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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rapid diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis by use of lateral flow assay on cerebrospinal fluid samples: influence of the high-dose "hook" effect.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis is the most frequent cause of meningitis and a major cause of mortality in HIV-infected adults in Africa. This study evaluated the performance of the lateral flow assay (LFA) on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis against that of existing diagnostic tests. LFA performed on 465 undiluted CSF samples had a sensitivity of 91%. When the LFA was paired with Gram staining, a sensitivity of 100% was achieved after implementation of a dilution step for samples with negative LFA results and the presence of yeasts on microscopy. Microscopy is essential for preventing the reporting of false-negative results due to the high-dose "hook" effect.
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Very low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are not associated with immunologic changes or clinical outcome in South African patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Vitamin D deficiency is associated with impaired immune responses and increased susceptibility to a number of intracellular pathogens in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is not known whether such an association exists with Cryptococcus neoformans.
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AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.
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Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality globally. High fungal burden in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis and poor fungal clearance during treatment are recognized adverse prognostic markers; however, the underlying pathogenic factors that drive these clinical manifestations are incompletely understood. We profiled a large set of clinical isolates for established cryptococcal virulence traits to evaluate the contribution of C. neoformans phenotypic diversity to clinical presentation and outcome in human cryptococcosis.
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Determinants of Mortality in a Combined Cohort of 501 Patients With HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: Implications for Improving Outcomes.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Background.?Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of death in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Identifying factors associated with mortality informs strategies to improve outcomes. Methods.?Five hundred one patients with HIV-associated CM were followed prospectively for 10 weeks during trials in Thailand, Uganda, Malawi, and South Africa. South African patients (n = 266) were followed for 1 year. Similar inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied at all sites. Logistic regression identified baseline variables independently associated with mortality. Results.?Mortality was 17% at 2 weeks and 34% at 10 weeks. Altered mental status (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-5.9), high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden (OR, 1.4 per log10 colony-forming units/mL increase; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8), older age (>50 years; OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4-11.1), high peripheral white blood cell count (>10 × 10(9) cells/L; OR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.5-30.2), fluconazole-based induction treatment, and slow clearance of CSF infection were independently associated with 2-week mortality. Low body weight, anemia (hemoglobin <7.5 g/dL), and low CSF opening pressure were independently associated with mortality at 10 weeks in addition to altered mental status, high fungal burden, high peripheral white cell count, and older age. In those followed for 1 year, overall mortality was 41%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurred in 13% of patients and was associated with 2-week CSF fungal burden (P = .007), but not with time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions.?CSF fungal burden, altered mental status, and rate of clearance of infection predict acute mortality in HIV-associated CM. The results suggest that earlier diagnosis, more rapidly fungicidal amphotericin-based regimens, and prompt immune reconstitution with ART are priorities for improving outcomes.
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Cryptococcal antigen prevalence in HIV-infected Tanzanians: a cross-sectional study and evaluation of a point-of-care lateral flow assay.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and pre-emptive antifungal treatment for those testing positive could prevent many cases of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). To investigate whether CRAG screening would be feasible in Tanzania, we conducted a cross-sectional study measuring CRAG prevalence in ART clinic patients and comparing the novel lateral flow assay (LFA) with the cryptococcal latex agglutination (LA) test.
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Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The epidemiology and pathogenesis of, and risk factors for, cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) are reviewed with an emphasis on how new insights inform a rational management approach and prevention strategies.
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Clinical aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV infection.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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HIV infection profoundly impairs the immune mechanisms needed to control and clear Leishmania infection, and outcomes in patients with HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis are poor. This review summarizes recent work describing the epidemiology, presentation and outcomes of HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis and discusses advances in diagnosis and management.
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Acute schistosomiasis in travelers: 14 years experience at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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We report 79 cases of acute schistosomiasis. Most of these cases were young, male travelers who acquired their infection in Lake Malawi. Twelve had a normal eosinophil count at presentation and 11 had negative serology, although two had neither eosinophilia nor positive serology when first seen. Acute schistosomiasis should be considered in any febrile traveler with a history of fresh water exposure in an endemic area once malaria has been excluded.
