There was no significant difference in acceleration parameters between the two surfaces in the post-fatigue condition. There was a significant interaction between surface (treadmill and overground) and fatigue state (pre-fatigue and post-fatigue). In particular, fatigue when running overground decreased impact acceleration severity, but it had no such effect when running on the treadmill. The effects of treadmill running and the interaction need to be taken into account when interpreting the results of studies that use a treadmill in their experimental protocols, and when prescribing physical exercise.
Related JoVE Video
Splenic infarction and malaria.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Splenic infarction is a well recognised complication of malaria that has been infrequently reported in the literature.
Related JoVE Video
Interactions of Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi grown in co-culture.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were grown singly and in co-culture in chemostats to probe for physiological differences between the two growth conditions. Co-culture growth medium containing 60 mM NH4 (+) resulted in a cell density (0.20-0.29 OD600) greater than the sum of the densities in single chemostat cultures, i.e., 0.09-0.14 OD600 for N. europaea with 60 mM NH4 (+)and 0.04-0.06 OD600 for N. winogradskyi with 60 mM NO2 (-). The NO2 (-)- and NH4 (+)-dependent O2 uptake rates, qRT-PCR, and microscopic observations indicated that in co-culture, N. europaea contributed ~0.20 OD600 (~80 %) and N. winogradskyi ~0.05 OD600 (~20 %). In co-culture, the transcriptomes showed that the mRNA levels of 773 genes in N. europaea (30.2 % of the genes) and of 372 genes in N. winogradskyi (11.8 % of the genes) changed significantly. Total cell growth and the analysis of the transcriptome revealed that in co-culture, N. europaea benefits more than N. winogradskyi.
Related JoVE Video
Response to comment on «Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular events in haemodialysis».
Nefrologia
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nefrologia 2014;34(5):XXX. doi10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2014.Jun.12620 Reply to Esteve et al. Comment on Nefrologia 2014;34(4):xx. Nefrologia 2014;34(1):69-75.
Related JoVE Video
Intermediate doses of cytarabine plus granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor as an effective and safe regimen for hematopoietic stem cell collection in lymphoma patients with prior mobilization failure.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-dose chemotherapy supported by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is an effective treatment for patients with lymphomas. However, failure to reach the minimum threshold of hematopoietic stem cells to proceed to ASCT may occur, even with the most effective strategies currently available.
Related JoVE Video
Retrotransposons in pluripotent cells: Impact and new roles in cellular plasticity.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transposable Elements are pieces of DNA able to mobilize from one location to another within genomes. Although they constitute more than 50% of the human genome, they have been classified as selfish DNA, with the only mission to spread within genomes and generate more copies of themselves that will ensure their presence over generations. Despite their remarkable prevalence, only a minor group of transposable elements remain active in the human genome and can sporadically be associated with the generation of a genetic disorder due to their ongoing mobility. Most of the transposable elements identified in the human genome corresponded to fixed insertions that no longer move in genomes. As selfish DNA, transposable element insertions accumulate in cell types where genetic information can be passed to the next generation. Indeed, work from different laboratories has demonstrated that the main heritable load of TE accumulation in humans occurs during early embryogenesis. Thus, active transposable elements have a clear impact on our pluripotent genome. However, recent findings suggest that the main proportion of fixed non-mobile transposable elements might also have emerging roles in cellular plasticity. In this concise review, we provide an overview of the impact of currently active transposable elements in our pluripotent genome and further discuss new roles of transposable elements (active or not) in regulating pluripotency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress as a fundamental theme in cell plasticity.
Related JoVE Video
Structure and spectroscopic properties of nickel benzazolate complexes with hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The reaction of benzazole ligands 2-(2'-hydroxylphenyl)benzimidazole (Hpbm), 2-(2'-hydroxylphenyl)benzoxazole (Hpbx), and 2-(2'-hydroxylphenyl)benzothiazole (Hpbt), with [Ni(Tp*)(?-OH)]2 (Tp* = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate), leads to pentacoordinate nickel complexes [Ni(Tp*)(pbz)] (pbz = pbm (1), pbx (2), pbt (3)). The structures of 1, 2, and 3 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The pentacoordinate nickel complexes have distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries with Addison's ? parameter values of 0.63, 0.73, and 0.61 for 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The benzazolates are bonded in an ?(2)(N,O) fashion to the nickel atoms. DFT calculations are carried out to optimize the structures of the three complexes giving a good agreement with the X-ray structures. The (1)H NMR spectra of complexes 1-3 exhibit sharp isotropically shifted signals. The complete assignment of these signals required an application of two-dimensional {(1)H-(1)H}-COSY techniques. The experimental absorption spectra of the three complexes in chloroform solution each show an intense absorption band in the ultraviolet region ca. 240 nm, followed by three less intense bands, the first two at ?295 and ?340 nm, and the last more disperse one, at wavelengths between 360 and 410 nm. The absorption spectra are simulated by TD-DFT and reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra well. The analysis of the electronic transitions by inspection of the frontier molecular orbitals and also the natural transition orbitals allowed us to characterize and assign the observed bands properly. The three complexes are moderately blue luminescent at room temperature, both in the solid state and in solution. Emission spectra at room temperature display broad structureless bands in chloroform solution at 460, 482, and 512 nm for complexes 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and structured emission in solid state with ?max values of 473, 486, and 516 nm. Complexes containing different donor atoms in the benzazole ligand are furthermore observed to give different luminescence responses in the presence of Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), and Cu(II).
