JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Update on colon cancer screening: recent advances and observations in colorectal cancer screening.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There have been many recent advances and observations regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. New CRC surveillance guidelines have been published to help endoscopists with the management of important clinical issues such as serrated polyps. There have been several important large studies examining the impact of endoscopic process measures such as bowel prep, withdrawal time, and adenoma detection rate on CRC screening. In addition, there have been technical advances in CT colonography including the development of exams that do not require a bowel preparation. Other new technology such as colon capsule endoscopy may aid endoscopists in the challenge of completing the evaluation of the colon in those patients with an incomplete colonoscopy. Finally, there have been large studies which examine the performance characteristics of the so-called non-invasive CRC screening tests such as fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and fecal DNA.
Related JoVE Video
Complete endovascular debranching of the aortic arch: A report of two cases.
Vascular
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients suffering from aortic arch aneurysms continue to encounter few treatment options. Because of co-morbidities, most are deemed to not be open surgical candidates. The two cases presented here demonstrate a novel endovascular approach in the care of an arch aneurysm complicated by dissection. Even though final graft configurations differed slightly between the two cases, all three great vessels were successfully de-branched through the combination of standard endovascular aneurysm repair techniques and modifications to off-the-shelf devices. Aortic flow was compartmentalized in the ascending aorta at or near the level of the sinotubular junction. This was done with a physician-assembled endografts. One of these lumens was dedicated to the descending aorta, while the other was further divided into three channels used to stent the great vessels. Completion angiography demonstrated patency in the arch, great vessels, and descending aorta. No endoleaks have been reported. Although data is limited, this approach appears promising.
Related JoVE Video
Total Body Weight Loss of ?10 % Is Associated with Improved Hepatic Fibrosis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Given the rising epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is now the most common cause of liver disease in the developed world. Effective treatment for NASH, either to reverse or prevent the progression of hepatic fibrosis, is currently lacking.
Related JoVE Video
Pathogenesis and Management of Serrated Polyps: Current Status and Future Directions.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperplastic or serrated polyps were once believed to have little to no clinical significance. A subset of these polyps are now considered to be precursors to colorectal cancers (CRC) in the serrated pathway that may account for at least 15% of all tumors. The serrated pathway is distinct from the two other CRC pathways and involves an epigenetic hypermethylation mechanism of CpG islands within promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. This process results in the formation of CpG island methylator phenotype tumors. Serrated polyps are divided into hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). The SSA/P and the TSA have the potential for dysplasia and subsequent malignant transformation. The SSA/Ps are more common and are more likely to be flat than TSAs. Their flat morphology may make them difficult to detect and thus explain the variation in detection rates among endoscopists. Challenges for endoscopists also include the difficulty in pathological interpretation as well surveillance of these lesions. Furthermore, serrated polyps may be inadequately resected by endoscopists. Thus, it is not surprising that the serrated pathway has been linked with interval cancers. This review will provide the physician or clinician with the knowledge to manage patients with serrated polyps.
Related JoVE Video
Editorial: constipation and colorectal cancer risk: a continuing conundrum.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are conflicting data regarding the association between bowel movement frequency, constipation, and colorectal cancer (CRC). In this issue, Citronberg et al. present data from a large prospective study that was designed to examine this issue. In addition to examining bowel habits, these authors included information about the participants' laxative use, distinguishing between fiber and non-fiber-based laxatives. The investigators also collected data with respect to CRC risk factors including demographics, family history, lower endoscopy exposure, smoking, medication use, and detailed dietary information. The results demonstrated no relationship between bowel movement frequency or constipation and CRC. The authors also observed an increased CRC risk in patients who were in either the low or high non-fiber laxative use groups as compared with individuals who never used these agents (low risk: hazard ratio (HR)=1.49; and high risk: HR=1.43; Ptrend=0.05). Conversely, there was a statistically significant lower risk for those patients who reported a high use of fiber laxatives (HR=0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.95) as compared with the nonuse group. These data have implications for physicians who treat patients with constipation.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of Water Hardness on Silver Ion and Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Toxicity Toward Nitrosomonas europaea.
Environ. Eng. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the influence of water hardness (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) on the fate and toxicity of 20?nm citrate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Ag(+) toward Nitrosomonas europaea, a model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium. Nitrification inhibition of N. europaea by 1?ppm AgNPs and 0.5?ppm Ag(+) was reduced from 80% and 83%, respectively, in the absence of Mg(2+) to 2% and 33%, respectively, in the presence of 730??M Mg(2+). Introduction of Mg(2+) resulted in the rapid aggregation of the AgNP suspensions and reduced the 3?h Ag(+) dissolution rates from 30%, in the absence of Mg(2+), to 9%, in the presence of 730??M Mg(2+). Reduced AgNP dissolution rates resulted in decreased concentrations of silver that were found adsorbed to N. europaea cells. Increasing AgNP concentrations in the presence of Mg(2+) increased the observed inhibition of nitrification, but was always less than what was observed in the absence of Mg(2+). The presence of Mg(2+) also reduced the adsorption of Ag(+) to cells, possibly due to multiple mechanisms, including a reduction in the negative surface charge of the N. europaea membrane and a competition between Mg(2+) and Ag(+) for membrane binding sites and transport into the cells. Ca(2+) demonstrated similar protection mechanisms, as Ag(+) toxicity was reduced and AgNP suspensions aggregated and decreased their dissolution rates. These results indicate that the toxicity of Ag(+) and AgNPs to nitrifying bacteria in wastewater treatment would be less pronounced in systems with hard water.
Related JoVE Video
Second harmonic generation imaging distinguishes both high-grade dysplasia and cancer from normal colonic mucosa.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Second harmonic generation (SHG) is a novel imaging technology that could provide optical biopsy during endoscopy with advantages over current technology. SHG has the unique ability to evaluate the amount of extracellular matrix collagen protein and its alignment.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of fair bowel preparation quality on adenoma and serrated polyp detection: data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry by using a standardized preparation-quality rating.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of colon preparation quality on adenoma detection rates (ADRs) is unclear, partly because of lack of uniform colon preparation ratings in prior studies. The New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry collects detailed data from colonoscopies statewide, by using a uniform preparation quality scale after the endoscopist has cleaned the mucosa.
