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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease on late relapse and survival on 7489 patients after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Purpose: Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year post-transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active. Experimental design: The current study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7489 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who were leukemia-free at12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Results: Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on relapse was present only in patients with CML (RR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.59, P <0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment related mortality, (RR: 2.43, 95% CI: 2.09-2.82, P <0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.41-1.73, P <0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse. Conclusions: These results indicate that clinically relevant anti-leukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are one year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
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Phase III clinical trial steroids/mycophenolate mofetil vs steroids/placebo as therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease: BMT CTN 0802.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Corticosteroids are the accepted primary therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), but durable responses are seen in only about half the patients. BMT-CTN 0802, a phase III multi-center randomized double blinded trial, was designed to test whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) plus corticosteroids was superior to corticosteroids alone as initial therapy for acute GvHD. Patients with newly diagnosed acute GvHD were eligible if required systemic therapy. Patients were randomized to receive prednisone with either MMF or placebo. The primary endpoint was acute or chronic GvHD-free survival at day 56 after initiation of therapy. A futility rule for GvHD free survival at day 56 was met at a planned interim analysis after 235 eligible patients (out of 372) were enrolled: 116 to MMF, 119 to placebo. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between treatment groups including grade and organ distribution of GvHD. GvHD free survival at day 56, cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD at 12 months, overall survival, EBV reactivation, cumulative incidence of severe, life threatening infections, cumulative incidence of relapse at 12 months, quality of severe infections were similar. The addition of MMF to corticosteroids as initial therapy of acute GvHD does not improve GvHD-free survival compared with treatment with corticosteroids alone. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01002742.
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Sequential infusion of donor-derived dendritic cells with donor lymphocyte infusion for relapsed hematologic cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is often given to induce a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, efficacy of DLI is limited in most hematologic cancers. As antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DC) bolster immune responses. We conducted a Phase I trial testing the coinfusion of DC followed by DLI. DC were generated by culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA matched-related donors in GM-CSF and IL-4 for 7 days, followed by TNF-? for 3 days. DC were administered intravenously on 3 dose levels (5 × 10(6) ; 1 × 10(7) ; 5 × 10(7) cells). DLI (3 × 10(7) CD3+ cells/kg) was administered intravenously 1 day after the DC. Sixteen patients with hematologic cancers relapsed after HSCT were treated. A maximum tolerated dose for DC was not reached. Two of 16 patients met criteria for DLT within 10 weeks of the infusion: 1 idiopathic respiratory failure, 1 ventricular cardiac arrest. None developed grade III/IV GVHD. One patient developed grade II acute intestinal graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and 1 chronic GVHD within 6 months of the infusion. Both resolved with corticosteroids. Four of 14 patients evaluable for disease response achieved durable remissions and are alive and cancer free 6.7, 8.4, 8.8, and 10.1 years from infusion. Sequential infusion of donor-derived DC with DLI is feasible in patients with relapsed hematologic cancers after allogeneic HSCT. Future studies may consider donor DC preloaded with tumor antigens to investigate whether DC infusion could augment the GVL effect. Am. J. Hematol. 89:1092-1096, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Long-Term Survival after Transplantation of Unrelated Donor Peripheral Blood or Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Cells for Hematologic Malignancy.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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We sought to determine whether differences in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) rates would lead to survival differences by comparing 2463 peripheral blood (PB) and 1713 bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Patients had acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), or myelodysplastic syndrome, and they received myeloablative conditioning regimens and calcineurin-inhibitor GVHD prophylaxis. There were no significant differences in long-term survival after transplantation of PB and BM, except for patients in first chronic phase CML. For these patients, the 5-year rate of survival was lower after transplantation of PB compared with transplantation of BM (35% versus 56%, P = .001). Although mortality risks were higher in patients with chronic GVHD after both PB (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; P < .001) and BM (HR 1.73; P < .001) transplantations, its effect on mortality did not differ by graft type (P = .42). BM is the preferred graft for first chronic phase CML, whereas as either graft is suitable for other leukemias.
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Phase I Trial of Maintenance Sorafenib after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Internal Tandem Duplication Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is associated with a high relapse rate for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Sorafenib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which inhibits the FLT3 tyrosine kinase and has shown encouraging activity in FLT3-ITD AML. We conducted a phase I trial of maintenance sorafenib after HSCT in patients with FLT3-ITD AML (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01398501). Patients received a variety of conditioning regimens and graft sources. A dose escalation 3 + 3cohort design was used to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), with an additional 10 patients treated at the MTD. Sorafenib was initiated between days 45 and 120 after HSCT and continued for 12 28-day cycles. Twenty-two patients were enrolled (status at HSCT: first complete remission [CR1], n = 16; second complete remission [CR2], n = 3; refractory, n = 3). The MTD was established at 400 mg twice daily with 1 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) observed (pericardial effusion). Two patients died of transplantation-related causes, both unrelated to sorafenib. Two patients stopped sorafenib after relapse and 5 stopped because of attributable toxicities after the DLT period. Median follow-up for surviving patients is 16.7 months after HSCT (range, 8.1 to 35.0). There was 1 case of grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after starting sorafenib and the 12-month cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 38% (90% confidence interval [CI], 21% to 56%). For all patients, 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 85% (90% CI, 66% to 94%) and 1-year overall survival (OS) was 95% (90% CI, 79% to 99%) after HSCT. For patients in CR1/CR2 before HSCT (n = 19), 1-year PFS was 95% (90% CI, 76% to 99%) and 1-year OS was 100%, with only 1 patient who relapsed. Sorafenib is safe after HSCT for FLT3-ITD AML and merits further investigation for the prevention of relapse.
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Myelodysplastic syndrome evolving from aplastic anemia treated with immunosuppressive therapy: efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A proportion of patients with aplastic anemia who are treated with immunosuppressive therapy develop clonal hematologic disorders, including myelodysplastic syndrome (post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome). Many will proceed to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We identified 123 patients with post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome who from 1991 through 2011 underwent allogeneic transplantation, and in a matched-pair analysis compared outcomes to that in 393 patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome. There was no difference in overall survival. There were no significant differences in regards to 5-year probabilities of relapse, non-relapse mortality, relapse-free and overall survival which were 14%, 40%, 46% and 49% for post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome, and 20%, 33%, 47% and 49% for de novo myelodysplastic syndrome, respectively. Cytogenetic risk was independently associated with overall survival in both groups. Thus, transplant success in patients with post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome was similar to that in patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome, and cytogenetic risk was the only significant prognostic factor for post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome patients.
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Somatic mutations predict poor outcome in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Recurrently mutated genes in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are pathogenic drivers and powerfully associated with clinical phenotype and prognosis. Whether these types of mutations predict outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with MDS is not known.
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Outcomes and management strategies for graft failure after umbilical cord blood transplantation.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Graft failure is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Graft failure is more prevalent after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) compared with conventional adult stem cell sources. We identified 21 consecutive patients who experienced graft failure after UCBT at our center between 2004 and 2013 and describe their treatment strategies and outcomes. Two patients experienced early death. Seven patients had return of autologous hematopoiesis including 1 patient who was given previously collected autologous stem cells. Twelve patients received a second early HSCT, six from separate UCB units and six from a haploidentical donor. With a median follow-up of 33.2 months for surviving patients, 3-year PFS is 23% and 3-year OS is 37%. Of the six long-term survivors without relapse, four received a second HSCT from a haploidentical donor with post-HSCT high-dose cyclophosphamide based GVHD prophylaxis. This strategy appears safe and merits further investigation in this setting. Am. J. Hematol. 89:1097-1101, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Tacrolimus/sirolimus vs tacrolimus/methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis after matched, related donor allogeneic HCT.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in approximately 35% of matched, related donor (MRD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. We sought to determine if the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus (Tac/Sir) was more effective than tacrolimus and methotrexate (Tac/Mtx) in preventing acute GVHD and early mortality after allogeneic MRD HCT in a phase 3, multicenter trial. The primary end point of the trial was to compare 114-day grades 2-4 acute GVHD-free survival using an intention-to-treat analysis of 304 randomized subjects. There was no difference in the probability of day 114 grades 2-4 acute GVHD-free survival (67% vs 62%, P = .38). Grades 2-4 GVHD was similar in the Tac/Sir and Tac/Mtx arms (26% vs 34%, P = .48). Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were more rapid in the Tac/Sir arm (14 vs 16 days, P < .001; 16 vs 19 days, P = .03). Oropharyngeal mucositis was less severe in the Tac/Sir arm (peak Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale score 0.70 vs 0.96, P < .001), but otherwise toxicity was similar. Chronic GVHD, relapse-free survival, and overall survival at 2 years were no different between study arms (53% vs 45%, P = .06; 53% vs 54%, P = .77; and 59% vs 63%, P = .36). Based on similar long-term outcomes, more rapid engraftment, and less oropharyngeal mucositis, the combination of Tac/Sir is an acceptable alternative to Tac/Mtx after MRD HCT. This study was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute; and the trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00406393.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation donor sources in the 21st century: choosing the ideal donor when a perfect match does not exist.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Most patients who require allogeneic stem cell transplantation do not have a matched sibling donor, and many patients do not have a matched unrelated donor. In an effort to increase the applicability of transplantation, alternative donors such as mismatched adult unrelated donors, haploidentical related donors, and umbilical cord blood stem cell products are frequently used when a well matched donor is unavailable. We do not yet have the benefit of randomized trials comparing alternative donor stem cell sources to inform the choice of donor; however, the existing data allow some inferences to be made on the basis of existing observational and phase 2 studies. All 3 alternative donor sources can provide effective lymphohematopoietic reconstitution, but time to engraftment, graft failure rate, graft-versus-host disease, transplant-related mortality, and relapse risk vary by donor source. These factors all contribute to survival outcomes and an understanding of them should help guide clinicians when choosing among alternative donor sources when a matched related or matched unrelated donor is not available.
