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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Health Care Experiences and Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access: A Qualitative Study Among African Migrants in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Guangzhou, one of China's largest cities and a main trading port in South China, has attracted many African businessmen and traders migrating to the city for financial gains. Previous research has explored the cultural and economic roles of this newly emerging population; however, little is known about their health care experiences while in China. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to assess health care experiences and perceived barriers to health care access among African migrants in Guangzhou, China. Overall, African migrants experienced various barriers to accessing health care and were dissatisfied with local health services. The principal barriers to care reported included affordability, legal issues, language barriers, and cultural differences. Facing multiple barriers, African migrants have limited access to care in Guangzhou. Local health settings are not accustomed to the African migrant population, suggesting that providing linguistically and culturally appropriate services may improve access to care for the migrants.
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The difference between HIV and syphilis prevalence and incidence cases: results from a cohort study in Nanjing, China, 2008-2010.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The available estimates of incidence and prevalence of syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Mainland China are high. We used respondent driven sampling to recruit MSM in the study population. The participants were followed up to monitor the incidence and change of risk behaviors. A face-to-face interview was used to collect information about high-risk behaviors, demographics and recreational drug use. To test the difference between prevalent and incident cases, two nested matched case control studies were carried out. The cases were the HIV or syphilis positives found at baseline and during follow-up. We used density sampling to sample six controls for each case. Our results indicate that compared to incident cases, prevalent cases had higher proportion of reported unprotected anal intercourse for both HIV and syphilis. Regression analysis indicated that unprotected anal intercourse was the main risk factor among HIV-prevalent cases but not in HIV-incident cases. These differences could possibly be explained by the implementation of the risk reduction interventions. Syphilis was not a risk factor for HIV-prevalent cases but were highly associated with HIV-incident cases. Tailored interventions addressing unprotected anal intercourse and other risk factors can help to reduce the prevalence and incidence of HIV and syphilis.
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HIV self-testing among online MSM in China: implications for expanding HIV testing among key populations.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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HIV self-testing offers an alternative to facility-based testing that could expand HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM). We organized an online survey of MSM in China to better understand the frequency and correlates of HIV self-testing. A total of 1342 individuals completed the survey. About 20.3% of MSM reported previous HIV self-testing. Self-testing was correlated with being married, having 6 or greater male anal sex partners in the past 3 months, and having HIV tested within 12 months in the multivariable analysis. Our study suggests that HIV self-testing may be able to reach subgroups of high-risk MSM and enable more frequent HIV testing.
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Optimal strategies for monitoring response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults, adolescents, children and pregnant women: a systematic review.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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The objective of this review was to examine different monitoring strategies (clinical, immunologic (CD4 T cell count measurement) and virologic (viral load measurement)) to inform revision of the 2013 WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle-income countries.
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Improving health services for African migrants in China: A health diplomacy perspective.
Glob Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Global health has become an increasingly prominent component of foreign policy in the last decade. The term health diplomacy has been used to describe this growing interface between foreign policy and global health, and it encompasses both the concept of using health to further foreign policy objectives as well as the idea that diplomatic tools can be helpful for attaining public health goals. The Chinese presence in Africa has grown in the last 15 years, generating increased interest in Sino-African relations. While much has been written in recent years about the Chinese presence in Africa, the growing numbers of Africans in China have attracted considerably less attention. Many are small-scale traders and might be expected to face many of the health challenges common among foreign migrants, but their health needs have been largely unrecognised. In this paper, we consider how a health diplomacy approach could be applied to African migrants in China, and the potential advantages and limitations of this strategy. We identify areas of overlap between public health, trade and foreign policy goals that can be emphasised to generate support for improved services for African migrants in China and to engage partners from a diversity of sectors.
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Strategies for promoting HIV testing uptake: willingness to receive couple-based and collective HIV testing among a cross-sectional online sample of men who have sex with men in China.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Low rates of HIV testing drive the rapidly growing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. We examined the potential usefulness of couple-based and collective HIV testing strategies among Chinese MSM.