Related JoVE Video
Is it time for preemptive drug treatment of asymptomatic (smoldering) multiple myeloma?
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asymptomatic (smoldering) multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous plasma cell proliferative disorder with a variable rate of progression to active multiple myeloma or related disorders. Hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, bone lesions or recurrent bacterial infections characterize active multiple myeloma. Some patients with asymptomatic myeloma develop active disease rapidly, and others can stay asymptomatic for many years. Those who are likely to progress within the first 2 years of diagnosis have been categorized as having high-risk disease. The availability of novel agents in the treatment of active multiple myeloma and our better understanding of the heterogeneity of asymptomatic multiple myeloma have spurred interest in the early treatment of these patients. We have reviewed the current proposed definitions of high-risk asymptomatic multiple myeloma, the concerns about future therapy in view of the transient nature, remissions and toxicities of the therapies, and the eventual relapses that characterize this incurable disease.
Related JoVE Video
Canine epidermal neural crest stem cells: characterization and potential as therapy candidate for a large animal model of spinal cord injury.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The discovery of multipotent neural crest-derived stem cells, named epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSC), that persist postnatally in an easy-to-access location-the bulge of hair follicles-opens a spectrum of novel opportunities for patient-specific therapies. We present a detailed characterization of canine EPI-NCSC (cEPI-NCSC) from multiple dog breeds and protocols for their isolation and ex vivo expansion. Furthermore, we provide novel tools for research in canines, which currently are still scarce. In analogy to human and mouse EPI-NCSC, the neural crest origin of cEPI-NCSC is shown by their expression of the neural crest stem cell molecular signature and other neural crest-characteristic genes. Similar to human EPI-NCSC, cEPI-NCSC also expressed pluripotency genes. We demonstrated that cEPI-NCSC can generate all major neural crest derivatives. In vitro clonal analyses established multipotency and self-renewal ability of cEPI-NCSC, establishing cEPI-NCSC as multipotent somatic stem cells. A critical analysis of the literature on canine spinal cord injury (SCI) showed the need for novel treatments and suggested that cEPI-NCSC represent viable candidates for cell-based therapies in dog SCI, particularly for chondrodystrophic dogs. This notion is supported by the close ontological relationship between neural crest stem cells and spinal cord stem cells. Thus, cEPI-NCSC promise to offer not only a potential treatment for canines but also an attractive and realistic large animal model for human SCI. Taken together, we provide the groundwork for the development of a novel cell-based therapy for a condition with extremely poor prognosis and no available effective treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Serrated and adenomatous polyp detection increases with longer withdrawal time: results from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Detection and removal of adenomas and clinically significant serrated polyps (CSSPs) is critical to the effectiveness of colonoscopy in preventing colorectal cancer. Although longer withdrawal time has been found to increase polyp detection, this association and the use of withdrawal time as a quality indicator remains controversial. Few studies have reported on withdrawal time and serrated polyp detection. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry, we examined how an endoscopist's withdrawal time in normal colonoscopies affects adenoma and serrated polyp detection.
Related JoVE Video
miRNA Temporal Analyzer (mirnaTA): a bioinformatics tool for identifying differentially expressed microRNAs in temporal studies using normal quantile transformation.
Gigascience
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the biological roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) is a an active area of research that has produced a surge of publications in PubMed, particularly in cancer research. Along with this increasing interest, many open-source bioinformatics tools to identify existing and/or discover novel miRNAs in next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads become available. While miRNA identification and discovery tools are significantly improved, the development of miRNA differential expression analysis tools, especially in temporal studies, remains substantially challenging. Further, the installation of currently available software is non-trivial and steps of testing with example datasets, trying with one's own dataset, and interpreting the results require notable expertise and time. Subsequently, there is a strong need for a tool that allows scientists to normalize raw data, perform statistical analyses, and provide intuitive results without having to invest significant efforts.
Related JoVE Video
The organization and description of science archives in America.
Isis
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The creation of science archives, the historical study of modern science, and major changes in archival practice roughly coincided in the 1950s and 1960s. This has allowed science archives to respond to contemporary issues in the history of science. It has also allowed them to develop as an integral part of the revolution in archival practice since that time, adopting international archival standards that make science archives more accessible to researchers. We are now on the cusp of new technologies and approaches that promise to make a sizable number of collections available online for the first time. This essay describes the development of modern archival principles and practices and discusses the impact they are having on science collections.
Related JoVE Video
Stem cell transplantation in the context of HIV - how can we cure HIV infection?
Expert Rev Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
All HIV target cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. More than two decades ago, a hypothesis was postulated that a cure for HIV may be possible by performing a transplant with HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem cells that would allow for an HIV-resistant immune system to arise. HIV-resistant stem cells could be generated by genetically modifying them with gene therapy vectors transferring anti-HIV genes. First attempts of stem cell gene therapy for HIV were carried out in the USA in the 1990s demonstrating safety, but also little efficacy at that time. The first demonstration that the postulated hypothesis was correct was the cure of an HIV-infected individual in Berlin in 2009 who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant from a donor who lacked the CCR5 chemokine receptor, a naturally arising mutation rendering HIV target cells resistant to infection with macrophage tropic strains of HIV. In 2013, reports were published about a possible cure of HIV-infected individuals who received allogeneic bone marrow transplants with cells not resistant to HIV. We will review these stem cell transplant procedures and discuss their utility to provide a cure for HIV infection, including efficacious future stem cell gene therapy applications.
Related JoVE Video
Serrated polyps: clinical implications and future directions.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serrated polyps were once thought to have no clinical implications with regards to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Over the past several years, published data have enabled clinicians to develop a better understanding of these lesions. The serrated pathway associated with these lesions involves an epigenetic mechanism characterized by abnormal hypermethylation of CpG islands located in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. It is often associated with BRAF mutations and may account for 15-35% of all CRC. This pathway may also play a major role in proximal neoplasia and missed cancer. There are three distinct subtypes of serrated neoplasia; hyperplastic (70% of all serrated polyps), sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) (25%) and traditional serrated adenoma (<2%). The last two forms are considered to be precursors for CRC. SSA/P are associated with synchronous CRC especially if the polyps are large (?1 cm), multiple, or if they are in the proximal colon. Lesions containing serrated neoplasia are usually flat or sessile, may be large, and occasionally have a mucous cap. Serrated lesions provide many challenges for the clinician and may be difficult to detect and completely remove. Furthermore, pathologists may misclassify SSA/P as HP. For the first time, the Multi-Society Task Force guidelines for colorectal polyp surveillance have included the management of serrated lesions in their published recommendations. In addition, an expert panel has also recently issued recommendations regarding serrated neoplasia. In this article, we provide the reader with a summary as well as the latest developments regarding serrated colonic lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical case management and navigation for colonoscopy screening in an academic medical center.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One of 5 nationally funded Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening Demonstration Programs, Project SCOPE, was conducted at an academic medical center and provided colonoscopy screening at no cost to underserved minority patients from local community health centers.
