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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Engagement of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) by receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2) is insufficient for signal transduction.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Following activation, the cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) interacts with its adaptor protein receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2) to propagate immune signaling and initiate a proinflammatory immune response. This interaction is mediated by the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of both proteins. Polymorphisms in immune proteins can affect receptor function and predispose individuals to specific autoinflammatory disorders. In this report, we show that mutations in helix 2 of the CARD of NOD1 disrupted receptor function but did not interfere with RIP2 interaction. In particular, N43S, a rare polymorphism, resulted in receptor dysfunction despite retaining normal cellular localization, protein folding, and an ability to interact with RIP2. Mutation of Asn-43 resulted in an increased tendency to form dimers, which we propose is the source of this dysfunction. We also demonstrate that mutation of Lys-443 and Tyr-474 in RIP2 disrupted the interaction with NOD1. Mapping the key residues involved in the interaction between NOD1 and RIP2 to the known structures of CARD complexes revealed the likely involvement of both type I and type III interfaces in the NOD1·RIP2 complex. Overall we demonstrate that the NOD1-RIP2 signaling axis is more complex than previously assumed, that simple engagement of RIP2 is insufficient to mediate signaling, and that the interaction between NOD1 and RIP2 constitutes multiple CARD-CARD interfaces.
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Blau syndrome polymorphisms in NOD2 identify nucleotide hydrolysis and helical domain 1 as signalling regulators.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Understanding how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lead to disease at a molecular level provides a starting point for improved therapeutic intervention. SNPs in the innate immune receptor nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2) can cause the inflammatory disorders Blau Syndrome (BS) and early onset sarcoidosis (EOS) through receptor hyperactivation. Here, we show that these polymorphisms cluster into two primary locations: the ATP/Mg(2+)-binding site and helical domain 1. Polymorphisms in these two locations may consequently dysregulate ATP hydrolysis and NOD2 autoinhibition, respectively. Complementary mutations in NOD1 did not mirror the NOD2 phenotype, which indicates that NOD1 and NOD2 are activated and regulated by distinct methods.
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Requirement of JNK1 for endothelial cell injury in atherogenesis.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family regulates fundamental physiological processes including apoptosis and metabolism. Although JNK2 is known to promote foam cell formation during atherosclerosis, the potential role of JNK1 is uncertain. We examined the potential influence of JNK1 and its negative regulator, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), on endothelial cell (EC) injury and early lesion formation using hypercholesterolemic LDLR(-/-) mice.
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Interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 involves the NOD2 NACHT and the linker region between the NOD2 CARDs and NACHT domain.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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NOD2 activation by muramyl dipeptide causes a proinflammatory immune response in which the adaptor protein CARD9 works synergistically with NOD2 to drive p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling. To date the nature of the interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 remains undetermined. Here we show that this interaction is not mediated by the CARDs of NOD2 and CARD9 as previously suggested, but that NOD2 possesses two interaction sites for CARD9; one in the CARD-NACHT linker and one in the NACHT itself.
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Synergistic therapeutic vascular cytoprotection against complement-mediated injury induced via a PKC?-, AMPK-, and CREB-dependent pathway.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Endothelial injury and dysfunction precede accelerated arterial disease in allograft vasculopathy and systemic autoimmune diseases and involve pathogenic Abs and complement. Recent reports suggest that switching to rapamycin from calcineurin antagonists reduces posttransplant vasculopathy and prolongs survival following cardiac transplantion. The majority of these patients also receive statin therapy. We examined potential mechanisms underlying this protective response in human endothelial cells and identified synergy between rapamycin and atorvastatin. Mechanistically, atorvastatin and rapamycin activated a protein kinase C?, AMP-activated kinase, and CREB-dependent vasculoprotective pathway, which induced decay-accelerating factor (DAF) promoter activity via binding to the cAMP response element, mutation of which attenuated promoter activity. This response significantly increased endothelial cell surface DAF and enhanced protection against complement-mediated injury. Synergy with rapamycin was reproduced by simvastatin, whereas combining atorvastatin with cyclosporine or mycophenolate in place of rapamycin was ineffective. Importantly, synergy was reproduced in vivo, in which only atorvastatin and rapamycin therapy in combination was sufficient to induce DAF on murine aortic endothelium. We believe this pathway represents an important therapeutically inducible vasculoprotective mechanism for diseases mediated by pathogenic Abs and complement, including posttransplant vasculopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although our study focuses on the vascular endothelium, the findings are likely to be broadly applicable, given the diverse cellular expression of DAF.
