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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enrichment of the ?-catenin-TCF complex at the S and G2 phases ensures cell survival and cell cycle progression.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Wnt-?-catenin (?-catenin is also known as CTNNB1 in human) signaling through the ?-catenin-TCF complex plays crucial roles in tissue homeostasis. Wnt-stimulated ?-catenin-TCF complex accumulation in the nucleus regulates cell survival, proliferation and differentiation through the transcription of target genes. Compared with their levels in G1, activation of the receptor LRP6 and cytosolic ?-catenin are both upregulated in G2 cells. However, accumulation of the Wnt pathway negative regulator AXIN2 also occurs in this phase. Therefore, it is unclear whether Wnt signaling is active in G2 phase cells. Here, we established a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) biosensor system for the direct visualization of the ?-catenin-TCF interaction in living cells. Using the BiFC biosensor and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we demonstrate that levels of the nucleus-localized ?-catenin-TCF complex increase during the S and G2 phases, and declines in the next G1 phase. Accordingly, a subset of Wnt target genes is transcribed by the ?-catenin-TCF complex during both the S and G2 phases. By contrast, transient inhibition of this complex disturbs both cell survival and G2/M progression. Our results suggest that in S and G2 phase cells, Wnt-?-catenin signaling is highly active and functions to ensure cell survival and cell cycle progression.
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Features of S-nitrosylation based on statistical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation: cysteine acidity, surrounding basicity, steric hindrance and local flexibility.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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S-Nitrosylation is involved in protein functional regulation and cellular signal transduction. Although intensive efforts have been made, the molecular mechanisms of S-nitrosylation have not yet been fully understood. In this work, we carried out a survey on 213 protein structures with S-nitrosylated cysteine sites and molecular dynamic simulations of hemoglobin as a case study. It was observed that the S-nitrosylated cysteines showed a lower pKa, a higher population of basic residues, a lower population of big-volume residues in the neighborhood, and relatively higher flexibility. The case study of hemoglobin showed that, compared to that in the T-state, Cys?93 in the R-state hemoglobin possessed the above structural features, in agreement with the previous report that the R-state was more reactive in S-nitrosylation. Moreover, basic residues moved closer to the Cys?93 in the dep-R-state hemoglobin, while big-volume residues approached the Cys?93 in the dep-T-state. Using the four characteristics, i.e. cysteine acidity, surrounding basicity, steric hindrance, and local flexibility, a 3-dimensional model of S-nitrosylation was constructed to explain 61.9% of the S-nitrosylated and 58.1% of the non-S-nitrosylated cysteines. Our study suggests that cysteine deprotonation is a prerequisite for protein S-nitrosylation, and these characteristics might be useful in identifying specificity of protein S-nitrosylation.
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Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits.
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[Effects of microcystins on growth and antioxidant system of rice roots].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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The effect of different concentrations (1, 100, 1000 and 3 000 microg x L(-1)) of microcystins (MCs) on growth, absorb activity, antioxidant system and its accumulation in roots of rice seedlings were studied. The results show that MCs accumulation was positively correlated with MCs concentration. After the treatment with 1 microg x L(-1) MCs, the root growth and activity increased. Meanwhile, catalase (CAT) activity was increased to maintain H2O2 at normal levels. After the treatment with 100 microg x L(-1) MCs, the root growth and activity were inhibited whereas CAT had no obvious change. High concentrations (1000 microg x L(-1) and 3000 microg x L(-1)) of MCs not only inhibited root growth and activity, but decreased CAT activity, leading to excessive H2O2 accumulation and membrane peroxidation. After a 7-day recovery, MCs accumulations in roots in all treatment groups were all lower than those measured during the stress period. For the 100 microg x L(-1) MCs treated group, the inhibition on root growth and root activity, and membrane peroxidation were alleviated, better than those measured during the stress period. However, for 1000 microg x L(-1) and 3000 microg x L(-1) MCs treated groups, inhibition on root growth, root activity, and CAT activity were heavier than those during the stress period, and oxidation stress intensified further, indicating that the damage caused by high concentrations (1 000 microg x L(-1) and 3000 microg x L(-1)) of MCs on rice roots was irreversible.