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Increased mitochondrial apoptotic priming of human regulatory T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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CD4 regulatory T cells play a critical role in establishment of immune tolerance and prevention of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The recovery and maintenance of regulatory T cells is dependent on homeostatic factors including the generation of naïve regulatory T cells from hematopoietic precursor cells, the proliferation and expansion of mature regulatory T cells, and the survival of regulatory T cells in vivo. In this study, quantitation of mitochondrial apoptotic priming was used to compare susceptibility of regulatory T cells, conventional CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells to intrinsic pathway apoptosis in 57 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 25 healthy donors. In healthy donors, regulatory T cells are more susceptible to mitochondrial priming than conventional T cells. Mitochondrial priming is increased after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in all T-cell subsets and particularly in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Regulatory T cells express high levels of CD95 and are also more susceptible than conventional T cells to apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway. However, CD95 expression and extrinsic pathway apoptosis is not increased after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Decreased expression of BCL2 and increased expression of BIM, a mitochondrial cell death activator protein, in regulatory T cells contributes to increased mitochondrial priming in this T-cell subset but additional factors likely contribute to increased mitochondrial priming following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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Cognitive and other predictors of change in quality of life one year after treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The role of cognitive function in quality of life is important among the growing numbers of survivors after cancer treatment. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 106 adults evaluated 5.6 months (median) after diagnosis and 77 of 83 (93%) survivors 12 months later with neuropsychological assessments yielding information about simple reaction time to stimuli and other aspects of cognitive function and with two quality of life measures. The two most consistent predictors of change in quality of life were baseline quality of life ratings and simple reaction time. This novel finding about simple reaction time warrants further confirmation.
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Increased T follicular helper cells and germinal center B cells are required for cGVHD and bronchiolitis obliterans.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Having shown that germinal center (GC) formation and immunoglobulin deposition are required for multiorgan system cGVHD and associated bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in a murine model, we hypothesized that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are necessary for cGVHD by supporting GC formation and maintenance. We show that increased frequency of Tfh cells correlated with increased GC B cells, cGVHD, and BOS. Although administering a highly depletionary anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mice with established cGVHD resulted in peripheral B-cell depletion, B cells remained in the lung, and BOS was not reversed. BOS could be treated by eliminating production of interleukin-21 (IL-21) by donor T cells or IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling of donor B cells. Development of BOS was dependent upon T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR5 to facilitate T-cell trafficking to secondary lymphoid organ follicles. Blocking mAbs for IL-21/IL-21R, inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)/ICOS ligand, and CD40L/CD40 hindered GC formation and cGVHD. These data provide novel insights into cGVHD pathogenesis, indicate a role for Tfh cells in these processes, and suggest a new line of therapy using mAbs targeting Tfh cells to reverse cGVHD.
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A Phase II Study of Bortezomib Plus Prednisone for Initial Therapy of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induces significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Corticosteroids are standard initial therapy, despite limited efficacy and long-term toxicity. Based on our experience using bortezomib as effective acute GVHD prophylaxis, we hypothesized that proteasome-inhibition would complement the immunomodulatory effects of corticosteroids to improve outcomes in chronic GVHD (cGVHD). We undertook a single-arm phase II trial of bortezomib plus prednisone for initial therapy of cGVHD. Bortezomib was administered at 1.3 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each 35-day cycle for 3 cycles (15 weeks). Prednisone was dosed at .5 to 1 mg/kg/day, with a suggested taper after cycle 1. All 22 enrolled participants were evaluable for toxicity; 20 were evaluable for response. Bortezomib plus prednisone therapy was well tolerated, with 1 occurrence of grade 3 sensory peripheral neuropathy possibly related to bortezomib. The overall response rate at week 15 in evaluable participants was 80%, including 2 (10%) complete and 14 (70%) partial responses. The organ-specific complete response rate was 73% for skin, 53% for liver, 75% for gastrointestinal tract, and 33% for joint, muscle, or fascia involvement. The median prednisone dose decreased from 50 mg/day to 20 mg/day at week 15 (P < .001). The combination of bortezomib and prednisone for initial treatment of cGVHD is feasible and well tolerated. We observed a high response rate to combined bortezomib and prednisone therapy; however, in this single-arm study, we could not directly measure the impact of bortezomib. Proteasome inhibition may offer benefit in the treatment of cGVHD and should be further evaluated.
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Characterization of Oral Involvement in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral features associated with aGVHD in patients who underwent HSCT between 1995 and 2010 and developed prominent oral aGVHD. Data was collected from patient medical records and analyzed descriptively. Twenty-one cases were identified, of which 5 (24%) demonstrated only oral features; the remaining 16 had variable involvement of skin (n = 14), liver (n = 7), and gut (n = 5). The median time to onset of any sign of aGVHD was 22 days (range, 8 to 154 days), and that for onset of oral aGVHD was 35 days (range, 11 to 159 days). Sites affected by nonspecific erythema and ulcerations included buccal mucosa (19 of 21; 90%) tongue (18 of 21; 86%; dorsum in 8), labial mucosa (16 of 21; 76%), palatal mucosa (15 of 21; 71%; hard palate in 7), and floor of mouth (7 of 21; 33%). Eight cases (38%) presented with lip ulceration and crusting. In addition to systemic therapies, topical solutions of dexamethasone, tacrolimus, and morphine were used for ancillary support. Oral features of aGVHD may be the initial manifestation and include nonspecific erythema and ulcerations of keratinized and nonkeratinized mucosa and lips. Intensive topical therapies may help reduce symptoms and promote healing.
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Validation and refinement of the Disease Risk Index for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Because the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is predominantly influenced by disease type and status, it is essential to be able to stratify patients undergoing HCT by disease risk. The Disease Risk Index (DRI) was developed for this purpose. In this study, we analyzed 13,131 patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2010. The DRI stratified patients into 4 groups with 2-year overall survival (OS) ranging from 64% to 24% and was the strongest prognostic factor, regardless of age, conditioning intensity, graft source, or donor type. A randomly selected training subgroup of 9849 patients was used to refine the DRI, using a multivariable regression model for OS. This refined DRI had improved prediction ability for the remaining 3282 patients compared with the original DRI or other existing schemes. This validated and refined DRI can be used as a 4- or 3-group index, depending on the size of the cohort under study, for prognostication; to facilitate the interpretation of single-center, multicenter, or registry studies; to adjust center outcome data; and to stratify patients entering clinical trials that enroll patients across disease categories.
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Donor chimerism early after reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predicts relapse and survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The impact of early donor cell chimerism on outcomes of T cell-replete reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is ill defined. We evaluated day 30 (D30) and 100 (D100) total donor cell chimerism after RIC HSCT undertaken between 2002 and 2010 at our institution, excluding patients who died or relapsed before D30. When available, donor T cell chimerism was also assessed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). We evaluated 688 patients with hematologic malignancies (48% myeloid and 52% lymphoid) and a median age of 57 years (range, 18 to 74) undergoing RIC HSCT with T cell-replete donor grafts (97% peripheral blood; 92% HLA-matched), with a median follow-up of 58.2 months (range, 12.6 to 120.7). In multivariable analysis, total donor cell and T cell chimerism at D30 and D100 each predicted RIC HSCT outcomes, with D100 total donor cell chimerism most predictive. D100 total donor cell chimerism <90% was associated with increased relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83 to 3.51; P < .0001), impaired PFS (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53 to 2.65; P < .0001), and worse OS (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.04, P = .009), but not with NRM (HR, .76; 95% CI, .44 to 2.27; P = .33). There was no additional utility of incorporating sustained D30 to D100 total donor cell chimerism or T cell chimerism. Low donor chimerism early after RIC HSCT is an independent risk factor for relapse and impaired survival. Donor chimerism assessment early after RIC HSCT can prognosticate for long-term outcomes and help identify high-risk patient cohorts who may benefit from additional therapeutic interventions.