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a computationally designed water-soluble human ?-opioid receptor variant using available structural information.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The recent X-ray crystal structure of the murine ?-opioid receptor (MUR) allowed the authors to reengineer a previously designed water-soluble variant of the transmembrane portion of the human MUR (wsMUR-TM).
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of macular thickness changes after intracameral vancomycin in cataract surgery.
Int Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intracameral injection of vancomycin at the end of routine cataract surgery on macular thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. This prospective comparative case series included sixty eyes of 42 patients undergoing cataract surgery. Eyes were divided into two groups: 30 eyes (Group 1) received an intracameral injection of vancomycin (1 mg/0.1 ml) at the end of surgery, and 30 eyes (Group 2) received an intracameral injection of cefuroxime (1 mg/0.1 ml). Visual acuity, average macular thickness, and retinal thickness in 9 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) sectors were measured at baseline, and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. There were no differences in age, gender, visual acuity, and preoperative macular thickness between groups. In Group 1, average macular thickness significantly increased 1 month after surgery compared with baseline (P = 0.000) and then stabilized. Retinal thickness significantly increased in most of the ETDRS map sectors at 1-month follow-up. In Group 2, there was a significant increase in average macular thickness 1 month after surgery compared with baseline (P = 0.037). Likewise, retinal thickness increased in most of the ETDRS subfields at 1 month. Postoperative retinal thickness values and best-corrected visual acuity were similar in both groups 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Intracameral injection of vancomycin at the end of cataract surgery showed comparable effects to cefuroxime in terms of macular thickness changes and visual acuity.
Related JoVE Video
Psychosocial factors associated with failure to use contraception among adolescents with repeat pregnancies in Puerto Rico.
Bol Asoc Med P R
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Social, medical, psychological and economic problems are often associated to teen pregnancy. This is a reality worldwide; Puerto Rico is not an exception, documented in statistics and previous research projects. There are many risks associated with pregnancies among adolescents, including increased maternal morbidity and infant morbidity. In Puerto Rico, the adolescent repeat births reed are 22% for a second child and 6% for a third child. Repeated teen pregnancy has a higher than expected incidence; therefore the investigation of psychosocial factors associated with failure to use contraception is needed,especially to address the intervention at clinics with this population of different needs, mainly when these patients with repeated teen pregnancies have been through the health care system already.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of anemia and its impact on the state of frailty in elderly people living in the community: SADEM study.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anemia represents a global health problem that negatively impacts quality of life in elderly population; however, its impact on the geriatric syndrome of frailty is unclear. We examined the prevalence of anemia among elderly and sought a relationship between hemoglobin and the phenotype of frailty. Baseline hemoglobin quintiles and anemia were assessed in relation to frailty status in a prospective study with 1,933 older community-dwelling adults enrolled in the Study on Aging and Dementia in Mexico (SADEM). Logistic regression was used to model the relationship between frailty and Hb, adjusting for risk factors of frailty, sociodemographic data, cognitive decline, chronic diseases, and some risky habits. Prevalence of frailty was 8.3 %. Frailty risk was highest at the lowest hemoglobin quintile (<14.3 g/dL for men; <13.3 g/dL for women), and 160 (8.3 %) were anemic (<13 g/dL for men; <12 g/dL for women). The relationship between frailty and Hb levels, adjusted for age and sex, observed in the first and fifth quintiles, compared with the fourth quintile, were 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.46-1.60) and 1.05 (95 % CI, 1.01-1.15). After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratios (ORs) were 1.23 (95 % CI, 1.17-1.13) and 1.06 (95 % CI, 1.01-1.11). The association was not diminished by risk factors for frailty (body mass index (BMI), comorbidity, cognitive decline, smoking, alcohol consumption, etc.). In community-dwelling older adults, low hemoglobin concentrations and anemia were independently associated with increased frailty risk. This suggests that mild anemia and low Hb levels are independent, modifiable risk factors for frailty.
Related JoVE Video
Scalable production of highly sensitive nanosensors based on graphene functionalized with a designed G protein-coupled receptor.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed a novel, all-electronic biosensor for opioids that consists of an engineered ?-opioid receptor protein, with high binding affinity for opioids, chemically bonded to a graphene field-effect transistor to read out ligand binding. A variant of the receptor protein that provided chemical recognition was computationally redesigned to enhance its solubility and stability in an aqueous environment. A shadow mask process was developed to fabricate arrays of hundreds of graphene transistors with average mobility of ?1500 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and yield exceeding 98%. The biosensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the target naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, with a detection limit of 10 pg/mL.