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Suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected adults in Guangzhou, China.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Despite China's free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, there are high rates of treatment failure, large sociodemographic disparities in care outcomes and emerging medication resistance. Understanding patient medication adherence behaviors and challenges could inform adherence interventions to maximize the individual and prevention benefits of ART. This study assessed recent nonadherence and treatment interruption among 813 HIV-infected adult outpatients in Guangzhou, China. Participants completed a behavioral survey, underwent chart review, and were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Among 721 HIV-infected adults receiving ART, 18.9% reported recent nonadherence (any missed ART in the past four weeks) and 6.8% reported treatment interruption (four or more weeks of missed ART in the past year). Lower education, living alone, alcohol use, and being on ART one to three years were associated with recent nonadherence. Male gender, lower education, and being on ART one to three years were associated with treatment interruption. ART medication adherence interventions are needed in China that include individualized, long-term adherence plans sensitive to patients' educational and economic situations. These interventions should also consider possible gender disparities in treatment outcomes and address the use of alcohol during ART. Successful ART medication adherence interventions in China can inform other international settings that face similar adherence challenges and disparities.
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Disparities and risks of sexually transmissible infections among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis and data synthesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including Hepatitis B and C virus, are emerging public health risks in China, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aims to assess the magnitude and risks of STIs among Chinese MSM.
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Temporal Trends in Syphilis and Gonorrhea Incidences in Guangdong Province, China.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The high burden of syphilis in China presents a unique opportunity to examine temporal trends. This study used wavelet transformation and Fourier analysis to assess the presence of temporal oscillations in the incidence of syphilis among adults, gonorrhea, and congenital syphilis over 11 years in Chinas largest province. This study found a significant annual oscillation trend in the incidence of adult syphilis, consistent with a peak during July-September, which was 4-fold higher than the trough, which occurred during January-March. A similar but dampened trend was observed in the incidence of gonorrhea, and no trend was observed for the incidence of congenital syphilis. Further research on the temporal oscillation of the incidence of syphilis is needed.
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Unsafe Sex and STI Prevalence Among HIV-Infected Adults in Guangzhou, China: Opportunities to Deamplify Sexual HIV Transmission.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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This project examined sexual behavior and STI prevalence among HIV-infected individuals in South China. Adult HIV-infected outpatients in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China completed a self-administered survey about behaviors and antiretroviral treatment. Participants were screened for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Univariate and multivariate relationships with any STI were calculated using logistic regression. 810 HIV-infected individuals participated and 3 refused. 52.5 % (n = 415) of individuals reported having sex in the past 3 months, among whom 26.4 % (n = 111) reported inconsistent condom use. 10.4 % (n = 84) of all individuals had at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI). HIV-infected individuals not on antiretroviral treatment had an increased STI risk (aOR 2.5, 95 % CI: 1.4-4.5, P = 0.002). Unsafe sex was markedly reduced among HIV-infected individuals on treatment, possibly a reflection of integrated ART initiation counseling. Improved STI services among HIVinfected individuals are urgently needed to deamplify sexual HIV transmission.
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Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies.
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Point-of-care testing for sexually transmitted infections: recent advances and implications for disease control.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control.
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HIV and hepatitis C virus test uptake at methadone clinics in Southern China: opportunities for expanding detection of bloodborne infections.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection is highly common among Chinese injection drug users but it is difficult to reach IDUs at traditional VCT (Voluntary HIV counseling treatment) clinics. A new national model integrating HIV/HCV testing with methadone maintenance treatment was started in 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate HIV and HCV test uptake and associated factors at methadone clinics in Guangdong Province, China.
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Do all candidemic patients need an ophthalmic examination?
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Intraocular candidiasis is a potentially sight-threatening complication of candidemia. While the incidence of candidemia in North America has increased, the prevalence of intraocular candidiasis appears to be decreasing. In the USA and Europe, an ophthalmic examination is recommended for all candidemic patients to rule out intraocular involvement. However, improvements in management, clarification of the diagnosis, and trends in the epidemiology of intraocular candidiasis suggest that some candidemia patients might be safely managed without the recommended dilated ophthalmic examination.