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Iron overload in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcome: a meta-analysis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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An elevated ferritin level before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality. Because ferritin is an imperfect surrogate of iron stores, the prognostic role of iron overload remains unclear. We conducted a patient-level meta-analysis of 4 studies that used magnetic resonance imaging to estimate pre-HCT liver iron content (LIC). An elevated LIC was not associated with a significant increase in mortality: the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality associated with LIC > 7 mg/g dry weight (primary endpoint) was 1.4 (P = .18). In contrast, ferritin >1000 ng/mL was a significant prognostic factor (HR for mortality, 1.7; P = .036). There was, however, no significant association between ferritin > 2500 and mortality. This meta-analysis suggests that iron overload, as assessed by LIC, is not a strong prognostic factor for OS in a general adult HCT population. Our data also suggest that ferritin is an inadequate surrogate for iron overload in HCT.
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Allotransplantation for patients age ?40 years with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL.
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White blood cell recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation predicts clinical outcome.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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To determine whether outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) could be estimated by using peripheral white blood cell count (WBC) as a metric that integrates several aspects of HCT recovery, we conducted a retrospective study of 1,109 adult patients who underwent first allogeneic HCT from 2003 through 2009. WBC at 1-3 months after HCT was categorized as low (<2), normal (2-10), and high (>10 × 10(9) cells/L). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were lower for patients with low or high WBC at 1-3 months after HCT (P < 0.0001). We developed a predictive three-group risk model based on the pattern of WBC recovery early after HCT. Five-year OS was 47, 30, and 15% (P < 0.0001) and 5-year PFS was 39, 22, and 14% for patients in the three different risk groups (P < 0.0001). The pattern of WBC recovery early after HCT provides prognostic information for relapse, nonrelapse mortality, progression-free survival, and overall survival. A scoring system based on the trajectory of the WBC in the first 3 months after HCT can effectively stratify patients into three groups with different PFS and OS. If validated, this system could be useful in the clinical management of patients after HCT, and to stratify patients enrolled on HCT clinical trials.
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Ibrutinib treatment ameliorates murine chronic graft-versus-host disease.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening impediment to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and current therapies do not completely prevent and/or treat cGVHD. CD4+ T cells and B cells mediate cGVHD; therefore, targeting these populations may inhibit cGVHD pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) that targets Th2 cells and B cells and produces durable remissions in B cell malignancies with minimal toxicity. Here, we evaluated whether ibrutinib could reverse established cGVHD in 2 complementary murine models, a model interrogating T cell-driven sclerodermatous cGVHD and an alloantibody-driven multiorgan system cGVHD model that induces bronchiolar obliterans (BO). In the T cell-mediated sclerodermatous cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment delayed progression, improved survival, and ameliorated clinical and pathological manifestations. In the alloantibody-driven cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment restored pulmonary function and reduced germinal center reactions and tissue immunoglobulin deposition. Animals lacking BTK and ITK did not develop cGVHD, indicating that these molecules are critical to cGVHD development. Furthermore, ibrutinib treatment reduced activation of T and B cells from patients with active cGVHD. Our data demonstrate that B cells and T cells drive cGVHD and suggest that ibrutinib has potential as a therapeutic agent, warranting consideration for cGVHD clinical trials.
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Post-transplantation B cell activating factor and B cell recovery before onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Excessive levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF) are found in patients with active chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In mice, BAFF has been shown to be essential for B cell recovery after myeloablation. To assess how BAFF levels relate to transplantation factors and subsequent development of cGVHD, we prospectively monitored 412 patients in the first year after allogeneic peripheral blood or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and censored data at time of cGVHD onset. In patients who did not develop cGVHD, we affirmed a temporal pattern of gradually decreasing BAFF levels as B cell numbers increase after myeloablative conditioning. In contrast, after reduced-intensity conditioning, BAFF levels remained high throughout the first post-HSCT year, suggesting that the degree of myeloablation resulted in delayed B cell recovery associated with persistence of higher BAFF levels. Given that high BAFF/B cell ratios have been associated with active cGVHD, we examined differences in early BAFF/B cell ratios and found significantly different BAFF/B cell ratios at 3 months post-HSCT only after myeloablative conditioning in patients who subsequently developed cGVHD. In addition to HSCT conditioning type, the use of sirolimus was significantly associated with higher BAFF levels after HSCT, and this also was potentially related to lower B cell numbers. Taken together, our results are important for interpreting BAFF measurements in cGVHD biomarker studies.
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BK virus disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a cohort analysis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The clinical epidemiology of BK virus (BKV) disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is not well defined. We evaluated 491 patients transplanted from January 2010 to December 2011 at a single transplant center to assess incidence, severity, and risk factors for BKV disease after HSCT. BKV disease was defined as BKV detection in urine by PCR testing in association with genitourinary symptoms without other concurrent genitourinary conditions. BKV disease occurred in 78 patients (15.9%), for an incidence rate of .47/1000 patient-days (95% confidence interval [CI], .37 to .59); BKV disease was considered severe in 27 patients (5.5%). In multivariate Cox modeling, time-dependent acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grades II to IV (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 4.25; 95% CI, 2.51 to 7.21), cord blood HSCT (aHR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.01 to 5.15), post-transplant mycophenolate use (aHR 3.31; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.99), and high-dose cyclophosphamide conditioning (aHR 2.34, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.77) were significant predictors of BKV disease. Time-dependent aGVHD grades III to IV (aHR 10.5; 95% CI, 4.44 to 25.0) and cord blood HSCT (aHR 5.40; 95% CI, 1.94 to 15.0) were independent risk factors for severe BKV disease. BKV disease is common and is associated with significant and prolonged morbidity after HSCT. Prospective studies are needed to better define the morbidity of post-HSCT BKV disease and inform the design of prophylaxis and treatment trials.
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Prostaglandin-modulated umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for use in allogeneic transplantation. Key advantages of UCB are rapid availability and less stringent requirements for HLA matching. However, UCB contains an inherently limited HSC count, which is associated with delayed time to engraftment, high graft failure rates, and early mortality. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) was previously identified to be a critical regulator of HSC homeostasis, and we hypothesized that brief ex vivo modulation with dmPGE2 could improve patient outcomes by increasing the "effective dose" of HSCs. Molecular profiling approaches were used to determine the optimal ex vivo modulation conditions (temperature, time, concentration, and media) for use in the clinical setting. A phase 1 trial was performed to evaluate the safety and therapeutic potential of ex vivo modulation of a single UCB unit using dmPGE2 before reduced-intensity, double UCB transplantation. Results from this study demonstrated clear safety with durable, multilineage engraftment of dmPGE2-treated UCB units. We observed encouraging trends in efficacy, with accelerated neutrophil recovery (17.5 vs 21 days, P = .045), coupled with preferential, long-term engraftment of the dmPGE2-treated UCB unit in 10 of 12 treated participants.
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Live Attenuated Varicella-Zoster Vaccine in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at risk for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. Vaccination may help restore VZV immunity; however, the available live attenuated VZV vaccine (Zostavax) is contraindicated in immunocompromised hosts. We report our experience with using a single dose of VZV vaccine in 110 adult autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients who were about 2 years after transplantation, free of graft-versus-host disease, and not receiving immunosuppression. One hundred eight vaccine recipients (98.2%) had no clinically apparent adverse events with a median follow-up period of 9.5 months (interquartile range, 6 to 16; range, 2 to 28). Two vaccine recipients (1.8%) developed a skin rash (one zoster-like rash with associated pain, one varicella-like) within 42 days post-vaccination that resolved with antiviral therapy. We could not confirm if these rashes were due to vaccine (Oka) or wild-type VZV. No other possible cases of VZV reactivation have occurred with about 1178 months of follow-up. Live attenuated VZV vaccination appears generally safe in this population when vaccinated as noted; the overall vaccination risk needs to be weighed against the risk of wild-type VZV disease in this high-risk population.
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ST2 as a marker for risk of therapy-resistant graft-versus-host disease and death.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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No plasma biomarkers are associated with the response of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) to therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
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Sequence-based discovery of Bradyrhizobium enterica in cord colitis syndrome.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Immunosuppression is associated with a variety of idiopathic clinical syndromes that may have infectious causes. It has been hypothesized that the cord colitis syndrome, a complication of umbilical-cord hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, is infectious in origin.