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Alcohol dehydrogenases from Kluyveromyces marxianus: heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Kluyveromyces marxianus has recently become a species of interest for ethanol production since it can produce ethanol at high temperature and on a wide variety of substrates. However, the reason why this yeast can produce ethanol at high temperature is largely unknown.
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Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
Nicholas J Kassebaum, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Megan S Coggeshall, Katya A Shackelford, Caitlyn Steiner, Kyle R Heuton, Diego Gonzalez-Medina, Ryan Barber, Chantal Huynh, Daniel Dicker, Tara Templin, Timothy M Wolock, Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw Ferede Abera, Ibrahim Abubakar, Tom Achoki, Ademola Adelekan, Zanfina Ademi, Arsène Kouablan Adou, José C Adsuar, Emilie E Agardh, Dickens Akena, Deena Alasfoor, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Samia Alhabib, Raghib Ali, Mazin J Al Kahbouri, François Alla, Peter J Allen, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ubai Alsharif, Elena Alvarez, Nelson Alvis-Guzmán, Adansi A Amankwaa, Azmeraw T Amare, Hassan Amini, Walid Ammar, Carl A T Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Johan Arnlöv, Valentina S Arsic Arsenijevic, Ali Artaman, Majed Masoud Asad, Rana J Asghar, Reza Assadi, Lydia S Atkins, Alaa Badawi, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Arindam Basu, Sanjay Basu, Justin Beardsley, Neeraj Bedi, Tolesa Bekele, Michelle L Bell, Eduardo Bernabé, Tariku J Beyene, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Jed D Blore, Berrak Bora Basara, Dipan Bose, Nicholas Breitborde, Rosario Cárdenas, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela, Ruben Estanislao Castro, Ferrán Catalá-López, Alanur Cavlin, Jung-Chen Chang, Xuan Che, Costas A Christophi, Sumeet S Chugh, Massimo Cirillo, Samantha M Colquhoun, Leslie Trumbull Cooper, Cyrus Cooper, Iuri da Costa Leite, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Adrian Davis, Anand Dayama, Louisa Degenhardt, Diego De Leo, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Kebede Deribe, Muluken Dessalegn, Gabrielle A deVeber, Samath D Dharmaratne, Ugur Dilmen, Eric L Ding, Rob E Dorrington, Tim R Driscoll, Sergei Petrovich Ermakov, Alireza Esteghamati, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Farshad Farzadfar, Manuela Mendonca Felicio, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Graça Maria Ferreira De Lima, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Elisabeth B França, Lynne Gaffikin, Ketevan Gambashidze, Fortuné Gbètoho Gankpé, Ana C Garcia, Johanna M Geleijnse, Katherine B Gibney, Maurice Giroud, Elizabeth L Glaser, Ketevan Goginashvili, Philimon Gona, Dinorah González-Castell, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N Gouda, Harish Chander Gugnani, Rahul Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Randah Ribhi Hamadeh, Mouhanad Hammami, Graeme J Hankey, Hilda L Harb, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon I Hay, Ileana B Heredia Pi, Hans W Hoek, H Dean Hosgood, Damian G Hoy, Abdullatif Husseini, Bulat T Idrisov, Kaire Innos, Manami Inoue, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Eiman Jahangir, Sun Ha Jee, Paul N Jensen, Vivekanand Jha, Guohong Jiang, Jost B Jonas, Knud Juel, Edmond Kato Kabagambe, Haidong Kan, Nadim E Karam, André Karch, Corine Kakizi Karema, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Konstantin Kazanjan, Dhruv S Kazi, Andrew H Kemp, André Pascal Kengne, Maia Kereselidze, Yousef Saleh Khader, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa, Ejaz Ahmed Khan, Young-Ho Khang, Luke Knibbs, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Soewarta Kosen, Barthélemy Kuate Defo, Chanda Kulkarni, Veena S Kulkarni, G Anil Kumar, Kaushalendra Kumar, Ravi B Kumar, Gene Kwan, Taavi Lai, Ratilal Lalloo, Hilton Lam, Van C Lansingh, Anders Larsson, Jong-Tae Lee, James Leigh, Mall Leinsalu, Ricky Leung, Xiaohong Li, Yichong Li, Yongmei Li, Juan Liang, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S Lim, Hsien-Ho Lin, Steven E Lipshultz, Shiwei Liu, Yang Liu, Belinda K Lloyd, Stephanie J London, Paulo A Lotufo, Jixiang Ma, Stefan Ma, Vasco Manuel Pedro Machado, Nana Kwaku Mainoo, Marek Majdan, Christopher Chabila Mapoma, Wagner Marcenes, Melvin Barrientos Marzan, Amanda J Mason-Jones, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Ziad A Memish, Walter Mendoza, Ted R Miller, Edward J Mills, Ali H Mokdad, Glen Liddell Mola, Lorenzo