Related JoVE Video
Delivering colonoscopy screening for low-income populations in Suffolk County: strategies, outcomes, and benchmarks.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current and pending legislation provides colorectal cancer screening reimbursement for previously uninsured populations. Colonoscopy is currently the screening method most frequently recommended by physicians for insured patients. The experience of the SCOPE (Suffolk County Preventive Endoscopy) demonstration project (Project SCOPE) at Stony Brook University Medical Center provides a model for delivering colonoscopy screening to low-income populations to meet anticipated increasing demands.
Related JoVE Video
Chromocolonoscopy.
Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chromocolonoscopy is the process of endoscopically examining the colon mucosa after it has been stained with dye. The goal is to allow the endoscopist to identify subtle features in the mucosa, such as morphologically flat polyps or crypt patterns. Studies examining the efficacy of chromocolonoscopy to identify adenomas missed by conventional colonoscopy have shown that although chromocolonoscopy increases polyp yield, most additional lesions are small in size. Staining can also help in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic polyps. Perhaps the most useful aspect of chromocolonoscopy is increasing the yield for dysplasia in patients undergoing colonoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease surveillance.
Related JoVE Video
Perceptions of risk factors for colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer risk-related behaviors among current, ex-, and nonsmokers.
J Cancer Educ
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Smoking significantly increases risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined smokers and nonsmokers perceptions of behavioral factors for the increased risk of CRC and evaluated how these related to CRC screening. Self-reported questionnaire data were obtained from a random, average CRC risk sample of women and men (aged 50-75 years) during 2004. Smokers less frequently reported recent CRC screening than nonsmokers (p = 0.03). Smokers not adherent to screening less frequently agreed that smoking and alcohol consumption (both strongly linked to CRC) increased the risk for CRC (p values < 0.05) than nonsmokers. Notably, the number of concurrent CRC risk behaviors reported by smokers not adherent to CRC screening increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day, identifying heavy smokers who do not screen as a subgroup most in need of intervention. Findings extend current understanding on processes underlying smokers perceptions of risk for CRC and how these relate to screening utilization, which can guide provider efforts to improve CRC screening among smokers and reduce their CRC risk-related behaviors.
Related JoVE Video
Differences in detection rates of adenomas and serrated polyps in screening versus surveillance colonoscopies, based on the new hampshire colonoscopy registry.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is an important quality indicator originally developed for screening colonoscopies. However, it is unclear whether the ADR should be calculated using data from screening and surveillance examinations. The recommended benchmark ADR for screening examinations is 20% (15% for women and 25% for men ?50 y). There are few data available to compare ADRs from surveillance vs screening colonoscopies. We used a population-based registry to compare ADRs from screening vs surveillance colonoscopies. The serrated polyp detection rate (SDR), a potential new quality indicator, also was examined.
Related JoVE Video
Sessile serrated adenomas in the proximal colon are likely to be flat, large and occur in smokers.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the epidemiology and the morphology of the proximal sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs).
Related JoVE Video
Using TRIM5? as an HIV therapeutic: the alpha gene?
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As HIV continues to spread worldwide, new therapies which have the potential to treat and cure infected patients need to be developed. The results observed with the "Berlin patient" who received a bone marrow transplant with HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem cells highlight the potential of HIV gene therapy to be used as an alternative treatment. With the discovery of TRIM5?, an HIV inhibitor and species-specific restriction factor, a new molecule can be evaluated as an HIV gene therapeutic. Nonhuman primate TRIM5? orthologs restrict HIV infection, whereas human TRIM5? does not. However, upon genetic modification, variations to human TRIM5? have been made which are capable of potent HIV restriction.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of a Massive Left Femoral Arteriovenous Malformation Using an Innovative Modular Hybrid Bifurcated Stent-Graft System.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) are difficult to treat and manage because of their high recurrence and complication rates. In particular, peripheral AVMs pose multiple clinical challenges, due to their high flow rates and the frequent presence of multifocal nidi.
Related JoVE Video
SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n?=?6x?=?42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.
Related JoVE Video
Airway exchange of highly soluble gases.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Highly blood soluble gases exchange with the bronchial circulation in the airways. On inhalation, air absorbs highly soluble gases from the airway mucosa and equilibrates with the blood before reaching the alveoli. Highly soluble gas partial pressure is identical throughout all alveoli. At the end of exhalation the partial pressure of a highly soluble gas decreases from the alveolar level in the terminal bronchioles to the end-exhaled partial pressure at the mouth. A mathematical model simulated the airway exchange of four gases (methyl isobutyl ketone, acetone, ethanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether) that have high water and blood solubility. The impact of solubility on the relative distribution of airway exchange was studied. We conclude that an increase in water solubility shifts the distribution of gas exchange toward the mouth. Of the four gases studied, ethanol had the greatest decrease in partial pressure from the alveolus to the mouth at end exhalation. Single exhalation breath tests are inappropriate for estimating alveolar levels of highly soluble gases, particularly for ethanol.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical factors associated with non-polypoid colonic adenomas ?6 mm: a prospective study in an asymptomatic population using a high-definition colonoscope.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the clinical factors associated with adenomas ?6 mm presenting as non-polypoid polyps.