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Rituximab prophylaxis prevents corticosteroid-requiring chronic GVHD after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: results of a phase 2 trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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B cells are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), and phase 2 trials suggest that B cell depletion can treat established chronic GVHD. We hypothesized that posttransplantation B cell depletion could prevent the occurrence of chronic GVHD. We performed a 65-patient phase 2 trial of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) IV), administered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after transplantation. Rituximab administration was safe without severe infusional adverse events. The cumulative incidences of chronic GVHD and systemic corticosteroid-requiring chronic GVHD at 2 years from transplantation were 48% and 31%, respectively, both lower than the corresponding rates in a concurrent control cohort (60%, P = .1, and 48.5%, P = .015). There was no difference in relapse incidence, but treatment-related mortality at 4 years from transplantation was significantly lower in treated subjects when compared with controls (5% vs 19%, P = .02), and overall survival was superior at 4 years (71% vs 56%, P = .05). At 2 years from transplantation, the B-cell activating factor/B-cell ratio was significantly higher in subjects who developed chronic GVHD in comparison with those without chronic GVHD (P = .039). Rituximab can prevent systemic corticosteroid-requiring chronic GVHD after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and should be tested in a prospective randomized trial.
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Reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with primary myelofibrosis: a cohort analysis from the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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We evaluated outcomes and associated prognostic factors in 233 patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for primary myelofibrosis (MF) using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). The median age at RIC HCT was 55 yr. Donors were a matched sibling donor (MSD) in 34% of RIC HCTs, an HLA well-matched unrelated donor (URD) in 45%, and a partially matched/mismatched URD in 21%. Risk stratification according to the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) was 12% low, 49% intermediate-1, 37% intermediate-2, and 1% high. The probability of survival at 5 yr was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40% to 53%). In a multivariate analysis, donor type was the sole independent factor associated with survival. Adjusted probabilities of survival at 5-yr were 56% (95% CI, 44% to 67%) for MSD, 48% (95% CI, 37% to 58%) for well-matched URD, and 34% (95% CI, 21% to 47%) for partially matched/mismatched URD (P = .002). The relative risk (RR) for NRM was 3.92 (P = .006) for well-matched URD and 9.37 (P < .0001) for partially matched/mismatched URD. Trends toward increased NRM (RR, 1.7; P = .07) and inferior survival (RR, 1.37; P = .10) were observed in DIPSS intermediate-2/high-risk patients compared with DIPSS low/intermediate-1 risk patients. Our data indicate that RIC HCT is a potentially curative option for patients with MF, and that donor type is the most important factor influencing survival in these patients.
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Outcome and prognostic factors for patients who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Disease relapse remains a major obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), yet little is known about the relevant prognostic factors after relapse. We studied 1080 patients transplanted between 2004 and 2008, among whom 351 relapsed. The 3-year postrelapse overall survival (prOS) rate was 19%. Risk factors for mortality after relapse included shorter time to relapse, higher disease risk index at HSCT, myeloablative conditioning, high pretransplantation comorbidity index, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurring before relapse. Important prognostic factors did not vary by disease type. Based on this, we could stratify patients into 3 groups, with 3-year prOS rates of 36%, 14%, and 3% (P < .0001). This score was validated in an historical cohort of 276 patients. Postrelapse donor lymphocyte infusion or repeat HSCT was associated with improved prOS, as was the development of GVHD after relapse. These differences remained significant in models that accounted for other prognostic factors and in landmark analyses of patients who survived at least 2 months from relapse. The results of this study may aid with prognostication and management of patients who relapse after HSCT and motivate the design of clinical trials aimed at relapse prevention or treatment in higher-risk patients.
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Multicenter study of banked third-party virus-specific T cells to treat severe viral infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Virus-specific T cell (VST) lines could provide useful antiviral prophylaxis and treatment of immune-deficient patients if it were possible to avoid the necessity of generating a separate line for each patient, often on an emergency basis. We prepared a bank of 32 virus-specific lines from individuals with common HLA polymorphisms who were immune to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus, or adenovirus. A total of 18 lines were administered to 50 patients with severe, refractory illness because of infection with one of these viruses after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The cumulative rates of complete or partial responses at 6 weeks postinfusion were 74.0% (95% CI, 58.5%-89.5%) for the entire group (n = 50), 73.9% (95% CI, 51.2% -96.6%) for cytomegalovirus (n = 23), 77.8% for adenovirus (n = 18), and 66.7% (95% CI, 36.9%-96.5%) for EBV (n = 9). Only 4 responders had a recurrence or progression. There were no immediate infusion-related adverse events, and de novo graft-versus-host disease developed in only 2 patients. Despite the disparity between the lines and their recipients, the mean frequency of VSTs increased significantly postinfusion, coincident with striking decreases in viral DNA and resolution of clinical symptoms. The use of banked third-party VSTs is a feasible and safe approach to rapidly treat severe or intractable viral infections after stem cell transplantation. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00711035.
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Outcomes in patients age 70 or older undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can achieve durable remissions in a number of patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Little is known about the safety of HSCT in patients age 70 or older. Consecutive patients (n = 54) age 70 or older underwent HSCT between 2007 and 2012. Diseases included acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 25), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 12), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 5), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 4), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 3), myeloproliferative neoplasm (n = 4), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 1). Median follow-up for survivors was 21 months. All patients received reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, primarily busulfan/fludarabine. All patients received unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cell grafts: 44 from 8/8 matched unrelated donors, 8 from matched related donors, and 2 from 7/8 matched unrelated donors. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was calcineurin inhibitor-based in all patients. The median age at transplantation was 71 years (range, 70 to 76); the median HCT comorbidity index score was 1 (range, 0 to 5). Two patients died before hematopoietic recovery (1 with graft failure and 1 with disease progression), and 1 patient relapsed before hematopoietic recovery; otherwise, all engrafted with median donor chimerism of 94% at 1 month. Cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute GVHD was 13% and of grades III to IV acute GVHD, 9.3%. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 36%, progression-free survival was 39%, overall survival was 39%, and relapse was 56%. Nonrelapse mortality was 3.7% at day +100 and 5.6% at 2 years. We conclude that allogeneic HSCT is a safe and effective option for carefully selected patients age 70 or older.
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Low-dose interleukin-2 therapy restores regulatory T cell homeostasis in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a central role in the maintenance of immune tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We recently reported that daily administration of low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) induces selective expansion of functional Tregs and clinical improvement of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To define the mechanisms of action of IL-2 therapy, we examined the immunologic effects of this treatment on homeostasis of CD4(+) T cell subsets after transplant. We first demonstrated that chronic GVHD is characterized by constitutive phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) in conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tcons) associated with elevated amounts of IL-7 and IL-15 and relative functional deficiency of IL-2. IL-2 therapy resulted in the selective increase of Stat5 phosphorylation in Tregs and a decrease of phosphorylated Stat5 in Tcons. Over an 8-week period, IL-2 therapy induced a series of changes in Treg homeostasis, including increased proliferation, increased thymic export, and enhanced resistance to apoptosis. Low-dose IL-2 had minimal effects on Tcons. These findings define the mechanisms whereby low-dose IL-2 therapy restores the homeostasis of CD4(+) T cell subsets and promotes the reestablishment of immune tolerance.
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Ocular graft-versus-host disease: a review.
Surv Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Systemic findings involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver often overshadow the other manifestations of GVHD. Ocular surface disease remains the most common cause of long-term morbidity in GVHD. Herein, the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of acute and chronic systemic GVHD are reviewed, with a focus on ocular GVHD.
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Safety and immunogenicity of modified vaccinia Ankara in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a randomized, controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA-BN, IMVAMUNE) is emerging as a primary immunogen and as a delivery system to treat or prevent a wide range of diseases. Defining the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-BN in key populations is therefore important.
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Outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with dyskeratosis congenita.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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We describe outcomes after allogeneic transplantation in 34 patients with dyskeratosis congenita who underwent transplantation between 1981 and 2009. The median age at transplantation was 13 years (range, 2 to 35). Approximately 50% of transplantations were from related donors. Bone marrow was the predominant source of stem cells (24 of 34). The day-28 probability of neutrophil recovery was 73% and the day-100 platelet recovery was 72%. The day-100 probability of grade II to IV acute GVHD and the 3-year probability of chronic graft-versus-host disease were 24% and 37%, respectively. The 10-year probability of survival was 30%; 14 patients were alive at last follow-up. Ten deaths occurred within 4 months from transplantation because of graft failure (n = 6) or other transplantation-related complications; 9 of these patients had undergone transplantation from mismatched related or from unrelated donors. Another 10 deaths occurred after 4 months; 6 of them occurred more than 5 years after transplantation, and 4 of these were attributed to pulmonary failure. Transplantation regimen intensity and transplantations from mismatched related or unrelated donors were associated with early mortality. Transplantation of grafts from HLA-matched siblings with cyclophosphamide-containing nonradiation regimens was associated with early low toxicity. Late mortality was attributed mainly to pulmonary complications and likely related to the underlying disease.