Monasta, Jonathan de la Cruz Monis, Julio Cesar Montañez Hernandez, Ami R Moore, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Rintaro Mori, Ulrich O Mueller, Mitsuru Mukaigawara, Aliya Naheed, Kovin S Naidoo, Devina Nand, Vinay Nangia, Denis Nash, Chakib Nejjari, Robert G Nelson, Sudan Prasad Neupane, Charles R Newton, Marie Ng, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Sandra Nolte, Ole F Norheim, Luke Nyakarahuka, In-Hwan Oh, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Bolajoko O Olusanya, Saad B Omer, John Nelson Opio, Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Christina Papachristou, Jae-Hyun Park, Angel J Paternina Caicedo, Scott B Patten, Vinod K Paul, Boris Igor Pavlin, Neil Pearce, David M Pereira, Konrad Pesudovs, Max Petzold, Dan Poenaru, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, Dan Pope, Farshad Pourmalek, Dima Qato, D Alex Quistberg, Anwar Rafay, Kazem Rahimi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Murugesan Raju, Saleem M Rana, Amany Refaat, Luca Ronfani, Nobhojit Roy, Tania Georgina Sánchez Pimienta, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Joshua A Salomon, Uchechukwu Sampson, Itamar S Santos, Monika Sawhney, Felix Sayinzoga, Ione J C Schneider, Austin Schumacher, David C Schwebel, Soraya Seedat, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Edson E Servan-Mori, Marina Shakh-Nazarova, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Kenji Shibuya, Hwashin Hyun Shin, Ivy Shiue, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Donald H Silberberg, Andrea P Silva, Jasvinder A Singh, Vegard Skirbekk, Karen Sliwa, Sergey S Soshnikov, Luciano A Sposato, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Lela Sturua, Bryan L Sykes, Karen M Tabb, Roberto Tchio Talongwa, Feng Tan, Carolina Maria Teixeira, Eric Yeboah Tenkorang, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, David L Tirschwell, Jeffrey A Towbin, Bach X Tran, Miltiadis Tsilimbaris, Uche S Uchendu, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Eduardo A Undurraga, Selen Begüm Uzun, Andrew J Vallely, Coen H van Gool, Tommi J Vasankari, Monica S Vavilala, N Venketasubramanian, Salvador Villalpando, Francesco S Violante, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Theo Vos, Stephen Waller, Haidong Wang, Linhong Wang, Xiaorong Wang, Yanping Wang, Scott Weichenthal, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G Weintraub, Ronny Westerman, James D Wilkinson, Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes, John Q Wong, Muluemebet Abera Wordofa, Gelin Xu, Yang C Yang, Yuichiro Yano, Gokalp Kadri Yentur, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Seok-Jun Yoon, Mustafa Z Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Kim Yun Jin, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Yong Zhao, Yingfeng Zheng, Maigeng Zhou, Jun Zhu, Xiao Nong Zou, Alan D Lopez, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray, Rafael Lozano.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery.
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[Comparative study on distribution of endophytic fungi in Eucommia barks from different habitats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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A total of 152 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from the barks of Eucommia ulmoides in three regions (Lueyang country, Zunyi country, Cili country). Based on morphological characteristics and analysis of ITS sequences, these strains were identified into 8 genera. Thereinto Phomopsis, Diaporthe and Alternaria were common genera to Eucommia barks from different sites. But the dominant genus was different: Alternaria was the dominant genus in the barks from Cili country, and Phomopsis was the dominant genus from Zunyi country, then Diaporthe was the one from Lueyang country. According to the similarity coefficient, the composition of the endophytic fungi was distinctly different between the barks from three sites. The diversity and species richness in Lueyang country and Cili country were found higher than those in Zunyi country. The evenness of endophytic fungi was 0.936 5 in Lueyang county, which was higher than 0.737 1 or 0.641 0 in Cili county or Zunyi county, respectively. After phylogenic analysis and calculating the genetic distances of typical strains belong to Phomopsis and its perfect stage--Diaporthe, there was very high genetic diversity in the two genera from our study. In conclusion, the community structure and diversity of endophytic fungi were significant different in Eucommia barks from the three habitats.