Related JoVE Video
Bacteriophage therapy: potential uses in the control of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of bacteriophages (phages) to treat bacterial infections, known as phage therapy, has a history substantially longer than that of antibiotics, yet these drugs have been the treatment of choice in the West for over 60 years owing to efficacy, low toxicity and ease of production. Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics while efforts to discover new agents have drastically reduced. Phages have co-evolved with their hosts over billions of years and have acquired mechanisms to counter bacterial defences such as extracellular biofilm production, which severely reduces the effectiveness of conventional antibiotics. Recent animal and human trials show phages to be safe, well-tolerated agents with a bright future as an alternative to chemical agents.
Related JoVE Video
Smoking and the association of advanced colorectal neoplasia in an asymptomatic average risk population: analysis of exposure and anatomical location in men and women.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identifying risk factors for advanced colorectal adenomas may aid in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, especially in light of the American College of Gastroenterologys recent guidelines, emphasizing cancer prevention through identification and removal of advanced adenomas. Smoking is an important risk factor for advanced adenomas but there is little data regarding levels of exposure for genders.
Related JoVE Video
A model for estimating the minimum number of offspring to sample in studies of reproductive success.
J. Hered.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Molecular parentage permits studies of selection and evolution in fecund species with cryptic mating systems, such as fish, amphibians, and insects. However, there exists no method for estimating the number of offspring that must be assigned parentage to achieve robust estimates of reproductive success when only a fraction of offspring can be sampled. We constructed a 2-stage model that first estimated the mean (?) and variance (v) in reproductive success from published studies on salmonid fishes and then sampled offspring from reproductive success distributions simulated from the ? and v estimates. Results provided strong support for modeling salmonid reproductive success via the negative binomial distribution and suggested that few offspring samples are needed to reject the null hypothesis of uniform offspring production. However, the sampled reproductive success distributions deviated significantly (?(2) goodness-of-fit test p value < 0.05) from the known simulated reproductive success distribution at rates often >0.05 and as high as 0.24, even when hundreds of offspring were assigned parentage. In general, reproductive success patterns were less accurate when offspring were sampled from cohorts with larger numbers of parents and greater variance in reproductive success. Our model can be reparameterized with data from other species and will aid researchers in planning reproductive success studies by providing explicit sampling targets required to accurately assess reproductive success.
Related JoVE Video
Aberrant crypt foci as predictors of colorectal neoplasia on repeat colonoscopy.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate the risk for colorectal neoplasia detected on repeat colonoscopy in relation to aberrant crypt foci (ACF) frequency reported during the previous baseline examination.
Related JoVE Video
Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients decision making?
J Healthc Manag
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Each year consumers make a variety of decisions relating to their healthcare. Some experts argue that stronger consumer engagement in decisions about where to obtain medical care is an important mechanism for improving efficiency in healthcare delivery and financing. Consumers ability and motivation to become more active decision makers are affected by several factors, including financial incentives and access to information. This study investigates the set of factors that consumers consider when selecting a provider, including attributes of the provider and the care experience and the reputation of the provider. Additionally, the study evaluates consumers awareness and use of formal sources of provider selection information. Our results from analyzing data from a survey of 467 patients at four clinics in Minnesota suggest that the factors considered of greatest importance include reputation of the physician and reputation of the healthcare organization. Contractual and logistical factors also play a role, with respondents highlighting the importance of seeing a provider affiliated with their health plan and appointment availability. Few respondents indicated that advertisements or formal sources of quality information affected their decision making. The key implication for provider organizations is to carefully manage referral sources to ensure that they consistently meet the needs of referrers. Excellent service to existing patients and to the network of referring physicians yields patient and referrer satisfaction that is critical to attracting new patients. Finally, organizations more generally may want to explore the capabilities of new media and social networking sites for building reputation.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of compliance with free endoscopic colorectal cancer screening in uninsured adults.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
National guidelines endorse colonoscopy as the only colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test which prevents CRC and evaluates the entire large bowel. However, little is known regarding patient compliance with a screening program that exclusively uses colonoscopy, particularly in an underserved population. The Connecticut Department of Public Health provided funds for the total cost of colonoscopies, patient navigators and education of staff and primary care providers. With cost and provider barriers removed, we were able to examine patient related factors influencing compliance with colonoscopy in an ethnically diverse sample of underinsured adults.
Related JoVE Video
Sex differences in associations between psychosocial factors and aberrant crypt foci among patients at risk for colon cancer.
Gend Med
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Psychosocial factors may impact cancer risk but sex differences in this domain are understudied. Examining psychosocial factors, such as depression and social support, among colon cancer patients allows for a unique opportunity to study sex differences in the association between psychosocial factors and colon cancer risk in this population.
Related JoVE Video
Understanding juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: contributions from neuroimaging.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Advanced neuroimaging techniques have been utilised with ever increasing frequency over the last 10 years. A range of structural and functional imaging modalities have been employed to study the neurobiological mechanisms and anatomical substrates underlying epileptic syndromes. Advanced neuroimaging studies of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) have utilised PET, SPECT, MRI, DTI and MRS, with all modalities revealing evidence of predominantly frontal lobe and thalamic changes. Abnormalities correlate with clinical features such as seizure frequency and disease duration in some studies. Findings contribute to the ongoing debate surrounding the classification of epileptic syndromes, suggesting JME is a predominantly frontal thalamocortical network epilepsy, challenging the concept of a generalised epilepsy. Existing studies are limited by sample size and methodological considerations, and future studies need to address these as well as pursue underlying mechanisms for phenotypic variation in this heterogenous disorder. The present review aims to outline the existing literature on advanced neuroimaging in JME and highlight future directions for study.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for sessile serrated adenomas.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) may represent a separate and important pathway for colorectal cancer (CRC), little is known about the risk factors for these lesions. Molecular abnormalities such as BRAF have been observed in SSA and smokers. Our hypothesis is that smoking may be associated with these lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors and diagnosis of flat adenomas of the colon.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In addition to histology, size and location, a morphologic description can be ascribed to polyps and adenomas. Traditionally, adenomas have been described as sessile and pedunculated, but it is now accepted that they can also present as flat or even depressed. Although first recognized in 1985, flat adenomas have become more common in Western published literature and in endoscopic reports. The Japanese Research Society Classification describes flat adenomas as lesions with a height that is less than one half of the diameter, while the Paris classification divides polyps into protruding and nonprotruding. The clinical significance of flat adenomas includes their potential malignancy, difficulty in detection and possible role in interval cancers. Serrated polyps represent a subset of polyps that have all the features that make flat lesions clinically important. Due to the relatively recent recognition of these lesions, as well as the technology required to detect them, the prevalence and malignant potential of these lesions in Western patients are still unknown. Finally, the best techniques and equipment for detecting flat polyps are also not established. In this article, we examine the issue of flat polyps and their significance in colorectal cancer screening with regard to prevalence, risk factors and methods for detecting flat polyps.