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Busulfan dose intensity and outcomes in reduced-intensity allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Comparisons of myeloablative conditioning versus reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) have demonstrated a tradeoff between relapse and toxicity. Dose intensity across RIC regimens vary and may affect treatment outcomes. In this retrospective analysis, we investigated the effect of i.v. busulfan dosing (total dose 3.2 mg/kg versus 6.4 mg/kg) in RIC regimens that combined fludarabine and busulfan on outcomes in patients who were undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A total of 217 consecutive patients with MDS or AML underwent first busulfan and fludarabine RIC peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from well-matched related or unrelated donors at our institutions between 2004 and 2009. Of the 217 patients, 135 patients received Bu1 (3.2 mg/kg of busulfan) and 82 patients received Bu2 (6.4 mg/kg of busulfan), both with daily fludarabine (30 mg/m(2)/day for 4 days). The choice of RIC regimen was based on temporal institutional standard, enrollment on protocols, and physician choice. Patients had similar characteristics with a few notable differences: Patients who received Bu1 were younger (median age 61 versus 64 years, P < . 001), received more single-antigen mismatched unrelated grafts (14.1% versus 1.2%, P < . 001), received more sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens (63% versus 45%, P < .0001), received less antithymocyte globulin for GVHD prophylaxis (0% versus 22%, P < .001), and had less enrollment on a clinical trial that used prophylactic rituximab for the prevention of chronic GVHD (2.2% versus 11.0%, P = .011). Clinical disease status was similar between the groups. Median follow-up for survivors was 4.4 years for Bu1 and 3.2 years for Bu2. Because of the differences in characteristics, the 2 groups were compared with the adjustment of a propensity score that predicted Bu2 to account for measured differences. The day +200 cumulative incidence rates of grades II to IV acute GVHD (Bu1, 17%, versus Bu2, 8.5%; hazard ratio [HR], .56; 95% confidence interval [CI], .22 to 1.41; P = .22) or grades III to IV acute GVHD (Bu1, 6.7%, versus Bu2, 4.9%) were not different. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was not significantly different between Bu1 and Bu2 (41.5% versus 28%, respectively; HR, .70; CI, .42 to 1.17; P = .09). Two-year nonrelapse mortality rates were similar for Bu1 and Bu2 (8.9% versus 9.8%, respectively; HR, .80; CI, .29 to 2.21; P = .67). Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were also similar between Bu1 and Bu2 (progression-free survival: 40.6% versus 39.3%, respectively; HR, .82; CI, .57 to 1.30; P = .33; and overall survival: 47.4% versus 48.8%, respectively; HR, .96; CI, .64 to 1.44; P = .85). Subset analysis defined by clinical disease and cytogenetic risk with the propensity risk score applied suggest that in patients with high clinical disease risk and nonadverse cytogenetics, the higher dose busulfan RIC regimen may be of marginal benefit (2-year progression-free survival: HR, .54; CI, .29 to 1.03; P = .062). For the majority of patients with MDS or AML undergoing busulfan and fludarabine RIC peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, however, the dose of busulfan (3.2 mg/kg versus 6.4 mg/kg) is not associated with significant differences in overall outcomes.
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Phase I study of alemtuzumab for therapy of steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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Steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) carries a poor prognosis with no agreed upon algorithm for treatment. Because both B and T cells contribute to the pathophysiology of cGVHD, we conducted a phase I study in subjects with steroid-refractory cGVHD using the anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab to transiently deplete most mononuclear subsets. Three regimens were investigated in a 3+3 dose-escalation design: 3 mg × 6 (dose level 1), 3 mg × 1, then 10 mg × 5 (dose level 2) and 3 mg × 1, 10 mg × 1, then 30 mg × 4 (dose level 3) administered over 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose of alemtuzumab was dose level 2. Thirteen patients were assessable for toxicities, which were primarily infectious and hematologic. Rates of infectious complications in the first 12 weeks were 0% at dose level 1 (n = 3), 50% at dose level 2 (1 death, n = 6), and 75% at dose level 3 (2 deaths, n = 4). Of 10 patients assessable for response, 7 (70%) responded at 12 weeks, with a 30% complete response rate. Four subjects reduced steroid dose or discontinued an immunosuppressant at 12 weeks. The median decrease in steroid dose at 1 year was 61.6%. Infectious complications occurred predominantly in the first 3 months after therapy, but full B and T cell recovery took well over 12 months. Immunophenotypic profiling revealed early recovery by natural killer cells and relative sparing of CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T cell subsets. Our study indicates that therapy with alemtuzumab for steroid-refractory cGVHD is tolerable with close attention to dosing and may be active in subjects who have failed multiple therapies. The pattern of lymphocyte recovery after alemtuzumab will inform the biology and future therapy of cGVHD. The use of alemtuzumab in the context of therapy for cGVHD deserves study in larger phase II trials.
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Autologous CLL cell vaccination early after transplant induces leukemia-specific T cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Patients with advanced hematologic malignancies remain at risk for relapse following reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We conducted a prospective clinical trial to test whether vaccination with whole leukemia cells early after transplantation facilitates the expansion of leukemia-reactive T cells and thereby enhances antitumor immunity.
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Predictors of neuropsychological change in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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This study examined the course of neuropsychological functioning in patients with chronic myelogeous leukemia (n = 91) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 15) who underwent standard treatment for their disease or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at baseline, 12 months, and 18 months post-treatment. At baseline, 23% of the participants (n = 75) in the longitudinal sample had Z-scores on at least one of the neuropsychological tests that were <1.4. Participants in the study showed improvement over baseline at the 12 and 18 months assessments. The average Z-scores for the six cognitive domains in the longitudinal data set over the course of the study ranged from -0.89 to 0.59. Significant predictors of change in neuropsychological test scores included age, with older participants showing less improvement over time. Other predictors included baseline cognitive domains (language, memory, and attention), previous cocaine use, disease status, intelligence quotient, and quality of life measures. Findings support previous studies in patients with hematological malignancies who showed cognitive impairments at baseline prior to HSCT. However, there was little evidence for further cognitive decline over the course of 18 months.
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Molecular ontogeny of donor-derived follicular lymphomas occurring after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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The relative timing of genetic alterations that contribute to follicular lymphoma remains unknown. We analyzed a donor-recipient pair who both developed grade 2/3A follicular lymphoma 7 years after allogeneic transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusions. Both patients harbored identical BCL2/IGH rearrangements also present in 1 in 2,000 cells in the donor lymphocyte infusion, and the same V(D)J rearrangement, which underwent somatic hypermutation both before and after clonal divergence. Exome sequencing of both follicular lymphomas identified 15 shared mutations, of which 14 (including alterations in EP300 and KLHL6) were recovered from the donor lymphocyte infusion by ultra-deep sequencing (average read coverage, 361,723), indicating acquisition at least 7 years before clinical presentation. Six additional mutations were present in only one follicular lymphoma and not the donor lymphocyte infusion, including an ARID1A premature stop, indicating later acquisition during clonal divergence. Thus, ultrasensitive sequencing can map clonal evolution within rare subpopulations during human lymphomagenesis in vivo.
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Interleukin-2 and regulatory T cells in graft-versus-host disease.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Dysfunction of regulatory T (Treg) cells has been detected in diverse inflammatory disorders, including chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Interleukin-2 is critical for Treg cell growth, survival, and activity. We hypothesized that low-dose interleukin-2 could preferentially enhance Treg cells in vivo and suppress clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD.
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Donor B-cell alloantibody deposition and germinal center formation are required for the development of murine chronic GVHD and bronchiolitis obliterans.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) poses a significant risk for HSCT patients. Preclinical development of new therapeutic modalities has been hindered by models with pathologic findings that may not simulate the development of human cGVHD. Previously, we have demonstrated that cGVHD induced by allogeneic HSCT after a conditioning regimen of cyclophosphamide and total-body radiation results in pulmonary dysfunction and airway obliteration, which leads to bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), which is pathognomonic for cGVHD of the lung. We now report cGVHD manifestations in a wide spectrum of target organs, including those with mucosal surfaces. Fibrosis was demonstrated in the lung and liver and was associated with CD4(+) T cells and B220(+) B-cell infiltration and alloantibody deposition. Donor bone marrow obtained from mice incapable of secreting IgG alloantibody resulted in less BO and cGVHD. Robust germinal center reactions were present at the time of cGVHD disease initiation. Blockade of germinal center formation with a lymphotoxin-receptor-immunoglobulin fusion protein suppressed cGVHD and BO. We conclude that cGVHD is caused in part by alloantibody secretion, which is associated with fibrosis and cGVHD manifestations including BO, and that treatment with a lymphotoxin-? receptor-immunoglobulin fusion protein could be beneficial for cGVHD prevention and therapy.