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Sulforaphane pretreatment prevents systemic inflammation and renal injury in response to cardiopulmonary bypass.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Systemic inflammatory responses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for systemic inflammation in response to cardiopulmonary bypass are poorly understood.
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Cytoprotective signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells and macrophages-lessons for atherosclerosis.
Microcirculation
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the medium and large arteries driven in large part by the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins and other debris at sites rendered susceptible because of the geometry of the arterial tree. As lesions develop, they acquire a pathologic microcirculation that perpetuates lesion progression, both by providing a means for further monocyte and T-lymphocyte recruitment into the arterial wall and by the physical and chemical stresses caused by micro-hemorrhage. This review summarizes work performed in our department investigating the roles of signaling pathways, alone and in combination, that lead to specific programs of gene expression in the atherosclerotic environment. Focusing particularly on cytoprotective responses that might be enhanced therapeutically, the work has encompassed the anti-inflammatory effects of arterial laminar shear stress, mechanisms of induction of membrane inhibitors that prevent complement-mediated injury, homeostatic macrophage responses to hemorrhage, and the transcriptional mechanisms that control the stability, survival, and quiescence of endothelial monolayers. Lastly, while the field has been dominated by investigation into the mechanisms of DNA transcription, we consider the importance of parallel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for fine-tuning functional gene expression repertoires.
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5-AMP-activated protein kinase-activating transcription factor 1 cascade modulates human monocyte-derived macrophages to atheroprotective functions in response to heme or metformin.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is an important driver of the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, we characterized Mhem as a novel macrophage phenotype that limits the atherogenicity of IPH. Mhem are directed by activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), which is activated by phosphorylation. A better understanding of the counteratherogenic ATF1-Mhem pathway may facilitate antiatherosclerotic therapies.
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Cezanne regulates inflammatory responses to hypoxia in endothelial cells by targeting TRAF6 for deubiquitination.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Hypoxia followed by reoxygenation promotes inflammation by activating nuclear factor ?B transcription factors in endothelial cells (ECs). This process involves modification of the signaling intermediary tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 with polyubiquitin chains. Thus, cellular mechanisms that suppress tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 ubiquitination are potential therapeutic targets to reduce inflammation in hypoxic tissues.
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Haptoglobin Genotype-Dependent Anti-Inflammatory Signaling in CD163(+) Macrophages.
Int J Inflam
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Intraplaque hemorrhage causes adaptive remodelling of macrophages towards a protective phenotype specialized towards handling iron and lipid overload, denoted Mhem. The Mhem phenotype expresses elevated levels of hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, capable of endocytosing pro-oxidant free Hb complexed to acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). It is notable that individuals homozygous for the Hp 2 allele (a poorer antioxidant) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the Hp 1 allele. In this study, we examined whether scavenging of polymorphic Hp:Hb complexes differentially generated downstream anti-inflammatory signals in cultured human macrophages culminating in interleukin (IL)-10 secretion. We describe an anti-inflammatory signalling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activation upstream of Akt phosphorylation (pSer473Akt) and IL-10 secretion. The pathway is mediated specifically through CD163 and is blocked by anti-CD163 antibody or phagocytosis inhibitor. However, levels of pSer473Akt and IL-10 were significantly diminished when scavenging polymorphic Hp2-2:Hb complexes compared to Hp1-1:Hb complexes (P < 0.05). Impaired anti-inflammatory macrophage signaling through a CD163/pAkt/IL-10 axis may thus represent a possible Hp2-2 disease mechanism in atherosclerosis.
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Comparative Genomic and Sequence Analysis Provides Insight into the Molecular Functionality of NOD1 and NOD2.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Amino acids with functional or key structural roles display higher degrees of conservation through evolution. The comparative analysis of protein sequences from multiple species and/or between homologous proteins can be highly informative in the identification of key structural and functional residues. Residues which in turn provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of protein function. We have explored the genomic and amino acid conservation of the prototypic innate immune genes NOD1 and NOD2. NOD1 orthologs were found in all vertebrate species analyzed, whilst NOD2 was absent from the genomes of avian, reptilian and amphibian species. Evolutionary trace analysis was used to identify highly conserved regions of NOD1 and NOD2 across multiple species. Consistent with the known functions of NOD1 and NOD2 highly conserved patches were identified that matched the Walker A and B motifs and provided interaction surfaces for the adaptor protein RIP2. Other patches of high conservation reflect key structural functions as predicted by homology models. In addition, the pattern of residue conservation within the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of NOD1 and NOD2 is indicative of a conserved mechanism of ligand recognition involving the concave surface of the LRRs.