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Prioritizing congenital syphilis control in south China: a decision analytic model to inform policy implementation.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Syphilis is a major public health problem in many regions of China, with increases in congenital syphilis (CS) cases causing concern. The Chinese Ministry of Health recently announced a comprehensive 10-y national syphilis control plan focusing on averting CS. The decision analytic model presented here quantifies the impact of the planned strategies to determine whether they are likely to meet the goals laid out in the control plan.
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The impact of syphilis screening among female sex workers in China: a modelling study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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In China, female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of syphilis infection, but are hard to reach for interventions. Point-of-care testing introduces opportunities for expanding syphilis control measures. Modelling is used to estimate the impact of using rapid tests to screen FSWs for syphilis. In other settings, modelling has predicted large rebounds in infectious syphilis following screening, which may undermine any impact achieved.
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Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.
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High adult sex ratios and risky sexual behaviors: a systematic review.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Thirty-four countries worldwide have abnormally high sex ratios (>102 men per 100 women), resulting in over 100 million missing women. Widespread sex selective abortion, neglect of young girls leading to premature mortality, and gendered migration have contributed to these persistent and increasing distortions. Abnormally high adult sex ratios in communities may drive sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread where women are missing and men cannot find stable partners. We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual behaviors.
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Sexually transmitted infections among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China.
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Methadone maintenance treatment participant retention and behavioural effectiveness in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been scaled up by the Chinese government alongside persistent compulsory drug user detention, but the extent to which detention interferes with MMT is unknown. The study systematically reviews Chinese MMT retention rates, reasons for drop out, and behavioural changes.
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HIV and hepatitis C virus testing delays at methadone clinics in Guangdong Province, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In China, injection drug use is a major transmission route for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Timely HIV and HCV testing among drug users is vital to earlier diagnosis, linkage to care, and retention. This study aimed to examine HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing delays at methadone clinics in Guangdong Province, China, and identify individual-level and clinic-level factors associated with delayed testing. Data from 13,270 individuals at 45 methadone clinics in Guangdong were abstracted from a national web-based surveillance database. A two-level binomial logit model was used to examine the association between individual- and clinic-level factors and delayed HIV and HCV testing, defined as receiving a test seven or more days after initial entry into the methadone system. Among 10,046 patients tested for HIV, 1882 (18.7%) had delayed testing; among 10,404 patients tested for HCV, 1542 (14.8%) had delayed testing. Among delayed testers, the median time to HCV testing was significantly longer than the median time to HIV testing (73 vs. 54 days, p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the likelihood of delayed HIV testing was higher among individuals with high school or greater education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.72) and individuals enrolled at clinics with more patients (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.05-1.91, for each increase in 100). The likelihood of delayed HCV testing was higher among women (aOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.11-2.06) and employed individuals (aOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.43). Delayed testing for HIV and HCV is common among patients at methadone clinics in Guangdong, with many patients experiencing delays of two or more months. Structural interventions are needed to expedite testing once individuals enter the methadone maintenance program.
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Social determinants of syphilis in South China: the effect of sibling position on syphilis and sexual risk behaviours.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study evaluated the relationship between sibling position and sexual risk based on behavioural and syphilis infection data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in South China.
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Reframing the interpretation of sex worker health: a behavioral-structural approach.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Expanding sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in many parts of Asia increase the importance of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STI prevention programs for female sex workers. Designing sex worker health research and programs demands a well-stated conceptual approach, especially when one is interpreting the relationship between local policy environments and sex worker health. However, the core principles of the 2 most common conceptual approaches used in sex worker health programs--abolitionism and empowerment--have frequently divergent assumptions and implications. The abolitionist approach sees major aspects of the sex industry as fundamentally coercive and exploitative of women and supports dismantling all or parts of the sex sector. The empowerment approach strengthens sex workers agency and rights in order to build collective self-efficacy and have women invested in implementing their own HIV/STI prevention programs. This review compares these approaches using implication analysis and empirical cases from Asia. The misperception of an unresolvable gap between the 2 approaches ignores common ground that forms the basis of a new behavioral-structural conceptual framework. Explicitly accounting for the interaction between female sex worker behaviors and larger structures and policies, a behavioral-structural approach may provide a solid foundation for sex work research and programs.