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DNA damage induces the accumulation of Tiam1 by blocking ?-TrCP-dependent degradation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The Rac1/JNK cascade plays important roles in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. However, how this cascade is activated upon DNA damage remains to be fully understood. We show here that, in untreated cells, Tiam1, a Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 (CK1) at its C terminus, leading to Skp, Cullin, F-box-containing(?-TrCP) recognition, ubiquitination, and proteasome-mediated degradation. Upon DNA-damaging anticancer drug treatment, CK1/?-TrCP-mediated Tiam1 degradation is abolished, and the accumulated Tiam1 contributes to downstream activation of Rac1/JNK. Consistently, tumor cells overexpressing Tiam1 are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging drug treatment. In xenograft mice, Tiam1-high cells are more susceptible to doxorubicin treatment. Thus, our results uncover that inhibition of proteasome-mediated Tiam1 degradation is an upstream event leading to Rac1/JNK activation and cell apoptosis in response to DNA-damaging drug treatment.
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Gold Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery Platform for Antineoplastic Chemotherapy.
Curr. Drug Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have demonstrated increasingly wide applications in drug delivery due to their unique physicochemical and optical properties as well as low toxicity. Compared to the organic nanocarriers for therapeutic agents, AuNPs have shown superior performance as drug delivery vectors, including the inert nature, well-developed synthesis strategies, tunable size, and flexible and easy surface modification with various chemical and biological molecules. In this review, we emphasize on the applications of AuNPs in the aspect of improving pharmaceutical property and therapeutic efficacy of drugs, especially those covalently and non-covalently connected to the surface of AuNPs. Acting as a solid core to link drugs and their derivatives, AuNPs provide the nano-prodrug system with compressed size, high loading efficiency, three-dimension structure, and enhanced cellular uptake capability. With the intensive and systematical investigation of the drug-connected AuNPs, several important issues will become the hot but emergent topics for future research in this field, such as the toxicity in live human subjects, ultimate destination, and possible pathways and mechanisms for their absorption, circulation, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
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Impact of elevated Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) concentrations of reverse osmosis membrane desalinated seawater on the stability of water pipe materials.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Hardness and alkalinity are known factors influencing the chemical stability of desalinated water. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on corrosion and/or scale formation on the surface of different water distribution pipe materials under tropical conditions. The corrosion rates of ductile iron, cast iron and cement-lined ductile iron coupons were examined in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane desalinated seawater which was remineralised using different concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The changes in water characteristics and the coupon corrosion rates were studied before and after the post-treatment. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion products were examined using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. We found that the combination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (60/40 mg/L as CaCO3) resulted in lower corrosion rates than all other treatments for the three types of pipe materials, suggesting that Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) combination improves the chemical stability of desalinated seawater rather than Ca(2+) only.
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15-deoxy-?¹²,¹?-prostaglandin J? ameliorates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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A proinflammatory milieu emerging in the lung due to neutrophil accumulation and activation is a key in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). 15-deoxy-?(12, 14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), one of the terminal products of the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, is known to be the endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) with multiple physiological properties. Growing evidence indicates that 15d-PGJ2 has anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, cytoprotective and pro-resolving effects. We investigated whether 15d-PGJ2 has a protective effect against endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats.
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Noreudesmane sesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Six new 14-noreudesmane sesquiterpenoids, nicotabacosides A-F (1-6), along with five known sesquiterpenoids (7-11), were isolated from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated as isorishitin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), rishitin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), rishitin 2-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), 1, 6-dehydro-rishitin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4), 2-hydroxyl-ligudentatol 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (5) and oxyglutinosone 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (6) based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR). Their absolute configurations were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and comparison of their electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra.