Related JoVE Video
The HIF1A rs2057482 polymorphism is associated with risk of developing premature coronary artery disease and with some metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. The Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Mexican Study.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to establish the role of HIF1A gene polymorphisms in the risk of developing premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in a well-characterized clinical cohort. Three polymorphisms in HIF1A (rs11549465, rs11549467, rs2057482) gene were genotyped in 949 patients with premature CAD, and 676 healthy controls (with negative calcium score by computed tomography). Under a dominant model adjusted for age, visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) ratio, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), HDL-C levels, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, the rs2057482 T allele was associated with decreased risk of premature CAD when compared to healthy controls (OR = 0.616, P(dom) = 0.020). The effect of the studied polymorphisms on various metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors was explored. In this analysis, the rs2057482 T allele was associated with decreased risk of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and increased risk of T2DM. Under a dominant model adjusted by age, the HIF1A rs2057482 T polymorphism was associated with high VAT/SAT ratio (P = 0.009) and HDL-C levels (P = 0.04) in healthy controls. The results suggest that HIF1A rs2057482 polymorphism is involved in the risk of developing CAD and is associated with some metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors.
Related JoVE Video
Uncommon acute neurologic presentation of canine distemper in 4 adult dogs.
Can. Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four uncommon cases of canine distemper (CD) were diagnosed in vaccinated adult dogs. All dogs had acute onset of neurologic signs, including seizures, abnormal mentation, ataxia, and proprioceptive deficits. Polymerase chain reaction for CD virus was positive on cerebrospinal fluid in 2 cases. Due to rapid deterioration the dogs were euthanized and CD was confirmed by postmortem examination.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic predisposition to in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.
Elinor Sawyer, Rebecca Roylance, Christos Petridis, Mark N Brook, Salpie Nowinski, Efterpi Papouli, Olivia Fletcher, Sarah Pinder, Andrew Hanby, Kelly Kohut, Patricia Gorman, Michele Caneppele, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Nichola Johnson, Ruth Swann, Miriam Dwek, Katherine-Anne Perkins, Cheryl Gillett, Richard Houlston, Gillian Ross, Paolo De Ieso, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper, Elena Provenzano, Carmel Apicella, Jelle Wesseling, Sten Cornelissen, Renske Keeman, Peter A Fasching, Sebastian M Jud, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Michael J Kerin, Federick Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Barbara Burwinkel, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Pierre Kerbrat, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Roger L Milne, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Javier Benitez, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Alfons Meindl, Peter Lichtner, Rita K Schmutzler, Magdalena Lochmann, Hiltrud Brauch, Hans-Peter Fischer, Yon-Dschun Ko, , Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Natalia V Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Kconfab Investigators, Diether Lambrechts, Caroline Weltens, Erik Van Limbergen, Sigrid Hatse, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Sara Volorio, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Catriona A McLean, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Vessela Kristensen, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Saila Kauppila, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Peter Devillee, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Caroline M Seynaeve, Mieke Kriege, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Mark E Sherman, Maartje J Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Jingmei Li, Kamila Czene, Keith Humphreys, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Mitul Shah, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nicholas Orr, Minouk Schoemaker, Fergus J Couch, Emily Hallberg, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Kyriaki Michailidou, Alison M Dunning, Per Hall, Doug Easton, Paul Pharoah, Marjanka K Schmidt, Ian Tomlinson, Montserrat Garcia-Closas.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18), P = 6.0 × 10(-10); P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8 × 10(-4)). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of replacing aluminium hydroxide with calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate on serum phosphorus control in haemodialysis patients.
Nefrologia
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) is a phosphorus binder with advantages in terms of cost, safety and tolerance and it has a similar efficacy to other drugs. The objective of the study is to assess the effects of replacing aluminium hydroxide [Al(OH3)] with MgCO3 on phosphorus and calcium metabolism in a cohort of haemodialysis patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Diagnosis and treatment of imported malaria in Spain: Recommendations from the Malaria Working Group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI).]
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malaria is a common parasitic disease diagnosed in the returned traveler. Mortality in travelers with imported malaria is around 2-3%, and one of the main factors associated with poor prognosis is the delay in the diagnosis and treatment. Imported malaria cases usually present with fever, headache and myalgia, but other symptoms may appear. The diagnosis should be performed as soon as possible, using thick smear or rapid diagnostic tests, and a blood smear. Treatment should be initiated urgently. In cases of severe malaria, the use of intravenous artemisinins has proved to be superior to intravenous quinine. This document reviews the recommendations of the expert group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI) for the diagnosis and treatment of imported malaria in Spain.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation.