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Sex work and sexually transmitted infections in Asia: a biosocial analysis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The Harvard University Asia Center hosted a symposium in October 2010 focused on sex work and sexually transmitted infections in Asia, engaging a biosocial approach to promote sexual health in this region. Asia has an estimated 151 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; eg, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia) each year, with commercial sex interactions playing a large role in ongoing transmission. Substantial human movement and migration, gender inequalities, and incipient medical and legal systems in many states stymie effective STI control in Asia. The articles in this supplement provide theoretical and empirical pathways to improving the sexual health of those who sell and purchase commercial sex in Asia. The unintended health consequences of various forms of regulating commercial sex are also reviewed, emphasizing the need to carefully consider the medical and public health consequences of new and existing policies and laws.
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Tandem visible light-mediated radical cyclization-divinylcyclopropane rearrangement to tricyclic pyrrolidinones.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Visible light promoted single electron reduction of bromocyclopropyl cyclization scaffolds enabled by photoredox catalysis initiates a novel tandem radical cyclization/sigmatropic rearrangement to generate tricyclic pyrrolidinones having considerable molecular complexity from simple, readily available starting materials. Furthermore, subtle variations to substrate structure afford a wide array of reaction diversity.
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Social network-based interventions to promote condom use: a systematic review.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Effective sexually transmitted infection (STIs)/HIV prevention programs are urgently needed, but translating evidence-based methods of STI/HIV prevention into sustainable programs has been difficult. Social influences are critical for establishing condom use norms. This study systematically reviewed social network-based interventions focused on condom promotion. Social networks were defined as groups who self-identified prior to the research study. Eleven eligible research studies were identified and included in this review. Only three studies measured biological endpoints and five studies used validated measures of condom use. Among the nine studies with control groups, eight showed significant improvements in at least one measure of condom use. There were large differences in how social network members were identified and involved in the interventions. This systematic review highlights the potential utility of social network-based condom promotion programs. More research is needed to show how these promising studies can be expanded.
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An empirical analysis of overlap publication in Chinese language and English research manuscripts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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There are a number of sound justifications for publishing nearly identical information in Chinese and English medical journals, assuming several conditions are met. Although overlap publication is perceived as undesirable and ethically questionable in Europe and North America, it may serve an important function in some regions where English is not the native tongue. There is no empirical data on the nature and degree of overlap publication in English and Chinese language journals.
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Female sex worker social networks and STI/HIV prevention in South China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Reducing harm associated with selling and purchasing sex is an important public health priority in China, yet there are few examples of sustainable, successful programs to promote sexual health among female sex workers. The limited civil society and scope of nongovernmental organizations circumscribe the local capacity of female sex workers to collectively organize, advocate for their rights, and implement STI/HIV prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to examine social networks among low-income female sex workers in South China to determine their potential for sexual health promotion.
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Chinas syphilis epidemic: epidemiology, proximate determinants of spread, and control responses.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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China has experienced an increase in the incidence and prevalence of syphilis that is especially remarkable since this infection was virtually eradicated in the country 50 years ago. The purpose of this analysis is to provide an overview of recent literature on syphilis proximate determinants and potential public health responses.
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Syphilis test availability and uptake at medical facilities in southern China.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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To examine syphilis testing capacity, screening coverage rates and types of syphilis tests used in medical facilities in southern China.
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A twin response to twin epidemics: integrated HIV/syphilis testing at STI clinics in South China.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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HIV testing is still stigmatized among many high-risk groups in China, whereas routine syphilis testing has been widely accepted at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. This project used the platform of a rapid syphilis screening test to expand HIV test uptake. The objective of this study was to use multilevel modeling to analyze determinants of syphilis and HIV-testing uptake at STI clinics in China.
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Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Syphilis is resurgent in many regions of the world. Molecular typing is a robust tool for investigating strain diversity and epidemiology. This study aimed to review original research on molecular typing of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) with three objectives: (1) to determine specimen types most suitable for molecular typing; (2) to determine T. pallidum subtype distribution across geographic areas; and (3) to summarize available information on subtypes associated with neurosyphilis and macrolide resistance.
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A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Sexually transmitted infections (STI) have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.