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Synthesis, structure-activity relationships and biological evaluation of dehydroandrographolide and andrographolide derivatives as novel anti-hepatitis B virus agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Dehydroandrographolide and andrographolide, two natural diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata possessed activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 22.58 and 54.07?M and low SI values of 8.7 and 3.7 in our random assay. Consequently, 48 derivatives of dehydroandrographolide and andrographolide were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HBV properties to yield a series of active derivatives with lower cytotoxicity, including 14 derivatives against HBsAg secretion, 19 derivatives against HBeAg secretion and 38 derivatives against HBV DNA replication. Interestingly, compound 4e could inhibit not only HBsAg and HBeAg secretions but also HBV DNA replication with SI values of 20.3, 125.0 and 104.9. Furthermore, the most active compound 2c with SI value higher than 165.1 inhibiting HBV DNA replication was revealed with the optimal logP value of 1.78 and logD values. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the derivatives were disclosed for guiding the future research toward the discovery of new anti-HBV drugs.
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Role of interleukin-6 in differentiating interleukin-11 induced fever and early bacterial infection.
Indian J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To evaluate the role of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-?) in differentiating interleukin 11 induced fever with C-reactive protein elevation from early bacterial infection.
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Effect of different oxytetracycline addition methods on its degradation behavior in soil.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotics in soil is commonly studied using the following methods of adding antibiotics to the soil: (i) adding manure collected from animals fed with a diet containing antibiotics, (ii) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics and (iii) directly adding antibiotics. No research simultaneously comparing different antibiotic addition methods was found. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was used as a model antibiotic to compare the effect of the three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on OTC degradation behavior in soil. The three treatment methods have similar trends, though OTC degradation half-lives show the following significant differences (P<0.05): manure from swine fed OTC (treatment A)
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Human fetal liver stromal cell co-culture enhances the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells into islet-like cell clusters.
Stem Cell Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Recent advance in directed differentiation of pancreatic stem cells offers potential to the development of replacement therapy for diabetic patients. However, the existing differentiation protocols are complex, time-consuming, and costly; thus there is a need for alternative protocols. Given the common developmental origins of liver and pancreas, we sought to develop a novel protocol, devoid of growth factors, by using liver stromal cells (LSCs) derived from human fetal liver. We examined the effects of the LSCs on the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells (PPCs) into islet-like cell clusters (ICCs). PPCs and LSCs isolated from 1st to 2nd trimester human fetal tissues underwent co-cultures; differentiation and functionality of ICCs were determined by examining expression of critical markers and secretion of insulin. Co-culture with 2nd but not 1st trimester LSCs enhanced ICC differentiation and functionality without the use of exogenous differentiation 'cocktails'. Differential expression profiles of growth factors from 1st versus 2nd trimester fetal liver were compared. Many morphogenic factors were expressed by LSCs, while insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was identified as one of the key molecules responsible for the ICC differentiation. This is the first report showing that an LSC-induced microenvironment can enhance ICC differentiation and functionality. Further modifications of the stroma microenvironment may offer an alternative, efficient and cost-effective approach to providing islets for transplantation.
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(±)-Paeoveitol, a pair of new norditerpene enantiomers from Paeonia veitchii.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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(+)-Paeoveitol and (-)-paeoveitol, a pair of new norditerpene enantiomers, were isolated from the root of Paeonia veitchii. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined on the basis of extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra, crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). A possible biogenesis involving two molecules of paeoniflorin was postulated.
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Patients after colostomy: relationship between quality of life and acceptance of disability and social support.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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The aim of this research was to explore quality of life (QOL) and acceptance of disability and social support of colostomy patients as well as the relationship between these factors.
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Effects of enterostomal nurse telephone follow-up on postoperative adjustment of discharged colostomy patients.
Cancer Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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People with a new colostomy encounter many difficulties as they struggle to adjust to their ostomies. Nurse telephone follow-up is a convenient way to ensure continuity of care. There is a paucity of studies testing if nurse telephone follow-up can enhance adjustment of postdischarged colostomy patients.