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The phenotype of the Cryptococcus-specific CD4+ memory T-cell response is associated with disease severity and outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Correlates of immune protection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis are poorly defined. A clearer understanding of these immune responses is essential to inform rational development of immunotherapies.
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Cost effectiveness of cryptococcal antigen screening as a strategy to prevent HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM)-related mortality may be prevented by screening patients for sub-clinical cryptococcal antigenaemia (CRAG) at antiretroviral-therapy (ART) initiation and pre-emptively treating those testing positive. Prior to programmatic implementation in South Africa we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative preventive strategies for CM.
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Comparison of the early fungicidal activity of high-dose fluconazole, voriconazole, and flucytosine as second-line drugs given in combination with amphotericin B for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is associated with an estimated 600 000 deaths worldwide per year. Current standard initial therapy consists of amphotericin B (AmB) plus flucytosine (5-FC), but 5-FC remains largely unavailable in Asia and Africa. Alternative, more widely available, and/or more effective antifungal combination treatment regimens are urgently needed.
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Evaluation of a novel point-of-care cryptococcal antigen test on serum, plasma, and urine from patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Many deaths from cryptococcal meningitis (CM) may be preventable through early diagnosis and treatment. An inexpensive point-of-care (POC) assay for use with urine or a drop of blood would facilitate early diagnosis of cryptococcal infection in resource-limited settings. We compared cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) concentrations in plasma, serum, and urine from patients with CM, using an antigen-capture assay for glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and a novel POC dipstick test.
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Short course amphotericin B with high dose fluconazole for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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To define more rapidly effective initial antifungal regimens sustainable in resource-constrained settings.
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Mapping the epistatic network underlying murine reproductive fatpad variation.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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Genome-wide mapping analyses are now commonplace in many species and several networks of interacting loci have been reported. However, relatively few details regarding epistatic interactions and their contribution to complex trait variation in multicellular organisms are available and the identification of positional candidate loci for epistatic QTL (epiQTL) is hampered, especially in mammals, by the limited genetic resolution inherent in most study designs. Here we further investigate the genetic architecture of reproductive fatpad weight in mice using the F(10) generation of the LG,SM advanced intercross (AI) line. We apply multiple mapping techniques including a single-locus model, locus-specific composite interval mapping (CIM), and tests for multiple QTL per chromosome to the 12 chromosomes known to harbor single-locus QTL (slQTL) affecting obesity in this cross. We also perform a genome-wide scan for pairwise epistasis. Using this combination of approaches we detect 199 peaks spread over all 19 autosomes, which potentially contribute to trait variation including all eight original F(2) loci (Adip1-8), novel slQTL peaks on chromosomes 7 and 9, and several novel epistatic loci. Extensive epistasis is confirmed involving both slQTL confidence intervals (C.I.) as well as regions that show no significant additive or dominance effects. These results provide important new insights into mapping complex genetic architectures and the role of epistasis in complex trait variation.
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Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa: the role of inadequate secondary prophylaxis.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Cryptococcal meningitis is the commonest cause of adult meningitis in Southern Africa. A sizeable proportion of this disease burden is thought to be due to symptomatic relapse of previously treated infection. We carried out a study to examine the contribution of inadequate secondary fluconazole prophylaxis to symptomatic relapses of cryptococcal meningitis.