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Oxidative photoredox catalysis: mild and selective deprotection of PMB ethers mediated by visible light.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Herein we report an advancement in the application of visible light photoredox catalysts in the oxidation of electron-rich arenes resulting in the selective deprotection of para-methoxybenzyl (PMB) ethers. This method is highlighted by excellent functional group tolerance, protecting group orthogonality, mild reaction conditions and avoidance of stoichiometric redox byproducts.
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Intermolecular atom transfer radical addition to olefins mediated by oxidative quenching of photoredox catalysts.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Atom transfer radical addition of haloalkanes and ?-halocarbonyls to olefins is efficiently performed with the photocatalyst Ir[(dF(CF(3))ppy)(2)(dtbbpy)]PF(6). This protocol is characterized by excellent yields, mild conditions, low catalyst loading, and broad scope. In addition, the atom transfer protocol can be used to quickly and efficiently introduce vinyl trifluoromethyl groups to olefins and access 1,1-cyclopropane diesters.
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Peer-based behavioral health program for drug users in China: a pilot study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Many injection drug users (IDUs) in China have high risk sexual behaviors that contribute to the spread of HIV infection. Although many IDUs in China move through drug rehabilitation centers, this opportunity for sexual health education has largely been overlooked.
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Ocular syphilis among HIV-infected patients: a systematic analysis of the literature.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Ocular syphilis among HIV-infected patients continues to be a problem in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. However, outside of case reports or small case series, little is known about the clinical, laboratory, and treatment outcomes of these patients. Objective To examine the literature on HIV-infected patients and determine the results of treatment.
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Azithromycin treatment failure among primary and secondary syphilis patients in Shanghai.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Azithromycin has been used to treat primary and secondary syphilis and as prophylaxis for sexual partners. We evaluated syphilis treatment failure in patients who received azithromycin therapy.
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Ocular syphilis among HIV-infected individuals.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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We describe a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual with ocular manifestations of secondary syphilis. Twelve other cases of HIV-associated ocular syphilis are also presented. Six of 12 individuals had normal cerebrospinal fluid study results, and 3 patients required retreatment within 1.5 years. In patients with HIV infection, clinicians should be vigilant for ocular syphilis despite normal cerebrospinal fluid measures and for syphilis reinfection.
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Primary syphilis cases in Guangdong Province 1995-2008: opportunities for linking syphilis control and regional development.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Syphilis cases have risen in many parts of China, with developed regions reporting the greatest share of cases. Since syphilis increases in these areas are likely driven by both increased screening and changes in sexual behaviours, distinguishing between these two factors is important. Examining municipal-level primary syphilis cases with spatial analysis allows a more direct understanding of changing sexual behaviours at a more policy-relevant level.
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Scaling up syphilis testing in China: implementation beyond the clinic.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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China is experiencing a syphilis epidemic of enormous proportions. The regions most heavily affected by syphilis correspond to regions where sexually transmitted HIV infection is also a major public health threat. Many high-risk patients in China fail to receive routine syphilis screening. This missed public health opportunity stems from both a failure of many high-risk individuals to seek clinical care and a disconnect between policy and practice. New point-of-care syphilis testing enables screening in non-traditional settings such as community organizations or sex venues. This paper describes the current Chinese syphilis policies, suggests a spatiotemporal framework (based on targeting high-risk times and places) to improve screening and care practices, and emphasizes a syphilis control policy extending beyond the clinical setting.
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Visible light-mediated intermolecular C-H functionalization of electron-rich heterocycles with malonates.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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The photoredox-mediated direct intermolecular C-H functionalization of substituted indoles, pyrroles, and furans with diethyl bromomalonate is described, utilizing the visible light-induced reductive quenching pathway of Ru(bpy)(3)Cl(2). An analysis of reductive quenchers and mechanistic considerations has led to an optimized protocol for the heteroaromatic alkylations, providing products in good yields and regioselectivities, as well as successfully eliminating previously observed competitive side reactions. This methodology is highlighted by its neutral conditions, activity at ambient temperatures, low catalyst loading, functional group tolerance, and chemoselectivity.