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Site selectivity for protein tyrosine nitration: insights from features of structure and topological network.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Tyrosine nitration is a covalent post-translational modification, which regulates protein functions such as hindering tyrosine phosphorylation and affecting essential signal transductions in cells. Based on up-to-date proteomics data, tyrosine nitration appears to be a highly selective process since not all tyrosine residues in proteins or all proteins are nitrated in vivo. Quite a few investigations included the protein structural information from the RCSB PDB database, where near 100,000 high-quality three-dimensional structures are available. In this work, we analyzed the local protein structures and amino acid topological networks of the nitrated and non-nitrated tyrosine sites in nitrated proteins, including neighboring atomic distribution, amino acid pair (AAP) and amino acid triangle (AAT). It has been found that aromatic and aliphatic residues, particularly with large volume, aromatic, aliphatic, or acidic side chains, are disfavored for the nitration. After integrating these structural features and topological network features with traditional sequence features, the predictive model achieves a sensitivity of 63.30% and a specificity of 92.24%, resulting in a much better accuracy compared to the previous models with only protein sequence information. Our investigation implies that the site selectivity may stem from a more open, hydrophilic and high-pH chemical environment around the tyrosine residue.
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The regulation network and network motif analysis in ovarian cancer.
Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Several gene alterations have been identified associated with ovarian cancer (OC) development. However, how these genetic elements are coordinated in transcription network during OC initiation and progression is poorly understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to interpret the transcription regulation network of OC.
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Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Regulates the Development of Pancreatic Endocrine Cells in Mouse Embryos.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Background: We previously identified a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulating the differentiation of an isolated population of human pancreatic progenitor cells. Major RAS components that regulate organogenesis have been also described in embryos; however, it is not known whether a local RAS is present in the fetal pancreas. We now hypothesize that angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 ) and type 2 (AT2 ) receptors are expressed in mouse embryonic pancreas and involved in regulating endocrine cell development. Results: Differential expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors was observed in the mouse pancreata in late embryogenesis. Systemic AT2 , but not AT1 , receptor blockade during the second transition in pancreatic development (from embryonic day 12.0 onward) reduced the ?-cell to ?-cell ratio of the neonate islets, impaired their insulin secretory function and the glucose tolerance of the pups. Studies with pancreas explants ex vivo revealed regulation by AT2 receptors of the differentiation of pancreatic progenitors into insulin-producing cells and of the proliferation of the differentiated cell, actions that did not result from reduced angiogenesis as a secondary effect of AT2 receptor antagonism. Conclusions: These data revealed an AT2 receptor-mediated mechanism regulating pancreatic endocrine cell development in vivo. Developmental Dynamics, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Anaerobic cellulolytic rumen fungal populations in goats fed with and without Leucaena leucocephala hybrid, as determined by real-time PCR.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The effect of Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Bahru (LLB), which contains a high concentration of condensed tannins, on cellulolytic rumen fungal population in goats was investigated using real-time PCR. The fungal population in goats fed LLB was inhibited during the first 10 days of feeding, but after 15 days of feeding, there was a tremendous increase of fungal population (157.0 ?g/ml), which was about fourfold more than that in control goats (39.7 ?g/ml). However, after this period, the fungal population decreased continuously, and at 30 days of feeding, the fungal population (50.6 ?g/ml) was not significantly different from that in control goats (55.4 ?g/ml).
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Phenotypic characterization of C57BL/6J mice carrying the Disc1 gene from the 129S6/SvEv strain.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Disruption of disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, was first identified in a large Scottish family in which many members suffered from various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. To model the Scottish DISC1 truncation, we established a Disc1 mutant mouse line in which the 129S6/SvEv 25-bp deletion variant was transferred into the C57BL/6J strain by backcrossing. A battery of behavioral tasks was conducted to evaluate the basic behaviors and cognitive function of these mice. In heterozygote and homozygote Disc1 mutant (Het and Homo) mice, behavioral impairments were noted in working memory test which is thought to be mediated by the function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The properties of mPFC neurons were characterized in both morphological and physiological aspects. The dendritic diameters were decreased in layer II/III mPFC pyramidal neurons of Het and Homo mice, whereas a significant reduction in spine density was observed in Homo mice. Neuronal excitability was declined in layer II/III mPFC pyramidal neurons of Het and Homo mice, yet increased transmitter release was identified in Homo mice. Thus, the structural and functional alterations of the mPFC in Het and Homo mice might account for their cognitive impairment. Since most of the gene knockout mice are generated from 129 substrain-derived embryonic stem cells, potential Disc1 deficiency should be considered.