Maya Ghoussaini, Stacey L Edwards, Kyriaki Michailidou, Silje Nord, Richard Cowper-Sal Lari, Kinjal Desai, Siddhartha Kar, Kristine M Hillman, Susanne Kaufmann, Dylan M Glubb, Jonathan Beesley, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Ed Dicks, Qi Guo, Marjanka K Schmidt, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Judith Brown, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Daniel Klevebring, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Diether Lambrechts, Bernard Thienpont, Patrick Neven, Hans Wildiers, Annegien Broeks, Laura J Van't Veer, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Emily Hallberg, Celine Vachon, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Lorna Gibson, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Per Hall, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Sue K Park, Dong-Young Noh, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Yasushi Yatabe, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Florence Menegaux, Marie Sanchez, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederik Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Javier Benitez, M Pilar Zamora, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Qiuyin Cai, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Daphne S C Lee, Tien Y Wong, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, J Margriet Collée, Carolien H M van Deurzen, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Helen Tsimiklis, Miroslav K Kapuscinski, Chen-Yang Shen, Pei-Ei Wu, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Shou-Tung Chen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Anne-Lise Borresen-Dale, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne, Catriona McLean, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Shaik Ahmad Bin Syed Buhari, Yik Ying Teo, Peter A Fasching, Lothar Haeberle, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk J Schoemaker, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Koto, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Sara Volorio, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Sonja Helbig, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Ute Hamann, Diana Torres, Wei Zheng, Jirong Long, Hoda Anton-Culver, Susan L Neuhausen, Craig Luccarini, Caroline Baynes, Shahana Ahmed, Mel Maranian, Catherine S Healey, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Nuria Alvarez, Daniel Herrero, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Ines de Santiago, Jason Carroll, Carlos Caldas, Melissa A Brown, Mathieu Lupien, Vessela N Kristensen, Paul D P Pharoah, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Juliet D French, Douglas F Easton, Alison M Dunning, .
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
ATP-P2X7 Receptor Modulates Axon Initial Segment Composition and Function in Physiological Conditions and Brain Injury.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Axon properties, including action potential initiation and modulation, depend on both AIS integrity and the regulation of ion channel expression in the AIS. Alteration of the axon initial segment (AIS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative, psychiatric, and brain trauma diseases, thus identification of the physiological mechanisms that regulate the AIS is required to understand and circumvent AIS alterations in pathological conditions. Here, we show that the purinergic P2X7 receptor and its agonist, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), modulate both structural proteins and ion channel density at the AIS in cultured neurons and brain slices. In cultured hippocampal neurons, an increment of extracellular ATP concentration or P2X7-green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression reduced the density of ankyrin G and voltage-gated sodium channels at the AIS. This effect is mediated by P2X7-regulated calcium influx and calpain activation, and impaired by P2X7 inhibition with Brilliant Blue G (BBG), or P2X7 suppression. Electrophysiological studies in brain slices showed that P2X7-GFP transfection decreased both sodium current amplitude and intrinsic neuronal excitability, while P2X7 inhibition had the opposite effect. Finally, inhibition of P2X7 with BBG prevented AIS disruption after ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In conclusion, our study demonstrates an involvement of P2X7 receptors in the regulation of AIS mediated neuronal excitability in physiological and pathological conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic implications of atrio-ventricular block in patients undergoing primary coronary angioplasty in the stent era.
Acute Card Care
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Conduction disorders in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are associated with high mortality. Previous studies have analyzed the implications of AVB in acute coronary syndrome treated with fibrinolysis. However, the implications of AVB in patients with STEMI treated with primary angioplasty have not been sufficiently studied.
Related JoVE Video
The (G>A) rs11573191 polymorphism of PLA2G5 gene is associated with premature coronary artery disease in the Mexican Mestizo population: the genetics of atherosclerotic disease Mexican study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disorder that results from an excessive inflammatory response. Secretory phospholipase A2-V (sPLA2-V) encoded by PLA2G5 gene promotes diverse proinflammatory processes. The aim of the present study was to analyze if PLA2G5 gene polymorphisms are associated with premature CAD. Three PLA2G5 polymorphisms (rs11573187, rs2148911, and rs11573191) were analyzed in 707 patients with premature CAD and 749 healthy controls. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. Under dominant, recessive, and additive models, the rs11573191 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of premature CAD (OR = 1.51, P(dom) = 3.5 × 10(-3); OR = 2.95, P(rec) = 0.023; OR = 1.51, P(add) = 1.2 × 10(-3)). According to the informatics software, this polymorphism had a functional effect modifying the affinity of the sequence by the MZF1 transcription factor. PLA2G5 polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium and the CGA haplotype was associated with increased risk of premature CAD (OR = 1.49, P = 0.0023) and with hypertension in these patients (OR = 1.75, P = 0.0072). Our results demonstrate the association of the PLA2G5 rs11573191 polymorphism with premature CAD. In our study, it was possible to distinguish one haplotype associated with increased risk of premature CAD and hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
An active isodicentric x chromosome in a case of refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts associated with marked thrombocytosis.