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Activating transcription factor 1 directs Mhem atheroprotective macrophages through coordinated iron handling and foam cell protection.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) drives atherosclerosis through the dual metabolic stresses of cholesterol-enriched erythrocyte membranes and pro-oxidant heme/iron. When clearing tissue hemorrhage, macrophages are typically seen storing either iron or lipid. We have recently defined hemorrhage-associated macrophages (HA-mac) as a plaque macrophage population that responds adaptively to IPH.
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Heme induces heme oxygenase 1 via Nrf2: role in the homeostatic macrophage response to intraplaque hemorrhage.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is an important progression event in advanced atherosclerosis, in large part because of the delivery of prooxidant hemoglobin in erythrocytes. We have previously defined a novel macrophage phenotype (hemorrhage-associated-mac) in human advanced plaques with IPH. These may be atheroprotective in view of raised heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), CD163, and interleukin-10 expression and suppressed oxidative stress.
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The alternative pathway is critical for pathogenic complement activation in endotoxin- and diet-induced atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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The early components of the classical and lectin complement pathways have been shown to protect low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (Ldlr(-/-)) from early atherogenesis. However, the role of the alternative pathway remained unknown, and that was investigated in this study.
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The transcription factor Erg inhibits vascular inflammation by repressing NF-kappaB activation and proinflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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To test whether ETS-related gene (Erg) inhibits tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-dependent endothelial activation and inflammation.
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Note-taking skills of middle school students with and without learning disabilities.
J Learn Disabil
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been reported on the problems that school-age students with LD encounter when recording notes during science lectures. Using a sample size of 90 middle school students, the performance of students with LD was compared to students with no learning disabilities (NLD). Results found that students with LD performed significantly worse than students with NLD in terms of the type and amount of notes recorded and test performance.
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Validation of carotid arterial wall volume measurement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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To validate cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) arterial wall volume measurement using whole arterial specimens ex vivo.
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Ultra-short echo time cardiovascular magnetic resonance of atherosclerotic carotid plaque.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Multi-contrast weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows detailed plaque characterisation and assessment of plaque vulnerability. The aim of this preliminary study was to show the potential of Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) subtraction MR in detecting calcification.
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c-Jun N-terminal kinase primes endothelial cells at atheroprone sites for apoptosis.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Atherosclerosis is a focal disease that occurs predominantly at branches and bends of the arterial tree. Endothelial cells (EC) at atherosusceptible sites are prone to injury, which can contribute to lesion formation, whereas EC at atheroprotected sites are resistant. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated constitutively in EC at atherosusceptible sites but is inactivated at atheroprotected sites by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). Here, we examined the effects of JNK activation on EC physiology at atherosusceptible sites.
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PPARdelta and PGC1alpha act cooperatively to induce haem oxygenase-1 and enhance vascular endothelial cell resistance to stress.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcriptional regulators. PPARdelta has an established role in metabolism, wound healing, and angiogenesis. However, little is known about its function in endothelial homeostasis. We investigated the role of PPARdelta and its co-activator, PPARgamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC1alpha), in vasculoprotection against oxidant-induced injury via induction of haem oxygenase-1.
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Decay-accelerating factor suppresses complement C3 activation and retards atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) is a membrane protein that regulates complement pathway activity at the level of C3. To test the hypothesis that DAF plays an essential role in limiting complement activation in the arterial wall and protecting from atherosclerosis, we crossed DAF gene targeted mice (daf-1(-/-)) with low-density lipoprotein-receptor deficient mice (Ldlr(-/-)). Daf-1(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice had more extensive en face Sudan IV staining of the thoracoabdominal aorta than Ldlr(-/-) mice, both following a 12-week period of low-fat diet or a high-fat diet. Aortic root lesions in daf-1(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice on a low-fat diet showed increased size and complexity. DAF deficiency increased deposition of C3d and C5b-9, indicating the importance of DAF for downstream complement regulation in the arterial wall. The acceleration of lesion development in the absence of DAF provides confirmation of the proinflammatory and proatherosclerotic potential of complement activation in the Ldlr(-/-) mouse model. Because upstream complement activation is potentially protective, this study underlines the importance of DAF in shielding the arterial wall from the atherogenic effects of complement.