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Risk factors for acute GVHD and survival after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Risk factors for acute GVHD (AGVHD), overall survival, and transplant-related mortality were evaluated in adults receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (1999-2005) from HLA-identical sibling donors (SDs; n = 3191) or unrelated donors (URDs; n = 2370) and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, MN. To understand the impact of transplant regimen on AGVHD risk, 6 treatment categories were evaluated: (1) myeloablative conditioning (MA) with total body irradiation (TBI) + PBSCs, (2) MA + TBI + BM, (3) MA + nonTBI + PBSCs, (4) MA + nonTBI + BM, (5) reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) + PBSCs, and (6) RIC + BM. The cumulative incidences of grades B-D AGVHD were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-41%) in the SD cohort and 59% (95% CI, 57%-61%) in the URD cohort. Patients receiving SD transplants with MA + nonTBI + BM and RIC + PBSCs had significantly lower risks of grades B-D AGVHD than patients in other treatment categories. Those receiving URD transplants with MA + TBI + BM, MA + nonTBI + BM, RIC + BM, or RIC + PBSCs had lower risks of grades B-D AGVHD than those in other treatment categories. The 5-year probabilities of survival were 46% (95% CI, 44%-49%) with SD transplants and 33% (95% CI, 31%-35%) with URD transplants. Conditioning intensity, TBI and graft source have a combined effect on risk of AGVHD that must be considered in deciding on a treatment strategy for individual patients.
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Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation followed by allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma (BMT CTN 0102): a phase 3 biological assignment trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma, but disease progression remains an issue. Allogeneic HSCT might reduce disease progression, but can be associated with high treatment-related mortality. Thus, we aimed to assess effectiveness of allogeneic HSCT with non-myeloablative conditioning after autologous HSCT compared with tandem autologous HSCT.
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Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies predict outcome in double umbilical cord blood transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Using a uniform detection method for donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs), we sought to determine the effect of preformed DSAs on outcomes in double umbilical cord blood transplantation. DSAs were associated with an increased incidence of graft failure (5.5% vs 18.2% vs 57.1% for none, single, or dual DSA positivity; P = .0001), prolongation of the time to neutrophil engraftment (21 vs 29 days for none vs any DSA; P = .04), and excess 100-day mortality or relapse (23.6% vs 36.4% vs 71.4% for none, single, or dual DSA positivity; P = .01). The intensity of DSA reactivity was correlated with graft failure (median of mean fluorescent intensity 17 650 vs 1 850; P = .039). There was inferior long-term progression-free and overall survival when comparing patients with DSAs against both umbilical cord blood units to those without DSAs (3-year progression-free survival, 0% vs 33.5%, P = .004; 3-year overall survival 0% vs 45.0%, P = .04). We conclude that identification of preformed DSAs in umbilical cord blood recipients should be performed and that the use of umbilical cord blood units where preformed host DSAs exist should be avoided.
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Low telomerase activity in CD4+ regulatory T cells in patients with severe chronic GVHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the control of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In this study, we examined telomere length and telomerase activity of Treg and conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tcon) in 61 patients who survived more than 2 years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cell proliferation and expression of Bcl-2 were also measured in each subset. Treg telomere length was shorter and Treg telomerase activity was increased compared with Tcon (P < .0001). After transplantation, Treg were also more highly proliferative than Tcon (P < .0001). Treg number, telomerase activity, and expression of Bcl-2 were each inversely associated with severity of cGVHD. These data indicate that activation of telomerase is not sufficient to prevent telomere shortening in highly proliferative Treg. However, telomerase activation is associated with increased Bcl-2 expression and higher Treg numbers in patients with no or mild cGVHD. In contrast, patients with moderate or severe cGVHD have fewer Treg with lower levels of telomerase activity and Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that failure to activate Treg telomerase may restrict proliferative capacity and increase apoptotic susceptibility, resulting in the loss of peripheral tolerance and the development of cGVHD.
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Cord colitis syndrome in cord-blood stem-cell transplantation.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Diarrhea is a frequent complication of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Important causes of diarrhea after HSCT include acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infections, and medications. After the transplantation and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical-cord blood, we observed a new syndrome of culture-negative, antibiotic-responsive diarrhea not attributable to any known cause.
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Risk factors associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and with poor overall survival in children with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that affect nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival among children that develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed multivariate analyses using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to identify risk factors for NRM and survival in 1117 pediatric subjects with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, transplanted from related donors, unrelated donors (URD), or unrelated cord blood between 1995 and 2004. We identified 4 variables associated with higher NRM: HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, peripheral blood cell graft, Karnofsky/Lansky score < 80 at cGVHD diagnosis, and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L at cGVHD diagnosis. Factors associated with significantly worse survival were: age > 10 years, transplantation from HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, advanced disease at transplantation, Karnofsky/Lansky < 80; and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L. Cumulative incidence of discontinuation of systemic immune suppression at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis of cGVHD were 22% (20%-25%), 34% (31%-37%), and 37% (34%-40%), respectively. This is the largest study elucidating variables affecting outcome after diagnosis of cGVHD in pediatric allograft recipients. These variables may be useful for risk stratification, development of future clinical trials, and family counseling in children with cGVHD.
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Immune reconstitution after double umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation: comparison with unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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Double umbilical cord blood (DUCB) transplantation is an accepted transplantation strategy for patients without suitable human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donors. However, DUCB transplantation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality because of slow recovery of immunity and a high risk of infection. To define the differences in immune reconstitution between DUCB transplantation and HLA matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation, we performed a detailed, prospective analysis of immune reconstitution in 42 DUCB recipients and 102 filgrastim-mobilized unrelated peripheral blood stem cell recipients. Reconstitution of CD3 T cells was significantly delayed in the DUCB cohort compared with the MUD cohort for 1 to 6 months posttransplantation (P < .001), including naive (CD45RO-) and memory (CD45RO+) CD4 T cells, regulatory (CD4CD25) T cells, and CD8 T cells. In contrast, CD19 B cells recovered more rapidly in the DUCB cohort and numbers remained significantly greater from 3 to 24 months after transplantation (P = .001). CD56CD16 natural killer (NK) cells also recovered more rapidly in DUCB recipients and remained significantly greater from 1 to 24 months after transplantation. B cell activating factor (BAFF) levels were higher in the DUCB cohort at 1 month (P < .001), were similar in both cohorts at 3 and 6 months, and were lower in the DUCB cohort at 12 months (P = .002). BAFF/CD19 B cell ratios were lower in the DUCB cohort at 3 (P = .045), 6 (P = .02), and 12 months (P = .002) after transplantation. DUCB recipients had more infections within the first 100 days after transplantation (P < .001), and there was less chronic graft-versus-host disease (P < .001), but there were no differences in cumulative incidence of relapse, nonrelapse death, progression-free survival, or overall survival between the 2 groups. These results suggest that increased risk of infections is specifically associated with delayed reconstitution of all major T cell subsets, but the increased risk is limited to the first 3 months after DUCB transplantation. There is no increased risk of relapse, suggesting that graft-versus-leukemia activity is maintained. Early reconstitution of B cells and NK cells may, in part, account for these findings.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning stem cell transplantation: comparison of double umbilical cord blood and unrelated donor grafts.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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There are little data comparing umbilical cord blood (UBC) and conventional stem cell sources for reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We performed a retrospective analysis of RIC HCST using double UCB (dUCB) grafts and RIC HSCT using unrelated donor (URD) grafts. The study included 64 dUCB transplantations and 221 URD transplantations performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital between 2004 and 2008. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 14.1% for dUCB and 20.3% for URD (P = .32). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was significantly lower in dUCB compared with URD (21.9% versus 53.9%; P < .0001). The 2-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was significantly higher in dUCB (26.9% versus 10.4%; P = .0009). In our analysis, dUCB HSCT and URD HSCT had comparable 3-year overall survival (46% in dUCB and 50% in URD; P = .49) and progression-free survival (30% in dUCB and 40% in URD; P = .47). dUCBT was associated with greater nonrelapse mortality despite less chronic GVHD. Our findings suggest that the use of 2 partially matched UCB units appears to be a suitable alternative for patients undergoing RIC HSCT without an HLA-matched donor.
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A patient death attributable to implant-related primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Implant-related primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the breast is a rare clinical entity. With increasing attention being paid to this disease, most cases reported to date in the literature have demonstrated indolent clinical courses responsive to explantation, capsulectomy, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The authors describe a case of bilateral implant-related primary ALCL of the breast that proved refractory to both standard and aggressive interventions, ultimately resulting in patient death secondary to disease progression. The authors situate this case in the context of the current state of knowledge regarding implant-related primary ALCL of the breast and suggest that this entity is generally, but not universally, indolent in nature.