Case Rep Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts and marked thrombocytosis (RARS-T) is a provisional entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. It displays features characteristic of both myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasia plus ring sideroblasts ?15% and marked thrombocytosis. Most patients with RARS-T show a normal karyotype. We report a 76-year-old woman diagnosed with RARS-T (76% of ring sideroblasts) with JAK2 (V617F) mutation and a load of 30-40%. Classical and molecular cytogenetic (FISH) studies of a bone marrow sample revealed the presence of isodicentric X chromosome [(idic(X)(q13)]. Moreover, HUMARA assay showed the idic(X)(q13) as the active X chromosome. This finding was correlated with the cytochemical finding of ring sideroblasts. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an active isodicentric X in a woman with RARS-T.
Related JoVE Video
Role of BRD4 in hematopoietic differentiation of embryonic stem cells.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) protein family member BRD4 is a transcriptional regulator, critical for cell cycle progression and cellular viability. Here, we show that BRD4 plays an important role in embryonic stem cell (ESC) regulation. During differentiation of ESCs, BRD4 expression is upregulated and its gene promoter becomes demethylated. Disruption of BRD4 expression in ESCs did not induce spontaneous differentiation but severely diminished hematoendothelial potential. Although BRD4 regulates c-Myc expression, our data show that the role of BRD4 in hematopoietic commitment is not exclusively mediated by c-Myc. Our results indicate that BRD4 is epigenetically regulated during hematopoietic differentiation ESCs in the context of a still unknown signaling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Microextraction by packed sorbent and salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of aromatic amines formed from azo dyes in textiles.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
EU legislation prohibits the use of certain azo dyes which, on reduction, form any of 22 aromatic amines listed in Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 at concentrations above the threshold limit of 30 mg Kg(-1). Two different extraction techniques for the determination of aromatic amines formed from azo dyes in textiles in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are described. The first one is based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and the other approach involves salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE). The influence of several parameters on the efficiency of the extraction using MEPS (sorbent material, sample volume, elution solvent, elution volume and washing steps, among others) and SALLE (extraction volume and amount of salt) were investigated. In addition, chromatographic separation was optimized and quadrupole mass spectrometry was evaluated using the synchronous SIM/scan data acquisition mode. The repeatability (n=8, S/N=3) of the methods, calculated as the relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 15 and 11% for all compounds when MEPS and SALLE were used, respectively. Standard additions procedure was used to quantify the aromatic amines in the textil samples. The detection limits in the samples for both methods were lower than the maximum value allowed by legislation. The results obtained in the analysis of textiles revealed the presence of o-anisidine, p-chloroaniline, 4-chloro-o-toluidine, 2-naphthylamine and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine in some of them.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in Bolivian migrants in Spain.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite is transmitted to humans mainly through the faeces of infected triatomine "kissing" bugs, by blood transfusions or organ donation from infected donors, and can be transmitted from mother to child. This disease is endemic in the Americas, where Bolivia has up to 28.8% prevalence in general population. Increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second country in number of patients after the United States. T. cruzi is an organism with a rich genetic diversity, what has been grouped into six discrete typing units (DTUs). Some authors have linked these DTUs either to specific geographical distribution or to the different clinical presentations. Nevertheless little is known about its distribution in migrant populations. Our aim was to describe the T. cruzi strains isolated from a population of chronically infected Bolivian patients attending our clinic in Madrid. Thirty-three consecutive patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24S? and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between epidemiological/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. Twenty-seven out of thirty-three patients had their DTU detected. Mean age was 36 years (IQR 31-43.3) and 23 were women (76.7%). The median time since arrival to Spain was 60 months (IQR 43-81). The most common DTU were TcV, TcIV and TcI. Four patients had cardiac involvement: 2 had TcV and 2 could not have their DTU determined. TcIII was not isolated from any patient. DTUs distribution in migrant population seems to be similar to that observed in the patients' countries of origin.
Related JoVE Video
CNS safety at 48-week of switching to ATV/r plus 3TC or two nucleos(t)ides in HIV-suppressed patients on stable ART: the SALT neurocognitive sub-study.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Due to their low CNS penetrance, there are concerns about the capacity of non-conventional PI-based ART (monotherapy and dual therapies) to preserve neurocognitive performance (NP).
Related JoVE Video
Nonlinearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article proposes non-linearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method (NDLT-HPM) to find approximate solutions for linear and nonlinear differential equations with finite boundary conditions. We will see that the method is particularly relevant in case of equations with nonhomogeneous non-polynomial terms. Comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions we show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk.