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Calpain-10 is a component of the obesity-related quantitative trait locus Adip1.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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We previously mapped Adip1, an obesity quantitative trait locus (QTL), to the central portion of murine chromosome 1 containing the calpain-10 (Capn10) gene. Human studies have associated calpain-10 (CAPN10) variants with type 2 diabetes and various metabolic traits. We performed a quantitative hybrid complementation test (QHCT) to determine whether differences attributed to Adip1 are the result of variant Capn10 alleles in LG/J and SM/J mice. We crossed LG/J and SM/J to wild-type (C57BL/6J) and Capn10 knockout (Capn10(-/-)) mice to form four F(1) hybrid groups: LG/J by wild-type, LG/J by Capn10(-/-), SM/J by wild-type, and SM/J by Capn10(-/-). We performed a two-way ANOVA with the experimental strain, tester strain, and their interaction as the factors. Significant interaction indicates a quantitative failure to complement. We found failure to complement for fat, organ, and body weights, and leptin, female free fatty acid, and triglyceride levels. Capn10(-/-) resulted in heavier weights and higher serum levels in LG/J crosses but not in SM/J crosses. For glucose tolerance and insulin response tests, the Capn10(-/-) allele resulted in lower glucose levels in crosses with SM/J but had no effect in the LG/J crosses. Differences between the LG/J and SM/J Capn10 alleles are the likely source of some of the QTL effects mapped to Adip1 in the LG/J-by-SM/J cross. Capn10 plays an important role in regulating obesity and diabetes in mice.
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Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town.
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Pulmonary cryptococcosis misdiagnosed as smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis with fatal consequences.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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HIV-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis is under diagnosed, and may progress to fatal meningoencephalitis. We present a case of HIV-associated pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection, initially mis-diagnosed as smear-negative pulmonary TB, which progressed to fatal cryptococcal meningitis. Autopsy series suggest that pulmonary cryptococcosis is common in African AIDS patients, and, due to limited diagnostic capacity, often mis-diagnosed as smear negative TB. Serum cryptococcal antigen testing may facilitate diagnosis in such cases.
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Fine-mapping of obesity-related quantitative trait loci in an F9/10 advanced intercross line.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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Obesity develops in response to a combination of environmental effects and multiple genes of small effect. Although there has been significant progress in characterizing genes in many pathways contributing to metabolic disease, knowledge about the relationships of these genes to each other and their joint effects upon obesity lags behind. The LG,SM advanced intercross line (AIL) model of obesity has been used to characterize over 70 loci involved in fatpad weight, body weight, and organ weights. Each of these quantitative trait loci (QTLs) encompasses large regions of the genome and require fine-mapping to isolate causative sequence changes and possible mechanisms of action as indicated by the genetic architecture. In this study we fine-map QTLs first identified in the F(2) and F(2/3) populations in the combined F(9/10) advanced intercross generations. We observed significantly narrowed QTL confidence regions, identified many single QTL that resolve into multiple QTL peaks, and identified new QTLs that may have been previously masked due to opposite gene effects at closely linked loci. We also present further characterization of the pleiotropic and epistatic interactions underlying these obesity-related traits.
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Independent association between rate of clearance of infection and clinical outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: analysis of a combined cohort of 262 patients.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Progress in therapy for cryptococcal meningitis has been slow because of the lack of a suitable marker of treatment response. Previously, we demonstrated the statistical power of a novel endpoint, the rate of clearance of infection, based on serial quantitative cultures of cerebrospinal fluid, to differentiate the fungicidal activity of alternative antifungal drug regimens. We hypothesized that the rate of clearance of infection should also be a clinically meaningful endpoint.
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Replication of long-bone length QTL in the F9-F10 LG,SM advanced intercross.
Mamm. Genome
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping techniques are frequently used to identify genomic regions associated with variation in phenotypes of interest. However, the F(2) intercross and congenic strain populations usually employed have limited genetic resolution resulting in relatively large confidence intervals that greatly inhibit functional confirmation of statistical results. Here we use the increased resolution of the combined F(9) and F(10) generations (n = 1455) of the LG,SM advanced intercross to fine-map previously identified QTL associated with the lengths of the humerus, ulna, femur, and tibia. We detected 81 QTL affecting long-bone lengths. Of these, 49 were previously identified in the combined F(2)-F(3) population of this intercross, while 32 represent novel contributors to trait variance. Pleiotropy analysis suggests that most QTL affect three to four long bones or serially homologous limb segments. We also identified 72 epistatic interactions involving 38 QTL and 88 novel regions. This analysis shows that using later generations of an advanced intercross greatly facilitates fine-mapping of confidence intervals, resolving three F(2)-F(3) QTL into multiple linked loci and narrowing confidence intervals of other loci, as well as allowing identification of additional QTL. Further characterization of the biological bases of these QTL will help provide a better understanding of the genetics of small variations in long-bone length.