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Combined CD4 T-cell and antibody response to human minor histocompatibility antigen DBY after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Antibody responses to HY antigens in male recipients are frequent after transplantation of stem cells from female donors (Miklos et al., Blood 2005; 105: 2973; Miklos et al., Blood 2004; 103: 353). However, evidence that this B-cell immunity is accompanied by T-cell responses to the cognate antigens is scarce. Here, we examined T- and B-cell responses to DBY antigen in a male patient who received hematopoietic stem cells from a human leukocyte antigen-identical female sibling.
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Hyperlipidemia and statin use after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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An increased incidence of cardiovascular complications has been documented in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Despite this, little is known about the risk factors for hyperlipidemia or the role of lipid-lowering therapy early after transplantation. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute from 1998 to 2008 and who survived more than 100 days. The incidence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in the first 2 years after transplantation was 73.4% and 72.5%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, the development of acute graft-versus-host disease was independently associated with both hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.54) after transplantation. Statin use was instituted in 29% of patients and was associated with a significant net reduction in total cholesterol (65 mg/dL, P < .0001), triglyceride (118 mg/dL P < .0001), and LDL levels (59 mg/dL P < .0001) without any significant adverse effects. These data suggest that hyperlipidemia is common in the first 2 years after allogeneic transplantation when most patients remain under the care of the transplantation physician and lipid-lowering therapy may be underutilized. Given the cardiovascular risk associated with hyperlipidemia and the tolerability of statins, further prospective evaluation of lipid abnormalities and their treatment seems well warranted.
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Effect of stem cell source on outcomes after unrelated donor transplantation in severe aplastic anemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Outcome after unrelated donor bone marrow (BM) transplantation for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has improved, with survival rates now approximately 75%. Increasing use of peripheral blood stem and progenitor cells (PBPCs) instead of BM as a graft source prompted us to compare outcomes of PBPC and BM transplantation for SAA. We studied 296 patients receiving either BM (n = 225) or PBPC (n = 71) from unrelated donors matched at human leukocyte antigen-A, -B, -C, -DRB1. Hematopoietic recovery was similar after PBPC and BM transplantation. Grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease risks were higher after transplantation of PBPC compared with BM (hazard ratio = 1.68, P = .02; 48% vs 31%). Chronic graft-versus-host disease risks were not significantly different after adjusting for age at transplantation (hazard ratio = 1.39, P = .14). Mortality risks, independent of age, were higher after PBPC compared with BM transplantation (hazard ratio = 1.62, P = .04; 76% vs 61%). These data indicate that BM is the preferred graft source for unrelated donor transplantation in SAA.
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The impact of geographic proximity to transplant center on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) need access to specialized care. We hypothesized that access to the transplant center after HSCT may be challenging for patients living in geographically distant areas, and that this would have an adverse effect on their outcome. We analyzed 1912 adult patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at the Dana-Farber/Brigham and Womens Cancer Center (DF/BWCC) between 1996 and 2009 and who resided within 6 hours driving time of the institution. Driving time from primary residence to DF/BWCC based on zipcode was determined using geographic information systems. The median driving time (range) to DF/BWCC was 72 (2-358) minutes. When patients were stratified by driving time quartile, overall survival (OS) after HSCT was similar in the first year but worse after 1 year in patients in the top quartile (? 160 minutes driving time). In a landmark analysis of the 909 patients alive and free of disease at 1 year, 5-year OS was 76% and 65% for patients in the first (? 40 minutes) and fourth (? 160 minutes) quartiles, respectively (P = .027). This was confirmed in a multivariable analysis. The difference appeared to be mostly because of an increase in nonrelapse mortality. The number of visits to the transplant center between day 100 and 365 after HSCT declined significantly with increasing driving time to the transplant center, which was independently associated with worse survival. Long driving time to the transplant center is associated with worse OS in patients alive and disease-free 1 year after HSCT, independently of other patient-, disease-, and HSCT-related variables. This may be in part related to the lower frequency of post-HSCT visits in patients living farther away.
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Classifying cytogenetics in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in complete remission undergoing allogeneic transplantation: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
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Chronic GVHD risk score: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Several risk factors are associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but there is considerable variability in the reported factors. Therefore, we evaluated patient, transplantation, and cGVHD characteristics to develop a risk score in 5343 patients with cGVHD. Ten variables were identified as being significant in multivariate analysis of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): age, prior acute GVHD, time from transplantation to cGVHD, donor type, disease status at transplantation, GVHD prophylaxis, gender mismatch, serum bilirubin, Karnofsky score, and platelet count. These 10 variables were used to build a cGVHD risk score, and 6 risk groups (RGs) were identified. The 5-year NRM was 5% (1%-9%) in RG1, 20% (19%-23%) in RG2, 33% (29%-37%) in RG3, 43% (40%-46%) in RG4, 63% (53%-74%) in RG5, and 72% (59%-85%) in RG6. The 5-year overall survival was highest at 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]:85%-97%) in RG1, followed by 67% (65%-69%) in RG2, 51% (46%-55%) in RG3, 40% (37%-43%) in RG4, 21% (12%-30%) in RG5, and 4% (0%-9%) in RG6 (all P < .01). This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of data from a large registry to develop risk-score categories for major transplantation outcomes. Validation of this cGVHD risk score is needed in a different population to ensure its broad applicability.
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Invasive fungal disease after remote inoculation in transplant recipients.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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We describe 3 cases of invasive fungal disease in the setting of transplantation-associated immunosuppression, developing months to years after clinically resolved penetrating soft-tissue injuries with wood fragments. Invasive fungal disease resulting from remote inoculation is a distinct syndrome in immunocompromised patients presenting with soft-tissue abnormalities in areas of prior trauma.
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Recovery of B-cell homeostasis after rituximab in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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Investigation of the effects of rituximab (anti-CD20) on B-cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and B cells would better define the significance of B-cell homeostasis in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) pathophysiology. We studied 20 cGVHD patients at a median of 25 months after rituximab treatment when most patients had recovered total B-cell numbers. A total of 55% of patients had stable/improved cGVHD, and total B-cell numbers in these patients were significantly higher compared with rituximab-unresponsive patients. Although total B-cell number did not differ significantly between cGVHD groups before rituximab, there was a proportional increase in B-cell precursors in patients who later had stable/improved cGVHD. After rituximab, BAFF levels increased in all patients. Coincident with B-cell recovery in the stable/improved group, BAFF/B-cell ratios and CD27(+) B-cell frequencies decreased significantly. The peripheral B-cell pool in stable/improved cGVHD patients was largely composed of naive IgD(+) B cells. By contrast, rituximab-unresponsive cGVHD patients had persistent elevation of BAFF and a predominance of circulating B cells possessing an activated BAFF-R(Lo)CD20(Lo) cell surface phenotype. Thus, naive B-cell reconstitution and decreased BAFF/B-cell ratios were associated with clinical response after rituximab in cGVHD. Our findings begin to delineate B-cell homeostatic mechanisms important for human immune tolerance.
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Use of matched unrelated donors compared with matched related donors is associated with lower relapse and superior progression-free survival after reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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As success of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) relies primarily on graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity, increased minor HLA disparity in unrelated compared to related donors could have a significant impact on transplant outcomes. To assess whether use of unrelated donors (URD) engenders more potent GVL in RIC HSCT compared to matched related donors (MRD), we retrospectively studied 433 consecutive T-replete 6/6 HLA matched URD (n = 246) and MRD (n = 187) RIC HSCT for hematologic malignancies at our institution. Diseases included: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (127), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (71), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (68), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (64), Hodgkin disease (HD) (40), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (25), multiple myeloma (MM) (23), myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) (12), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (7), and other leukemia (1). All received uniform fludarabine and intravenous busulfan conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis with tacrolimus/mini-methroxate (mini-MTX) or tacrolimus/sirolimus ± mini-MTX. Unrelated donors were younger compared to MRD (median donor age: 33 years versus 52 years, P < .0001), and provided larger CD34(+) products (median CD34(+) cells infused: 8.7 × 10(6)/kg versus 7.5 × 10(6)/kg, P = .002). Distribution of diseases, disease risk, prior transplant, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) status was similar in both cohorts. Cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (at day +180), 2-year chronic GVHD, and 2-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 20% versus 16%, 55% versus 50%, and 8% versus 6% in URD and MRD, respectively (P = NS). Cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was lower in URD, 52% versus 65% (P = .005). With median follow-up of 26.5 and 35.8 months, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly better in unrelated donor transplants, 39.5% for URD, and 29% for MRD (P = .01). Overall survival (OS) at 2 years were 56% for URD versus 50% for MRD (P = .53). In multivariable analysis, URD was associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, P = .002) and superior PFS (HR 0.69, P = .002). These results suggest that URD is associated with greater GVL activity than MRD, and could have practice changing impact on future donor selection in RIC HSCT.