Sofia Khan, Dario Greco, Kyriaki Michailidou, Roger L Milne, Taru A Muranen, Tuomas Heikkinen, Kirsimari Aaltonen, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Jianjun Liu, Per Hall, Astrid Irwanto, Keith Humphreys, Jingmei Li, Kamila Czene, Jenny Chang-Claude, Rebecca Hein, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Olivia Fletcher, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Nichola Johnson, Lorna Gibson, Zoe Aitken, John L Hopper, Helen Tsimiklis, Minh Bui, Enes Makalic, Daniel F Schmidt, Melissa C Southey, Carmel Apicella, Jennifer Stone, Quinten Waisfisz, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Muriel A Adank, Rob B van der Luijt, Alfons Meindl, Rita K Schmutzler, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Peter Lichtner, Clare Turnbull, Nazneen Rahman, Stephen J Chanock, David J Hunter, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J V A N't Veer, Frans B Hogervorst, Peter A Fasching, Michael G Schrauder, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Javier Benitez, Pilar M Zamora, Jose I A Perez, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Paul D P Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Judith Brown, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Celine Vachon, Janet E Olson, Diether Lambrechts, Matthieu Moisse, Robert Paridaens, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Claire Mulot, Frederick Marme, Barbara Burwinkel, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Sandrine Tchatchou, Anna Marie Mulligan, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Hoda Anton-Culver, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Jolanta Lissowska, Louise Brinton, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Vessela N Kristensen, , Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Monica Barile, Paolo Mariani, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, J Margriet Collée, Agnes Jager, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Graham G Giles, Catriona McLean, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Michael Jones, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Arto Mannermaa, Ute Hamann, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Carl Blomqvist, Kristiina Aittomäki, Douglas F Easton, Heli Nevanlinna.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.
Related JoVE Video
Meningiomas: A Comparative Study of 68Ga-DOTATOC, 68Ga-DOTANOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE for Molecular Imaging in Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goal of this study was to compare the tumor uptake kinetics and diagnostic value of three 68Ga-DOTA-labeled somatostatin analogues (68Ga-DOTATOC, 68Ga-DOTANOC, and 68Ga-DOTATATE) using PET/CT in a murine model with subcutaneous meningioma xenografts.
Related JoVE Video
Control of mammalian retrotransposons by cellular RNA processing activities.
Mob Genet Elements
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retrotransposons make up roughly 50% of the mammalian genome and have played an important role in genome evolution. A small fraction of non-LTR retrotransposons, LINE-1 and SINE elements, is currently active in the human genome. These elements move in our genome using an intermediate RNA and a reverse transcriptase activity by a copy and paste mechanism. Their ongoing mobilization can impact the human genome leading to several human disorders. However, how the cell controls the activity of these elements minimizing their mutagenic effect is not fully understood. Recent studies have highlighted that the intermediate RNA of retrotransposons is a target of different mechanisms that limit the mobilization of endogenous retrotransposons in mammals. Here, we provide an overview of recent discoveries that show how RNA processing events can act to control the activity of mammalian retrotransposons and discuss several arising questions that remain to be answered.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study.
Muscles Ligaments Tendons J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment.
Related JoVE Video
THDP17 Decreases Ammonia Production through Glutaminase Inhibition. A New Drug for Hepatic Encephalopathy Therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ammonia production is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), being intestinal glutaminase activity the main source for ammonia. Management of ammonia formation can be effective in HE treatment by lowering intestinal ammonia production. The use of glutaminase inhibitors represents one way to achieve this goal. In this work, we have performed a search for specific inhibitors that could decrease glutaminase activity by screening two different groups of compounds: i) a group integrated by a diverse, highly pure small molecule compounds derived from thiourea ranging from 200 to 800 Daltons; and ii) a group integrated by commonly use compounds in the treatment of HE. Results shown that THDP-17 (10 µM), a thiourea derivate product, could inhibit the intestinal glutaminase activity (57.4±6.7%). Inhibitory effect was tissue dependent, ranging from 40±5.5% to 80±7.8% in an uncompetitive manner, showing Vmax and Km values of 384.62 µmol min-1, 13.62 mM with THDP-17 10 µM, respectively. This compound also decreased the glutaminase activity in Caco-2 cell cultures, showing a reduction of ammonia and glutamate production, compared to control cultures. Therefore, the THDP-17 compound could be a good candidate for HE management, by lowering ammonia production.
Related JoVE Video
Increased risk of serious non-AIDS-related events in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy associated with a low CD4/CD8 ratio.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A low CD4/CD8 ratio has been identified in the general population as a hallmark of inmmunosenescence and a surrogate of all-cause mortality. We aimed to investigate in treated HIV-infected individuals the relationship between the CD4/CD8 ratio and serious non-AIDS events.
Related JoVE Video
The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for diagnosis of Chagas disease: a multi-cohort comparative evaluation study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA) OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients.
Related JoVE Video
Wiping DNA methylation: Wip1 regulates genomic fluidity on cancer.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wip1 phosphatase plays an important role in cancer by inactivating p53 and INK4a/ARF pathways. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Filipponi and colleagues further connect the oncogenic role of Wip1 with heterochromatin dynamics, transposable element expression, and a mutation-prone environment that may enhance heterogeneity and ultimately contribute to tumor evolution.
Related JoVE Video
Mucormycosis of the vulva in an immunocompromised pediatric patient.