Related JoVE Video
Lessons learned from casualty statistics in health care system development: Afghanistan 2008-2009.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A retrospective study of Afghanistan National Army casualty rates for a 1-year period was completed to assist in health care system assessment and further development during a period of rapid force expansion. Battle and disease nonbattle injuries by Corps area were determined from data on soldier visits from all military health care facilities. The number of fielded forces in each Corps was used to calculate the populations at risk. Total manpower losses from all casualties were tabulated. The 15,336 casualties (175 per thousand fielded soldiers) resulted in the loss of 146,986 duty days (average 9.5 days per casualty). Battle casualties were 739 (8.4 per 1,000) and nonbattle casualties were 14,597(166 per 1,000) with 72% secondary to infectious diseases. Casualty rates from both battle and disease nonbattle injuries were high, but casualty rates were particularly high from infectious diseases. Rapid force expansion in developing countries requires early consideration for resourcing and implementation of preventive medicine programs.
Related JoVE Video
Model SNP development for complex genomes based on hexaploid oat using high-throughput 454 sequencing technology.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic markers are pivotal to modern genomics research; however, discovery and genotyping of molecular markers in oat has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, and by a scarcity of sequence data. The purpose of this study was to generate oat expressed sequence tag (EST) information, develop a bioinformatics pipeline for SNP discovery, and establish a method for rapid, cost-effective, and straightforward genotyping of SNP markers in complex polyploid genomes such as oat.
Related JoVE Video
Generation of HIV-1 resistant and functional macrophages from hematopoietic stem cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have radically advanced the field of regenerative medicine by making possible the production of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells from adult individuals. By developing iPSCs to treat HIV, there is the potential for generating a continuous supply of therapeutic cells for transplantation into HIV-infected patients. In this study, we have used human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate anti-HIV gene expressing iPSCs for HIV gene therapy. HSCs were dedifferentiated into continuously growing iPSC lines with four reprogramming factors and a combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector containing a CCR5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and a human/rhesus chimeric TRIM5? gene. Upon directed differentiation of the anti-HIV iPSCs toward the hematopoietic lineage, a robust quantity of colony-forming CD133(+) HSCs were obtained. These cells were further differentiated into functional end-stage macrophages which displayed a normal phenotypic profile. Upon viral challenge, the anti-HIV iPSC-derived macrophages exhibited strong protection from HIV-1 infection. Here, we demonstrate the ability of iPSCs to develop into HIV-1 resistant immune cells and highlight the potential use of iPSCs for HIV gene and cellular therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Fatal canine adenoviral pneumonia in two litters of Bulldogs.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five Bulldog pups, 4 weeks of age or younger, were presented over a 2-day period for postmortem examination and diagnostic evaluation. The pups originated from 2 different litters but had been cared for at a common facility since their birth. All 5 pups died after exhibiting symptoms consisting of lethargy, dyspnea, nasal discharge, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Necropsy examination revealed locally extensive to diffusely red, firm, consolidated lungs in all pups. Histopathologically, the lungs were variably effaced by multifocal areas of necrosis. The alveolar lumens contained fibrin, edema fluid, macrophages, and neutrophils. Many of the bronchioles contained cellular debris and neutrophils admixed with sloughed bronchiolar epithelium, which often contained large intranuclear amphophilic inclusion bodies that peripherally displaced chromatin. Fluorescent antibody testing was positive for Canine adenovirus. An adenovirus isolated via cell culture was positive on direct fluorescent antibody test and was identified as Canine adenovirus serotype 2 via polymerase chain reaction. Electron microscopy revealed typical viral inclusions within bronchiolar epithelial cells. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was also isolated from the lungs in 3 of the 5 pups. The current case demonstrates a natural and rare fatal infection with a viral agent that is typically associated with immunosuppression in both animals and humans.
Related JoVE Video
An academic medical center model for community colorectal cancer screening: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstration program experience.
Acad Med
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During 2005-2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five colorectal cancer (CRC) screening demonstration projects around the United States; only one was based in an academic medical center (AMC) rather than a health department. The Suffolk County Preventive Endoscopy Project (Project SCOPE) was a collaborative effort between Stony Brook University Medical Center (SBUMC) and the Suffolk County Department of Health Services. Project SCOPEs objective was to increase CRC screening among Suffolk County residents at least 50 years old who had inadequate or no insurance coverage for CRC screening. The demonstration application drew on the screening, diagnostic, and treatment resources of the AMC and the indigent populations using its outpatient clinics. Patients at 10 county health centers were a primary target for (previously inaccessible) colonoscopy screening. The projects organizational center was SBUMCs preventive medicine department, which was linked to SBUMCs large gastroenterology practice. The specific staffing, financial, and training issues faced by this project provide insights for others who are similarly interested in community engagement. During 40 months of screening, 800 indigent, culturally diverse patients were recruited, and they underwent colonoscopy. Challenges encountered included unreachable referred patients (425 patients; 28% of referrals) and medical ineligibility (e.g., symptomatic comorbid conditions). Pending legislation providing federal funding for a national program offers other AMCs the opportunity to adopt a model such as that proven feasible during Project SCOPE. The lessons learned may have broader application for fostering collaborative AMC partnerships and for enhancing recruitment and retention of participants through outreach.
Related JoVE Video
Association of smoking and flat adenomas: results from an asymptomatic population screened with a high-definition colonoscope.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flat adenomas represent a morphologically distinct class of polyps that may be difficult to detect, and little is known regarding risk factors for these lesions. Identification of risk factors for these lesions may aid in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, because patients at risk for these lesions may require special imaging techniques. Smoking, an important risk factor for CRC, may be associated with molecular changes that increase the risk for flat adenomas.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-epileptic drugs: a guide for the non-neurologist.