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Screening for cryptococcal antigenemia in patients accessing an antiretroviral treatment program in South Africa.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and contributes substantially to the high early mortality in antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in low-resource settings. Screening for cryptococcal antigen in patients who enroll in ART programs may identify those at risk of cryptococcal meningitis and permit targeted use of preemptive therapy.
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Multiple-infection and recombination in HIV-1 within a longitudinal cohort of women.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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Recombination between strains of HIV-1 only occurs in individuals with multiple infections, and the incidence of recombinant forms implies that multiple infection is common. Most direct studies indicate that multiple infection is rare. We determined the rate of multiple infection in a longitudinal study of 58 HIV-1 positive participants from The Womens Interagency HIV Study with a richer sampling design than previous direct studies, and we investigated the role of recombination and sampling design on estimating the multiple infection rate.
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Cryptococcal antigen screening and preemptive therapy in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: a proposed algorithm for clinical implementation.
J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
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HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is estimated to cause over half a million deaths annually in Africa. Many of these deaths are preventable. Screening patients for subclinical cryptococcal infection at the time of entry into antiretroviral therapy programs using cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) immunoassays is highly effective in identifying patients at risk of developing CM, allowing these patients to then be targeted with "preemptive" therapy to prevent the development of severe disease. Such CRAG screening programs are currently being implemented in a number of countries; however, a strong evidence base and clear guidance on how to manage patients with subclinical cryptococcal infection identified by screening are lacking. We review the available evidence and propose a treatment algorithm for the management of patients with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia.
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Patterns of ancestry, signatures of natural selection, and genetic association with stature in Western African pygmies.
PLoS Genet.
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African Pygmy groups show a distinctive pattern of phenotypic variation, including short stature, which is thought to reflect past adaptation to a tropical environment. Here, we analyze Illumina 1M SNP array data in three Western Pygmy populations from Cameroon and three neighboring Bantu-speaking agricultural populations with whom they have admixed. We infer genome-wide ancestry, scan for signals of positive selection, and perform targeted genetic association with measured height variation. We identify multiple regions throughout the genome that may have played a role in adaptive evolution, many of which contain loci with roles in growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, as well as immunity and neuroendocrine signaling involved in reproduction and metabolism. The most striking results are found on chromosome 3, which harbors a cluster of selection and association signals between approximately 45 and 60 Mb. This region also includes the positional candidate genes DOCK3, which is known to be associated with height variation in Europeans, and CISH, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling known to inhibit growth hormone-stimulated STAT5 signaling. Finally, pathway analysis for genes near the strongest signals of association with height indicates enrichment for loci involved in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling.
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A phase II randomized controlled trial adding oral flucytosine to high-dose fluconazole, with short-course amphotericin B, for cryptococcal meningitis.
AIDS
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Cryptococcal meningitis in Africa is associated with up to 70% mortality at 3 months and 500?000 deaths annually. We examined strategies to improve on fluconazole (FLU) monotherapy: addition of flucytosine (5-FC) and/or addition of short-course amphotericin B (AmB).
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Adjunctive interferon-? immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized controlled trial.
AIDS
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Interferon-gamma (IFN?) is of key importance in the immune response to Cryptococcus neoformans. Mortality related to cryptococcal meningitis remains high, and novel treatment strategies are needed. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether addition of IFN? to standard therapy increased the rate of clearance of cryptococcal infection in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
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Genetic adaptation to high altitude in the Ethiopian highlands.
Genome Biol.
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Genomic analysis of high-altitude populations residing in the Andes and Tibet has revealed several candidate loci for involvement in high-altitude adaptation, a subset of which have also been shown to be associated with hemoglobin levels, including EPAS1, EGLN1, and PPARA, which play a role in the HIF-1 pathway. Here, we have extended this work to high- and low-altitude populations living in Ethiopia, for which we have measured hemoglobin levels. We genotyped the Illumina 1M SNP array and employed several genome-wide scans for selection and targeted association with hemoglobin levels to identify genes that play a role in adaptation to high altitude.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.