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Knockouts of RecA-like proteins RadC1 and RadC2 have distinct responses to DNA damage agents in Sulfolobus islandicus.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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RecA family recombinases play essential roles in maintaining genome integrity. A group of RecA-like proteins named RadC are present in all archaea, but their in vivo functions remain unclear. In this study, we performed phylogenetic and genetic analysis of two RadC proteins from Sulfolobus islandicus. RadC is closer to the KaiC lineage of cyanobacteria and proteobacteria than to the lineage of the recombinases (RecA, RadA, and Rad51) and the recombinase paralogs (e.g., RadB, Rad55, and Rad51B). Using the recently-established S. islandicus genetic system, we constructed deletion and over-expression strains of radC1 and radC2. Deletion of radC1 rendered the cells more sensitive to DNA damaging agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), hydroxyurea (HU), and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, than the wild type, and a ?radC1?radC2 double deletion strain was more sensitive to cisplatin and MMS than the ?radC1 single deletion mutant. In addition, ectopic expression of His-tagged RadC1 revealed that RadC1 was co-purified with a putative structure-specific nuclease and ATPase, which is highly conserved in archaea. Our results indicate that both RadC1 and RadC2 are involved in DNA repair. RadC1 may play a general or primary role in DNA repair, while RadC2 plays a role in DNA repair in response to specific DNA damages.
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The reliability of clinical dynamic monitoring of redox status using a new redox potential (ORP) determination method.
Redox Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Quantitative monitoring of the redox status is the foundation for redox-related treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a new depolarization curve method for plasma redox potential (ORP) monitoring.
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Lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus: fermented rice straw extracts interferes with methane production and gene expression in Methanobrevibacter smithii.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Lovastatin, a natural byproduct of some fungi, is able to inhibit HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl CoA) reductase. This is a key enzyme involved in isoprenoid synthesis and essential for cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea. In this paper, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that lovastatin secreted by Aspergillus terreus in fermented rice straw extracts (FRSE) can inhibit growth and CH4 production in Methanobrevibacter smithii (a test methanogen). By HPLC analysis, 75% of the total lovastatin in FRSE was in the active hydroxyacid form, and in vitro studies confirmed that this had a stronger effect in reducing both growth and CH4 production in M. smithii compared to commercial lovastatin. Transmission electron micrographs revealed distorted morphological divisions of lovastatin- and FRSE-treated M. smithii cells, supporting its role in blocking normal cell membrane synthesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that both commercial lovastatin and FRSE increased (P < 0.01) the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene (hmg). In addition, expressions of other gene transcripts in M. smithii. with a key involvement in methanogenesis were also affected. Experimental confirmation that CH4 production is inhibited by lovastatin in A. terreus-fermented rice straw paves the way for its evaluation as a feed additive for mitigating CH4 production in ruminants.
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Comparisons on enhancing the immunity of fresh and dry Cordyceps militaris in vivo and in vitro.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The immunomodulatory capacities of fresh Cordyceps militaris (FCM) and dry Cordyceps militaris (DCM) were compared.
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Geographic and urban-rural disparities in the total prevalence of neural tube defects and their subtypes during 2006-2008 in China: a study using the hospital-based birth defects surveillance system.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Previous reports on the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in China did not include cases of NTDs that were less than 28 weeks of gestational age (GA) and hence did not accurately reflect the total prevalence of NTDs or the geographic and urban-rural disparities in their prevalence. This article includes cases of NTDs that were less than 28 weeks of GA.
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Lovastatin-enriched rice straw enhances biomass quality and suppresses ruminal methanogenesis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that solid state fermentation (SSF) of agro-biomass (using rice straw as model); besides, breaking down its lignocellulose content to improve its nutritive values also produces lovastatin which could be used to suppress methanogenesis in the rumen ecosystem. Fermented rice straw (FRS) containing lovastatin after fermentation with Aspergillus terreus was used as substrate for growth study of rumen microorganisms using in vitro gas production method. In the first experiment, the extract from the FRS (FRSE) which contained lovastatin was evaluated for its efficacy for reduction in methane (CH4) production, microbial population, and activity in the rumen fluid. FRSE reduced total gas and CH4 productions (P < 0.01). It also reduced (P < 0.01) total methanogens population and increased the cellulolytic bacteria including Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.01), and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P < 0.05). Similarly, FRS reduced total gas and CH4 productions, methanogens population, but increased in vitro dry mater digestibility compared to the non-fermented rice straw. Lovastatin in the FRSE and the FRS significantly increased the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene that produces HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme for cell membrane production in methanogenic Archaea.