Clin Med
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epilepsy is the most common serious chronic neurological disorder affecting between 0.5% and 1% of Western populations. Most patients take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for years if not decades, and are commonly admitted to hospital with seizures. Many have symptomatic epilepsy, arising as a consequence of another disorder, for example a brain tumour. General practitioners, emergency physicians and most hospital teams (especially general medicine) commonly encounter difficulties surrounding AEDs yet often require assistance from neurology services. This can be difficult when neurology services are not on-site or easily available. This article gives a practical overview of difficulties relating to AEDs and their management, with the focus on problems commonly encountered by non-neurologists. These include the patient who is acutely unwell, pregnant or elderly; AED side effects and drug interactions; status epilepticus and AED blood levels.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of airway gas exchange on the multiple inert gas elimination technique: theory.
Ann Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) provides a method for estimating alveolar gas exchange efficiency. Six soluble inert gases are infused into a peripheral vein. Measurements of these gases in breath, arterial blood, and venous blood are interpreted using a mathematical model of alveolar gas exchange (MIGET model) that neglects airway gas exchange. A mathematical model describing airway and alveolar gas exchange predicts that two of these gases, ether and acetone, exchange primarily within the airways. To determine the effect of airway gas exchange on the MIGET, we selected two additional gases, toluene and m-dichlorobenzene, that have the same blood solubility as ether and acetone and minimize airway gas exchange via their low water solubility. The airway-alveolar gas exchange model simulated the exchange of toluene, m-dichlorobenzene, and the six MIGET gases under multiple conditions of alveolar ventilation-to-perfusion, VA/Q, heterogeneity. We increased the importance of airway gas exchange by changing bronchial blood flow, Qbr. From these simulations, we calculated the excretion and retention of the eight inert gases and divided the results into two groups: (1) the standard MIGET gases which included acetone and ether and (2) the modified MIGET gases which included toluene and m-dichlorobenzene. The MIGET mathematical model predicted distributions of ventilation and perfusion for each grouping of gases and multiple perturbations of VA/Q and Qbr. Using the modified MIGET gases, MIGET predicted a smaller dead space fraction, greater mean VA, greater log(SDVA), and more closely matched the imposed VA distribution than that using the standard MIGET gases. Perfusion distributions were relatively unaffected.
Related JoVE Video
Increased frequency of serrated aberrant crypt foci among smokers.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The American College of Gastroenterology has published guidelines recently that suggest that smokers with a history of >20 pack years may need screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) at an earlier age than non-smokers. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) may represent important precursors for colorectal neoplasms and potential surrogate biomarkers. Clarifying the role of ACF in relation to known CRC risk factors such as smoking may have important implications for screening as well as our understanding of tobacco use and colorectal carcinogenesis. Our goal was to examine whether smoking at least 20 pack years was associated with an increased frequency of ACF.
Related JoVE Video
Radiosurgical decompression of metastatic epidural compression.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Surgical decompression of metastatic epidural compression (MEC) improved ambulatory function. Spine radiosurgery can accurately target the epidural tumor and deliver high radiation doses for tumor control. Therefore, a clinical trial was performed to quantitatively determine the degree of epidural decompression by radiosurgery of metastatic epidural compression.
Related JoVE Video
High-definition chromocolonoscopy vs. high-definition white light colonoscopy for average-risk colorectal cancer screening.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flat and depressed colon neoplasms are an increasingly recognized precursor for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations. High-definition chromoscopy is used to increase the yield of colonoscopy for flat and depressed neoplasms; however, its role in average-risk patients undergoing routine screening remains uncertain.
Related JoVE Video
Body mass index as a predictor of colorectal neoplasia in ethnically diverse screening population.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology for screening for colorectal cancer have included obesity as an important risk factor. The recommendation for screening obese people at earlier age was tempered by the need for more data regarding obesity and colorectal neoplasia.
Related JoVE Video
Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.
New Solut
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.
Related JoVE Video
Number of aberrant crypt foci associated with adiposity and IGF1 bioavailability.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dysregulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, a common consequence of adiposity-induced insulin resistance, may be a key underlying mechanism linking excess body weight with colon cancer. Evidence has been derived from studies of cancer and polyps. Supporting data about aberrant crypt foci (ACF), putative pre-polyp changes, have been generated only from animal studies to date.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) and the relationship of PLCIS to classic LCIS (CLCIS) are poorly defined. In this study, we analyzed 31 cases of PLCIS (13 apocrine and 18 nonapocrine subtypes) and compared the clinical, pathologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic characteristics of these cases with those of 24 cases of CLCIS. Biomarker expression was examined using immunostaining for E-cadherin, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, estrogen, progesterone, androgen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor2, CK5/6, and Ki67. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization to assess the genomic alterations was performed using microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Patients with PLCIS presented with mammographic abnormalities. Histologically, the tumor cells were dyshesive and showed pleomorphic nuclei, and there was often associated necrosis and microcalcifications. All lesions were E-cadherin negative. Compared with CLCIS, PLCIS showed significantly higher Ki67 index, lower estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression, and higher incidence of HER2 gene amplification. The majority of PLCIS and CLCIS demonstrated loss of 16q and gain of 1q. Apocrine PLCIS had significantly more genomic alterations than CLCIS and nonapocrine PLCIS. Although lack of E-cadherin expression and the 16q loss and 1q gain-array-based comparative genomic hybridization pattern support a relationship to CLCIS, PLCIS has clinical, mammographic, histologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features that distinguish it from CLCIS. The histologic features, biomarker profile, and genomic instability observed in PLCIS suggest a more aggressive phenotype than CLCIS. However, clinical follow-up studies will be required to define the natural history and most appropriate management of these lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Preintegration HIV-1 inhibition by a combination lentiviral vector containing a chimeric TRIM5 alpha protein, a CCR5 shRNA, and a TAR decoy.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gene therapy offers a promising alternative approach to current antiretroviral treatments to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Various stages of the HIV life cycle including pre-entry, preintegration, and postintegration can be targeted by gene therapy to block viral infection and replication. By combining multiple highly potent anti-HIV transgenes in a single gene therapy vector, HIV-1 resistance can be achieved in transduced cells while prohibiting the generation of escape mutants. Here, we describe a combination lentiviral vector that encodes three highly effective anti-HIV genes functioning at separate stages of the viral life cycle including a CCR5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) (pre-entry), a human/rhesus macaque chimeric TRIM5 alpha (postentry/preintegration), and a transactivation response element (TAR) decoy (postintegration). The major focus on designing this anti-HIV vector was to block productive infection of HIV-1 and to inhibit any formation of provirus that would maintain the viral reservoir. Upon viral challenge, potent preintegration inhibition of HIV-1 infection was achieved in combination vector-transduced cells in both cultured and primary CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC)-derived macrophages. The generation of escape mutants was also blocked as evaluated by long-term culture of challenged cells. The ability of this combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector to prevent HIV-1 infection, in vitro, warrants further evaluation of its in vivo efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
Pathologic and biologic response to preoperative endocrine therapy in patients with ER-positive ductal carcinoma in situ.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endocrine therapy is commonly recommended in the adjuvant setting for patients as treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, it is unknown whether a neoadjuvant (preoperative) anti-estrogen approach to DCIS results in any biological change. This study was undertaken to investigate the pathologic and biomarker changes in DCIS following neoadjuvant endocrine therapy compared to a group of patients who did not undergo preoperative anti-estrogenic treatment to determine whether such treatment results in detectable histologic alterations.