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Immunoglobulin M is required for protection against atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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Immunoglobulin M (IgM) natural antibodies bind oxidatively-modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apoptotic cells and have been implicated as being important for protection against atherosclerosis. We have directly investigated the requirement for IgM by studying the effects of IgM deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice.
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Induction of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 by statins is enhanced in vascular endothelium exposed to laminar shear stress and impaired by disturbed flow.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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In addition to cholesterol-lowering properties, statins exhibit lipid-independent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory actions. However, high concentrations are typically required to induce these effects in vitro, raising questions concerning therapeutic relevance. We present evidence that endothelial cell sensitivity to statins depends upon shear stress. Using heme oxygenase-1 expression as a model, we demonstrate differential heme oxygenase-1 induction by atorvastatin in atheroresistant compared with atheroprone sites of the murine aorta. In vitro, exposure of human endothelial cells to laminar shear stress significantly reduced the statin concentration required to induce heme oxygenase-1 and protect against H(2)O(2)-mediated injury. Synergy was observed between laminar shear stress and atorvastatin, resulting in optimal expression of heme oxygenase-1 and resistance to oxidative stress, a response inhibited by heme oxygenase-1 small interfering RNA. Moreover, treatment of laminar shear stress-exposed endothelial cells resulted in a significant fall in intracellular cholesterol. Mechanistically, synergy required Akt phosphorylation, activation of Kruppel-like factor 2, NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), increased nitric-oxide synthase activity, and enhanced HO-1 mRNA stability. In contrast, heme oxygenase-1 induction by atorvastatin in endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory flow was markedly attenuated. We have identified a novel relationship between laminar shear stress and statins, demonstrating that atorvastatin-mediated heme oxygenase-1-dependent antioxidant effects are laminar shear stress-dependent, proving the principle that biomechanical signaling contributes significantly to endothelial responsiveness to pharmacological agents. Our findings suggest statin pleiotropy may be suboptimal at disturbed flow atherosusceptible sites, emphasizing the need for more specific therapeutic agents, such as those targeting Kruppel-like factor 2 or Nrf2.
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Myostatin reduces Akt/TORC1/p70S6K signaling, inhibiting myoblast differentiation and myotube size.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle size, previously shown to inhibit muscle cell differentiation. Myostatin requires both Smad2 and Smad3 downstream of the activin receptor II (ActRII)/activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptor complex. Other transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like molecules can also block differentiation, including TGF-beta(1), growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11), activins, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and BMP-7. Myostatin inhibits activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 protein synthesis pathway, which mediates both differentiation in myoblasts and hypertrophy in myotubes. Blockade of the Akt/mTOR pathway, using small interfering RNA to regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (RAPTOR), a component of TOR signaling complex 1 (TORC1), increases myostatin-induced phosphorylation of Smad2, establishing a myostatin signaling-amplification role for blockade of Akt. Blockade of RAPTOR also facilitates myostatins inhibition of muscle differentiation. Inhibition of TORC2, via rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR), is sufficient to inhibit differentiation on its own. Furthermore, myostatin decreases the diameter of postdifferentiated myotubes. However, rather than causing upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligases muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), previously shown to mediate skeletal muscle atrophy, myostatin decreases expression of these atrophy markers in differentiated myotubes, as well as other genes normally upregulated during differentiation. These findings demonstrate that myostatin signaling acts by blocking genes induced during differentiation, even in a myotube, as opposed to activating the distinct "atrophy program." In vivo, inhibition of myostatin increases muscle creatine kinase activity, coincident with an increase in muscle size, demonstrating that this in vitro differentiation measure is also upregulated in vivo.