Bol Asoc Med P R
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is very unusual and rarely reported in the literature. The diagnosis is difficult and may mimic several infectious and immunologic diseases. We report a case of vulvar mucormycosis in a pediatric patient with end stage renal disease. A female on her first decade of life presented with a small scar on the right labia majora that in matters of weeks progressed aggressively, ulcerated, extended to the contralateral labia and invaded the entir vulvar region. Subsequent surgical debridement was undertaken. Pathology revealed Mucor species with progressive tissue necrosis. The patient was successfully trea ed with systemic antifungal, wide debridement of the affected area, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and surgical reconstruction of the area
Related JoVE Video
Patterns of Infection in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Receiving Azacitidine as Salvage Therapy. Implications for Primary Antifungal Prophylaxis.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Incidence, etiology, and outcome of infectious episodes in patients with myeloid neoplasms receiving azacitidine are uncertain, with no prospective data available in this group of patients. The aim of the current study was to analyze the incidence and factors related to the probability of infection in a cohort of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with azacitidine who did not receive any type of antimicrobial prophylaxis. Significantly, the group of patients who received prior intensive chemotherapy had more infectious episodes (P = 10(-4)), and particularly, invasive aspergillosis (P = .015), than patients who received frontline azacitidine. Primary antifungal prophylaxis might be recommended in MDS and AML patients receiving azacitidine as salvage therapy after intensive regimens.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro simulation of corneal epithelium microenvironment induces a corneal epithelial-like cell phenotype from human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transplantation of autologous corneal stem cells in not possible in cases of bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). To restore the ocular surface in these patients, an autologous extraocular source of stem cells is desirable to avoid dependence on deceased donor tissue and host immunosuppression of allogenic transplants. While bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can acquire certain characteristics of corneal epithelial cells, subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) is more readily available and accessible. The aim of this study was to determine if extraocular human AT-derived MSCs (hAT-MSCs) can acquire in vitro some features of corneal epithelial-like cells.
Related JoVE Video
Dried blood as an alternative to plasma or serum for Trypanosoma cruzi IgG detection in screening programs.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trypanosoma cruzi serological screening is recommended for people potentially exposed to this parasite in countries where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic and those where it is not endemic. Blood samples on filter paper may be a practical alternative to plasma/serum for antibody detection. Using the Architect Chagas assay, we detected the presence of IgG against T. cruzi in matched serum and dried blood spots (DBS) collected from 147 patients residing in Madrid, Spain, who had potential previous exposure to T. cruzi. The ? statistic for the DBS/serum proportion of agreement for the detection of antibodies against T. cruzi was 0.803, considering an S/CO (assay result unit; chemiluminescent signal from the sample [S] divided by the mean chemiluminescent signal for the three calibrators used in the test [CO]) cutoff value of ?1.00. The relative sensitivity of the Architect test using DBS increased from 95.2% to 98.8% when the cutoff was lowered from ?1.00 to ?0.88, while the relative specificity decreased from 84.1% to 71.6%. Overall, the median S/CO values for DBS were significantly lower than those for serum (2.6 versus 6.5; P < 0.001). Discrepancies that occurred with the use of DBS included 10 false positives (with low S/CO values in 9 cases [median, 2.13]) and 4 false negatives, with mean S/CO values of 0.905 (gray zone). Using DBS plus a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) may be a simple and reliable method for detecting IgG against T. cruzi when blood sampling by venipuncture is not feasible. This method may also reduce the false-negative rates observed with some rapid diagnostic tests. The lower relative sensitivity compared to the reference method may be increased by lowering the optical density threshold.
Related JoVE Video
To freeze or not to freeze peripheral blood stem cells prior to allogeneic transplantation from matched related donors.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The standard practice in allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) is to infuse peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) the same day or the day after collection once the patient has received conditioning regimen. To obtain and freeze PBSC prior to SCT would be desirable to get a better logistic and to confirm the quality of the product. Unfortunately, studies comparing both approaches are lacking.
Related JoVE Video
The Microprocessor controls the activity of mammalian retrotransposons.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
More than half of the human genome is made of transposable elements whose ongoing mobilization is a driving force in genetic diversity; however, little is known about how the host regulates their activity. Here, we show that the Microprocessor (Drosha-DGCR8), which is required for microRNA biogenesis, also recognizes and binds RNAs derived from human long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1), Alu and SVA retrotransposons. Expression analyses demonstrate that cells lacking a functional Microprocessor accumulate LINE-1 mRNA and encoded proteins. Furthermore, we show that structured regions of the LINE-1 mRNA can be cleaved in vitro by Drosha. Additionally, we used a cell culture-based assay to show that the Microprocessor negatively regulates LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition in vivo. Altogether, these data reveal a new role for the Microprocessor as a post-transcriptional repressor of mammalian retrotransposons and a defender of human genome integrity.