Related JoVE Video
Specific transduction of HIV-susceptible cells for CCR5 knockdown and resistance to HIV infection: a novel method for targeted gene therapy and intracellular immunization.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-1 gene therapy offers a promising alternative to small molecule antiretroviral treatments and current vaccination strategies by transferring, into HIV-1-susceptible cells, the genetic ability to resist infection. The need for novel and innovative strategies to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection is critical due to devastating effects of the virus in developing countries, high cost, toxicity, generation of escape mutants from antiretroviral therapies, and the failure of past and current vaccination efforts. As a first step toward achieving this goal, an HIV-1-susceptible cell-specific targeting vector was evaluated to selectively transfer, into CCR5-positive target cells, an anti-HIV CCR5 shRNA gene for subsequent knockdown of CCR5 expression and protection from HIV-1 infection. Using a ZZ domain/monoclonal antibody-conjugated Sindbis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vector, here we demonstrate the utility of this strategy for HIV-1 gene therapy by specifically targeting HIV-1-susceptible cells and engineering these cells to resist HIV-1 infection. CCR5-positive human cells were successfully and specifically targeted in vitro and in vivo for transduction by a lentiviral vector expressing a highly potent CCR5 shRNA which conferred resistance to HIV-1 infection. Here we report the initial evaluation of this targeting vector for HIV-1 gene therapy in a preexposure prophylactic setting.
Related JoVE Video
The role of salvage reirradiation for malignant gliomas that progress on bevacizumab.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bevacizumab and irinotecan are effective against recurrent malignant gliomas. However, at subsequent progression, patients rarely respond to a second bevacizumab-containing chemotherapeutic regimen. Salvage re-irradiation with bevacizumab for recurrent but bevacizumab naive malignant gliomas showed encouraging results. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 23 patients treated with either fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) after progression on an initial bevacizumab regimen. Patients were treated after re-irradiation with bevacizumab but combined with a different chemotherapy. We then compared them to another 23 patients who progressed on an initial bevacizumab + chemotherapy regimen. These patients did not receive re-irradiation but bevacizumab was continued combined with a different chemotherapy. Patients treated with FSRT/SRS/bevacizumab had a longer median progression-free period (2.6 vs. 1. 7 months, P = 0.009), longer median post FSRT/SRS treatment survival (7.2 vs. 3.3 months, P = 0.03) and higher radiographic response rate (22 vs. 0%, P = 0.049). FSRT or SRS followed by bevacizumab + chemotherapy may have a role for patients who progress on bevacizumab.
Related JoVE Video
Smokers as a high-risk group: data from a screening population.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the number of pack-years exposure associated with a 2-fold increase risk for significant colorectal neoplasia and to examine the risk of smoking in younger patients.
Related JoVE Video
American College of Gastroenterology guidelines for colorectal cancer screening 2009 [corrected].
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This document is the first update of the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommendations since 2000. The CRC screening tests are now grouped into cancer prevention tests and cancer detection tests. Colonoscopy every 10 years, beginning at age 50, remains the preferred CRC screening strategy. It is recognized that colonoscopy is not available in every clinical setting because of economic limitations. It is also realized that not all eligible persons are willing to undergo colonoscopy for screening purposes. In these cases, patients should be offered an alternative CRC prevention test (flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5-10 years, or a computed tomography (CT) colonography every 5 years) or a cancer detection test (fecal immunochemical test for blood, FIT).
Related JoVE Video
New DArT markers for oat provide enhanced map coverage and global germplasm characterization.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genomic discovery in oat and its application to oat improvement have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers common to different genetic maps, and by the difficulty of conducting whole-genome analysis using high-throughput markers. This study was intended to develop, characterize, and apply a large set of oat genetic markers based on Diversity Array Technology (DArT).
Related JoVE Video
Initial experience with bevacizumab treatment for biopsy confirmed cerebral radiation necrosis.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerebral radiation necrosis is a serious complication of radiation treatment for brain tumors. Therapeutic options include corticosteroids, anticoagulation and hyperbaric oxygen with limited efficacy. Bevacizumab, an antibody against VEGF had been reported to reduce edema in patients with suspected radiation necrosis. We retrospectively reviewed 6 patients with biopsy proven cerebral radiation necrosis treated with bevacizumab between 2006 and 2008.
Related JoVE Video
Reproductive success of captively bred and naturally spawned Chinook salmon colonizing newly accessible habitat.
Evol Appl
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Captively reared animals can provide an immediate demographic boost in reintroduction programs, but may also reduce the fitness of colonizing populations. Construction of a fish passage facility at Landsburg Diversion Dam on the Cedar River, WA, USA, provided a unique opportunity to explore this trade-off. We thoroughly sampled adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the onset of colonization (2003-2009), constructed a pedigree from genotypes at 10 microsatellite loci, and calculated reproductive success (RS) as the total number of returning adult offspring. Hatchery males were consistently but not significantly less productive than naturally spawned males (range in relative RS: 0.70-0.90), but the pattern for females varied between years. The sex ratio was heavily biased toward males; therefore, inclusion of the hatchery males increased the risk of a genetic fitness cost with little demographic benefit. Measurements of natural selection indicated that larger salmon had higher RS than smaller fish. Fish that arrived early to the spawning grounds tended to be more productive than later fish, although in some years, RS was maximized at intermediate dates. Our results underscore the importance of natural and sexual selection in promoting adaptation during reintroductions.