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Coronary intraplaque hemorrhage evokes a novel atheroprotective macrophage phenotype.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Intraplaque hemorrhage accelerates atherosclerosis via oxidant stress and contributes to lesion development and destabilization. Normally, macrophages scavenge hemoglobin-haptoglobin (HbHp) complexes via CD163, and this process provokes the secretion of the anti-inflammatory atheroprotective cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HbHp complexes may drive monocyte differentiation to an atheroprotective phenotype. Examination of the macrophage phenotype in hemorrhaged atherosclerotic plaques revealed a novel hemorrhage-associated macrophage population (HA-mac), defined by high levels of CD163, but low levels of human leukocyte antigen-DR. HA-mac contained more iron, a pro-oxidant catalyst, but paradoxically had less oxidative injury, measured by 8-oxo-guanosine content. Differentiating monocytes with HbHp complexes reproduced the CD163(high) human leukocyte antigen-DR(low) HA-mac phenotype in vitro. These in vitro HA-mac cells cleared Hb more quickly, and consistently showed less hydrogen peroxide release, highly reactive oxygen species and oxidant stress, and increased survival. Differentiation to HA-mac was prevented by neutralizing IL-10 antibodies, indicating that IL-10 mediates an autocrine feedback mechanism in this system. Nonlinear dynamic modeling showed that an IL-10/CD163-positive feedback loop drove a discrete HA-mac lineage. Simulations further indicated an all-or-none switch to HA-mac at threshold levels of HbHp, and this conversion was experimentally verified. These data demonstrate the creation of a novel atheroprotective (HA-mac) macrophage subpopulation in response to intraplaque hemorrhage and raise the possibility that therapeutically reproducing this macrophage phenotype may be cardio-protective in cases of atherosclerosis.
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Protein kinase C? activity induces anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes via an ERK1/2- and NF-?B-dependent pathway to enhance vascular protection.
Biochem. J.
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Vascular endothelial injury predisposes to endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. We have investigated the hypothesis that PKC? (protein kinase C?) is an important upstream regulator of cytoprotective pathways in vascular ECs (endothelial cells). Depletion of PKC? in human ECs reduced expression of the cytoprotective genes A1, A20 and Bcl-2. Conversely, constitutively active PKC? expressed in human ECs increased mRNA and protein levels of these cytoprotective genes, with up-regulation dependent upon ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation. Furthermore, inhibition of NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) by the pharmacological antagonist BAY 11-7085 or an I?B (inhibitor of NF-?B) SuperRepressor prevented cytoprotective gene induction. Activation of PKC? enhanced p65 NF-?B DNA binding and elevated NF-?B transcriptional activity. Importantly, although NF-?B activation by PKC? induced cytoprotective genes, it did not up-regulate pro-inflammatory NF-?B targets [E-selectin, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1)]. Indeed, PKC? exhibited cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions, including inhibition of TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?)-induced JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) phosphorylation and ICAM-1 up-regulation, a response attenuated by depletion of A20. Thus we conclude that PKC? plays an essential role in endothelial homoeostasis, acting as an upstream co-ordinator of gene expression through activation of ERK1/2, inhibition of JNK and diversion of the NF-?B pathway to cytoprotective gene induction, and propose that PKC? represents a novel therapeutic target for endothelial dysfunction.
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Heme and haemoglobin direct macrophage Mhem phenotype and counter foam cell formation in areas of intraplaque haemorrhage.
Curr. Opin. Lipidol.
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Several studies have recently shown that haemoglobin drives a novel macrophage subset that is protected from foam cell formation.
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Solid-phase immunoglobulins IgG and IgM activate macrophages with solid-phase IgM acting via a novel scavenger receptor a pathway.
Am. J. Pathol.
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IgG may accelerate atherosclerosis via ligation of proinflammatory Fc? receptors; however, IgM is unable to ligate Fc?R and is often considered vasculoprotective. IgM aggravates ischemia-reperfusion injury, and solid-phase deposits of pure IgM, as seen with IgM-secreting neoplasms, are well known clinically to provoke vascular inflammation. We therefore examined the molecular mechanisms by which immunoglobulins can aggravate vascular inflammation, such as in atherosclerosis. We compared the ability of fluid- and solid-phase immunoglobulins to activate macrophages. Solid-phase immunoglobulins initiated prothrombotic and proinflammatory functions in human macrophages, including NF-?B p65 activation, H(2)O(2) secretion, macrophage-induced apoptosis, and tissue factor expression. Responses to solid-phase IgG (but not to IgM) were blocked by neutralizing antibodies to CD16 (Fc?RIII), consistent with its known role. Macrophages from mice deficient in macrophage scavenger receptor A (SR-A; CD204) had absent IgM binding and no activation by solid-phase IgM. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SR-A in human macrophages suppressed activation by solid-phase IgM. IgM binding to SR-A was demonstrated by both co-immunoprecipitation studies and the binding of fluorescently labeled IgM to SR-A-transfected cells. Immunoglobulins on solid-phase particles around macrophages were found in human plaques, increased in ruptured plaques compared with stable ones. These observations indicate that solid-phase IgM and IgG can activate macrophages and destabilize vulnerable plaques. Solid-phase IgM activates macrophages via a novel SR-A pathway.