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Accelerating worldwide syphilis screening through rapid testing: a systematic review.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Syphilis is a persistent public health issue in many low-income countries that have limited capacity for testing, which traditionally relies on a sensitive non-treponemal test and then a specific treponemal test. However, the development of a new rapid treponemal test provides an opportunity to scale up syphilis screening in many settings where traditional tests are unavailable. This systematic review of immunochromatographic strip (ICS) syphilis tests describes the sensitivity and specificity in two important clinical settings: sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and antenatal clinics. Clinical data from more than 22 000 whole blood, plasma, or fingerstick ICS tests obtained at STI or antenatal clinics were retrieved from 15 studies. ICS syphilis tests have a high sensitivity (median 0.86, interquartile range 0.75-0.94) and a higher specificity (0.99, 0.98-0.99), both comparable with non-treponemal screening test characteristics. Further research evaluating ICS syphilis tests among primary syphilis cases and among patients infected with HIV will be essential for the effective roll-out of syphilis screening programmes.
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Tin-free radical cyclization reactions initiated by visible light photoredox catalysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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Herein, we report an advancement in the application of visible light photoredox catalysts in a classic free radical mediated reaction, cyclization onto unactivated pi-systems. The reactive radical intermediate is generated by the single electron reduction of an activated C-Br bond by an electron-rich redox catalyst afforded by a visible light induced catalytic cycle.
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Integrated syphilis/HIV screening in China: a qualitative analysis.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2010
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The last decade has seen enormous advances in HIV treatment and care, but how to implement scaled up HIV testing, prevention, and treatment in low-income areas still presents a formidable public health challenge. South China faces expanding syphilis and sexually transmitted HIV epidemics, but health systems characteristics important for scaling up syphilis and HIV testing have not been defined.
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Electron-transfer photoredox catalysis: development of a tin-free reductive dehalogenation reaction.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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We report an operationally simple, tin-free reductive dehalogenation system utilizing the well-known visible-light-activated photoredox catalyst Ru(bpy)(3)Cl(2) in combination with (i)Pr(2)NEt and HCO(2)H or Hantzsch ester as the hydrogen atom donor. Activated C-X bonds may be reduced in good yields with excellent functional-group tolerance and chemoselectivity over aryl and vinyl C-X bonds. The proposed mechanism involves visible-light excitation of the catalyst, which is reduced by the tertiary amine to produce the single-electron reducing agent Ru(bpy)(3)(+). A subsequent single-electron transfer generates the alkyl radical, which is quenched by abstraction of a hydrogen atom. Reductions can be accomplished on a preparative scale with as little as 0.05 mol % Ru catalyst.
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Lues maligna in early HIV infection case report and review of the literature.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Lues maligna (also known as malignant syphilis or ulceronodular syphilis) is a rare dermatologic manifestation of syphilis more commonly seen in patients with HIV infection. The classic lesion of lues maligna is an oval, papulopustular skin lesion with well demarcated borders sometimes covered with a lamellar crust, but myriad clinical presentations of this disease also exist.
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Rapid syphilis testing uptake for female sex workers at sex venues in Southern China: implications for expanding syphilis screening.
PLoS ONE
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Accessibility of syphilis testing services is critical in syphilis control programs for female sex workers (FSWs), but few FSWs attend public STI clinics or other testing sites. Introduction of free rapid syphilis testing (RST) into outreach programs for FSWs will help improve test uptake.
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Canadian cardiac surgeons perspectives on biomedical innovation.
Can J Cardiol
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Barriers to successful innovation can be identified and potentially addressed by exploring the perspectives of key stakeholders in the innovation process. Cardiac surgeons in Canada were surveyed for personal perspectives on biomedical innovation. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaire and qualitative data via interviews with selected survey participants. Surgeons were asked to self-identify into 1 of 3 categories: "innovator," "early adopter," or "late adopter," and data were compared between groups. Most surgeons viewed innovation favourably and this effect was consistent irrespective of perceived level of innovativeness. Key barriers to the innovation pathway were identified: (1) support from colleagues and institutions; (2) Canadas health system; (3) sufficient investment capital; and (4) the culture of innovation within the local environment. Knowledge of the innovation process was perceived differently based on self-reported innovativeness. The majority of surgeons did not perceive themselves as having the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively translate innovative ideas to clinical practice. In general, responses indicate support for implementation of leadership and training programs focusing on the innovation process in an effort to prepare surgeons and enhance their ability to successfully innovate and translate new therapies. The perspectives of cardiac surgeons provide an intriguing portal into the challenges and opportunities for healthcare innovation in Canada.