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Seroprotective titers against 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus after vaccination in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Little data are available regarding the safety and immunologic response to pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We measured serum antibody titers against A/California/7/2009 H1N1 using a hemagglutination inhibition assay in 82 allogeneic HSCT recipients who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine between November 2009 and January 2010 after it became available at our institution. The median time between HSCT and vaccination was 19 months (range, 2.5-94 months), and the median time from vaccination to specimen collection was 56 days (range, 14-140 days). Seroprotective antibody titers (hemagglutination inhibition titer ?1:40) against 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus were detected in 51% of patients. The presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease and type of conditioning regimen did not affect the rate of detection of seroprotective titers after vaccination. Patients were more likely to have a seroprotective titer the farther away from HSCT they were (adjusted odds ratio, 1.79 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.85). Rituximab administration in the year before vaccination was associated with a lack of seroprotective titer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.97). The vaccine was safe and well tolerated. Strategies are needed to improve the influenza vaccine response in this population, especially those receiving immunotherapy.
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Optimization of therapy for severe aplastic anemia based on clinical, biologic, and treatment response parameters: conclusions of an international working group on severe aplastic anemia convened by the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network,
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Although recent advances in therapy offer the promise for improving survival in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA), the small size of the patient population, lack of a mechanism in North America for longitudinal follow-up of patients, and inadequate cooperation among hematologists, scientists, and transplant physicians remain obstacles to conducting large studies that would advance the field. To address this issue, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) convened a group of international experts in March 2010 to define the most important questions in the basic science, immunosuppressive therapy (IST), and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) of SAA and propose initiatives to facilitate clinical and biologic research. Key conclusions of the working group were: (1) new patients should obtain accurate, expert diagnosis and early identification of biologic risk; (2) a population-based SAA outcomes registry should be established in North America to collect data on patients longitudinally from diagnosis through and after treatment; (3) a repository of biologic samples linked to the clinical data in the outcomes registry should be developed; (4) innovative approaches to unrelated donor BMT that decrease graft-versus-host disease are needed; and (5) alternative donor transplantation approaches for patients lacking HLA-matched unrelated donors must be improved. A partnership of BMT, IST, and basic science researchers will develop initiatives and partner with advocacy and funding organizations to address these challenges. Collaboration with similar study groups in Europe and Asia will be pursued.
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Sirolimus immunosuppression for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and therapy: an update.
Curr. Opin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Sirolimus is being used increasingly as an immunosuppressant in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This article reviews recent results in sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, as well as outcomes using sirolimus for established acute and chronic GVHD.
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Iron overload in patients with acute leukemia or MDS undergoing myeloablative stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) commonly have an elevated serum ferritin prior to HSCT, which has been associated with increased mortality after transplantation. This has led to the suggestion that iron overload is common and deleterious in this patient population. However, the relationship between serum ferritin and parenchymal iron overload in such patients is unknown. We report a prospective study of 48 patients with acute leukemia (AL) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) undergoing myeloablative HSCT, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate liver iron content (LIC) and cardiac iron. The median (and range) pre-HSCT value of serum ferritin was 1549 ng/mL (20-6989); serum hepcidin, 59 ng/mL (10-468); labile plasma iron, 0 LPI units (0.0-0.9). Eighty-five percent of patients had hepatic iron overload (HIO), and 42% had significant HIO (LIC ?5.0 mg/gdw). Only 1 patient had cardiac iron overload. There was a strong correlation between pre-HSCT serum ferritin and estimated LIC (r = .75), which was mostly dependent on prior transfusion history. Serum hepcidin was appropriately elevated in patients with HIO. Labile plasma iron elevation was rare. A regression calibration analysis supported the hypothesis that elevated pre-HSCT LIC is significantly associated with inferior post-HSCT survival. These results contribute to our understanding of the prevalence, mechanism, and consequences of iron overload in HSCT.
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NCI First International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Report from the Committee on Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Relapse is a major cause of treatment failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Treatment options for relapse have been inadequate, and the majority of patients ultimately die of their disease. There is no standard approach to treating relapse after alloHSCT. Withdrawal of immune suppression and donor lymphocyte infusions are commonly used for all diseases; although these interventions are remarkably effective for relapsed chronic myelogenous leukemia, they have limited efficacy in other hematologic malignancies. Conventional and novel chemotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, targeted therapies, and second transplants have been utilized in a variety of relapsed diseases, but reports on these therapies are generally anecdotal and retrospective. As such, there is an immediate need for well-designed, disease-specific trials for treatment of relapse after alloHSCT. This report summarizes current treatment options under investigation for relapse after alloHSCT in a disease-specific manner. In addition, recommendations are provided for specific areas of research necessary in the treatment of relapse after alloHSCT.
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Syngeneic donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with high rates of engraftment syndrome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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Engraftment syndrome (ES), typically characterized by noninfectious fever, rash, and/or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, is a complication of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are no data on ES after syngeneic HSCT. We retrospectively analyzed syngeneic HSCT outcomes and determined ES incidence, risk factors, and prognostic impact. Thirty-two adult patients with a median age of 46 years (range: 22-60) underwent syngeneic HSCT at our institution between July 1986 and April 2009, primarily for hematologic malignancies (65% lymphoid-including 15% plasma cell; 31% myeloid). The median duration of follow-up was 6.1 years (range: 3.7 months to 18.1 years). Five-year progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS) was 52% and 67%, respectively. Five-year overall cumulative incidence of relapse and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 37.6% and 10.2%, respectively; with increased relapse incidence of 76.3% in myeloid disease (P = .002). Fifteen patients (47%) met diagnostic criteria for ES, 10 (67%) of whom received systemic steroids. Five-year PFS was 47% in patients with ES versus 56% in those without (P = .37). Five-year OS was 63% with ES versus 71% without (P = .80). Five-year cumulative incidence of NRM was 21% with ES versus 0% without (P = .06). Five-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 32% with ES and 44% without (P = .68). Older age (P = .05) and possibly total body irradiation-based conditioning (P = .09) were risk factors for developing ES. In multivariable Cox models only diagnosis (myeloid disease) impaired OS and PFS. In summary, we document a high incidence of ES after syngeneic HSCT. The trend of increased NRM after ES requires reevaluation in a larger syngeneic HSCT cohort.
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The outcome of full-intensity and reduced-intensity conditioning matched sibling or unrelated donor transplantation in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first and second complete remission.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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We examined the efficacy of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and compared outcomes of 93 patients older than 16 years after RIC with 1428 patients receiving full-intensity conditioning for allografts using sibling and unrelated donors for Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first or second complete remission. RIC conditioning included busulfan 9 mg/kg or less (27), melphalan 150 mg/m(2) or less (23), low-dose total body irradiation (TBI; 36), and others (7). The RIC group was older (median 45 vs 28 years, P < .001) and more received peripheral blood grafts (73% vs 43%, P < .001) but had similar other prognostic factors. The RIC versus full-intensity conditioning groups had slightly, but not significantly, less acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease (39% vs 46%) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (34% vs 42%), yet similar transplantation-related mortality. RIC led to slightly more relapse (35% vs 26%, P = .08) yet similar age-adjusted survival (38% vs 43%, P = .39). Multivariate analysis showed that conditioning intensity did not affect transplantation-related mortality (P = .92) or relapse risk (P = .14). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significantly improved overall survival with: Karnofsky performance status more than 80, first complete remission, lower white blood count, well-matched unrelated or sibling donors, transplantation since 2001, age younger than 30 years, and conditioning with TBI, but no independent impact of conditioning intensity. RIC merits further investigation in prospective trials of adult ALL.
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Prediction of veno-occlusive disease using biomarkers of endothelial injury.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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Predicting the development of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver remains challenging. We hypothesized that biomarkers of endothelial injury in myeloablative allogeneic transplantation recipients could predict VOD occurrence. We evaluated 4 biomarkers-von Willebrand Factor (vWF), thrombomodulin, E-selectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1)-weekly in the peritransplantation period in an attempt to predict VOD. In the patients who received sirolimus, vWF, thrombomodulin, and sICAM-1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with VOD compared with those without VOD on day -1 (P or=1400 IU/mL and thrombomodulin >or=100 ng/mL on day +7 were both 100% sensitive and 100% specific in predicting VOD. These biomarkers were informative when adjusted for other risk factors for VOD in regression analysis. Among patients not receiving sirolimus, biomarkers of endothelial injury were not informative. We conclude that vWF, thrombomodulin, and sICAM-1 elevations before and early after transplantation may be useful in predicting VOD in patients receiving sirolimus.
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