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Pathogen sensing by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) is mediated by direct binding to muramyl dipeptide and ATP.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2/Card15) is an intracellular protein that is involved in the recognition of bacterial cell wall-derived muramyl dipeptide. Mutations in the gene encoding NOD2 are associated with inherited inflammatory disorders, including Crohn disease and Blau syndrome. NOD2 is a member of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein gene (NLR) family. Nucleotide binding is thought to play a critical role in signaling by NLR family members. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying signal transduction by these proteins remain largely unknown. Mutations in the nucleotide-binding domain of NOD2 have been shown to alter its signal transduction properties in response to muramyl dipeptide in cellular assays. Using purified recombinant protein, we now demonstrate that NOD2 binds and hydrolyzes ATP. Additionally, we have found that the purified recombinant protein is able to bind directly to muramyl dipeptide and can associate with known NOD2-interacting proteins in vitro. Binding of NOD2 to muramyl dipeptide and homo-oligomerization of NOD2 are enhanced by ATP binding, suggesting a model of the molecular mechanism for signal transduction that involves binding of nucleotide followed by binding of muramyl dipeptide and oligomerization of NOD2 into a signaling complex. These findings set the stage for further studies into the molecular mechanisms that underlie detection of muramyl dipeptide and assembly of NOD2-containing signaling complexes.
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Computational analysis predicts the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus tegument protein ORF63 to be alpha helical.
Proteins
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The innate immune response provides our first line of defence against infection. Over the course of evolution, pathogens have evolved numerous strategies to either avoid activating or to limit the effectiveness of the innate immune system. The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) contains tegument proteins in the virion that contribute to immune evasion and aid the establishment of viral infection. For example, the KSHV tegument protein ORF63 modulates inflammasome activation to inhibit the innate immune response against the virus. Understanding the likely structure of proteins involved in immune evasion enables potential mechanisms of action to be proposed. To understand more fully how ORF63 modulates the innate immune system we have utilized widely available bioinformatics tools to analyze the primary protein sequence of ORF63 and to predict its secondary and tertiary structure. We found that ORF63 is predicted to be almost entirely alpha-helical and may possess similarity to HEAT repeat containing proteins. Consequently, ORF63 is unlikely to be a viral homolog of the NLR protein family. ORF63 may inhibit the innate immune response by flexibly interacting with its target protein and inhibiting the recruitment of protein co-factors and/or conformational changes required for immune signaling.
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Model IgG monoclonal autoantibody-anti-idiotype pair for dissecting the humoral immune response to oxidized low density lipoprotein.
Hybridoma (Larchmt)
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Increasing evidence implicates IgG autoantibodies against oxidized forms of low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic arterial disease. However, insufficient knowledge of their structure and function is a key gap. Using an elderly LDL receptor-deficient atherosclerotic mouse, we isolated a novel IgG3k against oxLDL (designated MAb LO1). LO1 reacts with copper-oxidized LDL, but minimally with native LDL. Further analysis showed that MAb LO1 also reacts in vitro with malondialdehyde-conjugated LDL (MDA-LDL), a known key epitope in copper-oxidized LDL preparations. By screening a phage library expressing single chain variable region antibodies (scFv), we selected an anti-idiotype scFv (designated H3) that neutralizes MAb LO1 binding to MDA-LDL. Amino acid substitutions between H3 and an irrelevant control scFv C12 showed that residues in the H3 CDRH2, CDRH3, and CDRL2 are all critical for MAb LO1 binding, consistent with a conformational epitope on H3 involving both heavy and light chains. Comparison of amino acids in H3 CDRH2 and CDRL2 with apoB, the major LDL protein, showed homologous sequences, suggesting H3 has structural similarities to the MAb LO1 binding site on MDA-LDL. Immunocytochemical staining showed that MAb LO1 binds epitopes in mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions. The MAb LO1-H3 combination therefore provides a very promising model for analyzing the structure and function of an individual IgG autoantibody in relation to atherosclerosis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.