Related JoVE Video
CD25 preselective anti-HIV vectors for improved HIV gene therapy.
Hum Gene Ther Methods
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As HIV continues to be a global public health problem with no effective vaccine available, new and innovative therapies, including HIV gene therapies, need to be developed. Due to low transduction efficiencies that lead to low in vivo gene marking, therapeutically relevant efficacy of HIV gene therapy has been difficult to achieve in a clinical setting. Methods to improve the transplantation of enriched populations of anti-HIV vector-transduced cells may greatly increase the in vivo efficacy of HIV gene therapies. Here we describe the development of preselective anti-HIV lentiviral vectors that allow for the purification of vector-transduced cells to achieve an enriched population of HIV-resistant cells. A selectable protein, human CD25, not normally found on CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), was incorporated into a triple combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector. Upon purification of cells transduced with the preselective anti-HIV vector, safety was demonstrated in CD34+ HPCs and in HPC-derived macrophages in vitro. Upon challenge with HIV-1, improved efficacy was observed in purified preselective anti-HIV vector-transduced macrophages compared to unpurified cells. These proof-of-concept results highlight the potential use of this method to improve HIV stem cell gene therapy for future clinical applications.
Related JoVE Video
Rationale for the development and the mechanism of action of endoscopic thermal vapor ablation (InterVapor) for the treatment of emphysema.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emphysema remains a disabling disease despite current treatment. Novel approaches to the underlying physiological abnormalities responsible for symptom generation are warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiac syncope.
Epilepsia
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinicians who diagnose and manage epilepsy frequently encounter diagnoses of a nonneurological nature, particularly when assessing patients with transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC). Among these, and perhaps the most important, is cardiac syncope. As a group, patients with cardiac syncope have the highest likelihood of subsequent sudden death, and yet, unlike sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) for example, it is the norm for these tragic occurrences to be both easily predictable and preventable. In the 12 months following initial presentation with cardiac syncope, sudden death has been found to be 6 times more common than in those with noncardiac syncope (N Engl J Med 309, 1983, 197). In short, for every patient seen with T-LOC, two fundamental aims of the consultation are to assess the likelihood of cardiac syncope as the cause, and to estimate the risk of future sudden death for the individual. This article aims to outline for the noncardiologist how to recognize cardiac syncope, how to tell it apart from more benign cardiovascular forms of syncope as well as from seizures and epilepsy, and what can be done to predict and prevent sudden death in these patients. This is achieved through the assessment triad of a clinical history and examination, risk stratification, and 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG).
Related JoVE Video
A comparison of diabetic smokers and non-smokers who undergo lower extremity amputation: a retrospective review of 112 patients.
Diabet Foot Ankle
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A diabetic foot or lower extremity amputation may be exacerbated by or related to the smoking habits and history of the patient.
Related JoVE Video
Editorial: Body mass index and colorectal adenomas.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The recent American College of Gastroenterology Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening highlight obese individuals as a high-risk group for colorectal cancer (CRC). In this issue, Okabayashi and colleagues present data from a well-designed and executed meta-analysis demonstrating an increased adenoma risk for a modest increase in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, overweight (BMI?25) subjects have an increased risk for colorectal adenomas (odds ratio=1.24 (95% confidence interval=1.16-1.33)) as compared with non-overweight subjects. The papers many strengths include the careful selection of the best studies. These data highlight the importance of screening in obese patients.
Related JoVE Video
Thermal effect of endoscopic thermal vapour ablation on the lung surface in human ex vivo tissue.
Int J Hyperthermia
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An investigation of the thermal effect and the potential for injury at the lung surface following thermal vapour ablation (InterVapor), an energy-based method of achieving endoscopic lung volume reduction.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of human lung tissue mass measurements from ex vivo lungs and high resolution CT software analysis.
BMC Pulm Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Quantification of lung tissue via analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans is increasingly common for monitoring disease progression and for planning of therapeutic interventions. The current study evaluates the quantification of human lung tissue mass by software analysis of a CT to physical tissue mass measurements.
Related JoVE Video
Generation of an HIV-1-resistant immune system with CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a triple-combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector.
J. Virol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV gene therapy has the potential to offer an alternative to the use of current small-molecule antiretroviral drugs as a treatment strategy for HIV-infected individuals. Therapies designed to administer HIV-resistant stem cells to an infected patient may also provide a functional cure, as observed in a bone marrow transplant performed with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) homozygous for the CCR5-?32-bp allele. In our current studies, preclinical evaluation of a combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector was performed, in vivo, in humanized NOD-RAG1(-/-) IL2r?(-/-) knockout mice. This combination vector, which displays strong preintegration inhibition of HIV-1 infection in vitro, contains a human/rhesus macaque TRIM5? isoform, a CCR5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and a TAR decoy. Multilineage hematopoiesis from anti-HIV lentiviral vector-transduced human CD34(+) HSCs was observed in the peripheral blood and in various lymphoid organs, including the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, of engrafted mice. Anti-HIV vector-transduced CD34(+) cells displayed normal development of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages. The anti-HIV vector-transduced cells also displayed knockdown of cell surface CCR5 due to the expression of the CCR5 shRNA. After in vivo challenge with either an R5-tropic BaL-1 or X4-tropic NL4-3 strain of HIV-1, maintenance of human CD4(+) cell levels and a selective survival advantage of anti-HIV gene-modified cells were observed in engrafted mice. The data provided from our study confirm the safety and efficacy of this combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector in a hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy setting for HIV and validates its potential application in future clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Body mass index and screening for colorectal cancer: gender and attitudinal factors.
Cancer Epidemiol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overweight/obese women and men are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. Research examining body mass index (BMI) and CRC screening has had mixed results. A clearer understanding of the extent to which high-BMI subgroups are screened for CRC is needed to inform planning for CRC screening promotions targeting BMI.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.