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Expanding provider-initiated HIV testing at STI clinics in China.
AIDS Care
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Despite expanding sexually transmitted epidemics in South China, the majority of patients presenting to sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics are not routinely screened for HIV infection. Identifying barriers to offering HIV testing among STI care providers is an important public health priority. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of offering HIV testing among STI care providers in South China and reported physician barriers to offering HIV testing. More detailed operational data regarding HIV test offer frequency and barriers to testing may enhance routine HIV testing at STI clinics. A sample of 62 STI care providers within the Pearl River Delta Region of South China completed a survey including socio-demographic and training background information (including sex, age, medical education, year of terminal medical degree, and HIV-specific training), reasons for not offering HIV testing routinely, and physical examination and sexual history taking practices. Frequency of offering HIV testing was calculated based on reports from research assistants and operational data. STI care providers offered HIV testing to 3011/10,592 (28.4%) of their patients. There was substantial variability across providers in the frequency of offering testing, ranging from 3 to 100%. None of the identified physician factors were associated with offering HIV testing 100% of the time in the multivariate model. The most commonly physician reported barriers to HIV testing included: (1) low perceived prevalence of disease and (2) not recommended by current guidelines. Forty-seven providers (76%) reported asking about same sex behaviors rarely or never. Further research on HIV screening practices of STI care providers may help scale up HIV provider-initiated testing and counseling programs.
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Partner notification uptake for sexually transmitted infections in China: a systematic literature review.
Sex Transm Infect
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Chinas sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic requires comprehensive control programmes. Partner services are traditional pillars of STI control but have not been widely implemented in China. This study was a systematic literature review to examine STI partner notification (PN) uptake in China.
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Multilevel and spatial analysis of syphilis in Shenzhen, China, to inform spatially targeted control measures.
Sex Transm Infect
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The present study investigates the varied spatial distribution of syphilis cases in Shenzhen, China, and explores the individual-, neighbourhood- and district-level factors affecting the distribution.
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HIV testing and care systems focused on sexually transmitted HIV in China.
Sex Transm Infect
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Over three-quarters of new HIV infections in China during 2009 were estimated to be from sexual transmission. Over half of those living with HIV do not know their serostatus and identifying and treating individuals with sexually transmitted HIV infection has been challenging.
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Prior HIV testing among STD patients in Guangdong Province, China: opportunities for expanding detection of sexually transmitted HIV infection.
Sex Transm Dis
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Expanding HIV testing is important among individuals at increased risk for sexual HIV transmission in China, but little is known about prior HIV testing experiences among sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients.
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Shining light on photoredox catalysis: theory and synthetic applications.
J. Org. Chem.
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Photoredox catalysis is emerging as a powerful tool in synthetic organic chemistry. The aim of this synopsis is to provide an overview of the photoelectronic properties of photoredox catalysts as they are applied to organic transformations. In addition, recent synthetic applications of photoredox catalysis are presented.
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Incentivizing HIV/STI Testing: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
AIDS Behav
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Suboptimal HIV/STI testing uptake has a profound impact on morbidity and mortality. Incentives have been effective in other areas of medicine and may improve HIV/STI testing uptake rates. This study reviewed the effects of incentives on HIV/STI testing uptake. A systematic search of seven databases was undertaken. Testing uptake was defined as test implementation and/or test result retrieval. Incentives were defined as monetary or non-monetary rewards or free-of-charge testing vouchers. Seven studies were included. All seven studies demonstrated higher rates of uptake in an incentivized group. Incentives offered at a non-clinical setting demonstrated more significant differences in uptake rates compared to incentives offered at a clinical setting. Incentivizing HIV/STI testing uptake, especially testing at a non-clinical setting, may be a useful tool to modify health behavior. Further research is needed to understand how incentives could be an effective component within a comprehensive HIV/STI control strategy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.