Related JoVE Video
Aziridines from alkenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside derivatives: Stereoselective synthesis and in vitro selective anticancer activity.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of new aziridines ?-D-galactopyranoside derivatives were synthesized from alkenyl ?-D-galactopyranosides employing Sharpless conditions. The structures of the compounds were established by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS, HRMS and elemental analysis. The stereoselectivity of the reaction and the structural requirements of the alkenyl precursor for improving diastereoisomeric excesses of the direct aziridination reaction were also studied. The new compounds were subjected to a preliminary screening for cytotoxic activity against human lung cancer cells vs. human non-malignant lung cells. Terminal aziridine derivatives showed activity and, most notably, selectivity. One of the most active and selective compounds was also evaluated against breast cancer cells, melanoma cells, and non-malignant cells from the same origin. Its cytotoxic activity was similar to that of the positive controls, displaying a highly selective cytotoxic activity against both types of cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Angiogenic and inflammatory markers in acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal injury associated to A/H1N1 virus infection.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often associated to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to influenza A/H1N1 virus infection. The profile of angiogenic and inflammatory factors in ARDS patients may be relevant for AKI. We analyzed the serum levels of several angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in 32 patients with A/H1N1 virus infection (17 with ARDS/AKI and 15 ARDS patients who did not developed AKI) and in 18 healthy controls. Significantly higher levels of VEGF, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10 in ARDS/AKI patients were detected. Adjusting by confusing variables, levels of MCP-1 ?150 pg/mL (OR=12.0, p=0.04) and VEGF ?225 pg/mL (OR=6.4, p=0.03) were associated with the development of AKI in ARDS patients. Higher levels of MCP-1 and IP-10 were significantly associated with a higher risk of death in patients with ARDS (hazard ratio (HR)=10.0, p=0.02; HR=25.5, p=0.03, respectively) even taking into account AKI. Patients with influenza A/H1N1 infection and ARDS/AKI have an over-production of MCP-1, VEGF and IP-10 possibly contributing to kidney injury and are associated to a higher risk of death.
Related JoVE Video
Nifurtimox therapy for Chagas disease does not cause hypersensitivity reactions in patients with such previous adverse reactions during benznidazole treatment.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Currently, only two drugs are approved for treating Trypanosoma cruzi infection: benznidazole and nifurtimox. Adverse reactions are frequent with both drugs: they have chemical similarities and common metabolic pathways making cross reactions a possibility. Our objective was to describe the safety/tolerability profile of nifurtimox in patients who had previously discontinued benznidazole due to hypersensitivity reactions. We performed a prospective observational study from September 2009 to December 2011. Patients who discontinued benznidazole therapy due to hypersensitivity reactions (HR) and were later treated with nifurtimox were included. HR to benznidazole were defined as presence of a rash with or without mucosal involvement, fever or laboratory abnormalities (such as eosinophilia, leucopaenia or impaired liver function tests). The drugs were prescribed for 60 days (benznidazole) or 60-90 days (nifurtimox). The National Cancer Institute criteria (CTCAE, 2006, Version 3.0) were used for grading and reporting of adverse reactions (AR). Eighteen patients (16 females, two males, median age 35.5 years, range 15-50 years) with asymptomatic late chronic infection, were included. Median time between benznidazole interruption and start of therapy with nifurtimox was 121.5 days (IQR 72-223 days). Fifteen patients (83.3%) developed an AR to nifurtimox, gastrointestinal complaints and anorexia being the most common, and 13 patients (72%) completed the treatment schedule. Five patients interrupted therapy (27.8%) mainly because of gastrointestinal intolerance and/or nervous system toxicity. Only one patient developed skin lesions, a mild maculopapular rash not requiring specific therapy or treatment withdrawal. There was no severe AR. Nifurtimox as second line therapy in patients who discontinued benznidazole specifically due to HR appears to be safe and does not seem to be associated with a higher incidence of AR.
Related JoVE Video
Safety of lone thrombus aspiration without concomitant coronary stenting in selected patients with acute myocardial infarction.
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the benefit of concomitant thrombus aspiration (TA) in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been demonstrated, very little information is available on its safety as a lone revascularisation technique in this setting. We present our experience in a cohort of patients with STEMI treated only with TA, without concomitant interventional devices.
Related JoVE Video
In situ aqueous derivatization as sample preparation technique for gas chromatographic determinations.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of derivatization reactions is a common practice in analytical laboratories. Although in many cases it is tedious and time-consuming, it does offer a good alternative for the determination of analytes not compatible to gas chromatography. Many of the reactions reported in the literature occur in organic medium. However, in situ aqueous derivatization reactions, which can be performed directly in aqueous medium, offer important advantages over those mentioned above, such as no need of a previous extraction step and easy automation. Here we review the most recent developments and applications of in situ aqueous derivatization. The discussion focuses on the derivatization reactions used for the determination of alcohols and phenols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitrogen-containing compounds and thiols in different aqueous matrices, such as environmental, biological and food samples. Several reactions are described for each functional group (acylation, alkylation, esterification, among others) and, in some cases, the same reagents can be used for several functional groups, such that there is an unavoidable overlap between sections. Finally, attention is also focused on the techniques used for the introduction of the derivatives formed in the aqueous medium into the chromatographic system. The implementation of in situ aqueous derivatization coupled to preconcentration techniques has permitted the enhancement of recoveries and improvements in the separation, selectivity and sensitivity of the analytical methods.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.