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Robust and low complexity localization algorithm based on head-related impulse responses and interaural time difference.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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This article introduces a biologically inspired localization algorithm using two microphones, for a mobile robot. The proposed algorithm has two steps. First, the coarse azimuth angle of the sound source is estimated by cross-correlation algorithm based on interaural time difference. Then, the accurate azimuth angle is obtained by cross-channel algorithm based on head-related impulse responses. The proposed algorithm has lower computational complexity compared to the cross-channel algorithm. Experimental results illustrate that the localization performance of the proposed algorithm is better than those of the cross-correlation and cross-channel algorithms.
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[Prevalence survey of visual impairment in a multiethnic rural district in the high altitude area of Yunnan Province, China].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment by a population-based survey conducted in Gongshan County of Yunnan Province.
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[Primary malignant airway neoplasms in 4 children].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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Primary airway neoplasms are extremely rare in the pediatric age group. This paper reports 4 children with primary airway neoplasms to explore the clinical manifestations, safety and efficacy of bronchoscopic interventions.
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[Study on rapid determination of nutrient composition in corn distillers dried grains with solubles by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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The possibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for quantitative determination of 8 important nutrient compositions, including moisture, crude protein, ether extract, ash, total phosphorus, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude fiber in corn DDGS was investigated in the present study. Ninety-three samples were collected from 18 plants in China over a three years period. Calibrations were performed by modified partial least squared algorithm and 15 different derivatives plus scatter correction spectral pretreatments. The results showed that the second derivative mathematical treatment gave the best prediction performance for most constituents. The prediction performance of models developed using 93 calibration samples was better than that developed using 70 samples. The coefficients of determination for calibration (RSQcal), coefficients of determination for cross-validation (1-VR), and RPD(CV) of cross-validation in models developed using 93 samples were 0.94-0.99, 0.89-0.99, and 2.98-14.85, respectively. These results indicate that NIRS can be used as a quantitative method for rapid determination of nutrient composition in corn DDGS.
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3?,11?-Dihy-droxy-12-ursen-3-yl palmitate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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In the title compound, C(46)H(80)O(3), a natural ursane-type triperpenoid, four of the five six-membered rings adopt chair conformations; the fifth, which has a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010].
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Protein-binding affinity of leucaena condensed tannins of differing molecular weights.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Depending on their source, concentration, chemical structure, and molecular weight, condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with protein, which could lead to ruminal bypass protein, benefiting animal production. In this study, CTs from Leuceana leucocephala hybrid were fractionated into five fractions by a size exclusion chromatography procedure. The molecular weights of the CT fractions were determined using Q-TOF LC-MS, and the protein-binding affinities of the respective CT fractions were determined using a protein precipitation assay with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the standard protein. The calculated number-average molecular weights (M(n)) were 1348.6, 857.1, 730.1, 726.0, and 497.1, and b values (the b value represents the CT quantity that is needed to bind half of the maximum precipitable BSA) of the different molecular weight fractions were 0.381, 0.510, 0.580, 0.636, and 0.780 for fractions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The results indicated that, in general, CTs of higher molecular weight fractions have stronger protein-binding affinity than those of lower molecular weights. However, the number of hydroxyl units within the structure of CT polymers also affects the protein-binding affinity.
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Neonatal mortality due to preterm birth at 28-36 weeks gestation in China, 2003-2008.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Almost all (99%) neonatal deaths occur in developing countries, where the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rates (NMR) has been small; the Millennium Development Goal for child survival cannot be met if this situation continues. China is among the 10 countries that have the largest numbers of neonatal deaths. In order to provide effective interventions to reduce the national NMR for government policy makers, we analyse the trends, causes and characteristics of the neonatal deaths of preterm babies in different regions of China during the period 2003-2008. The data for this retrospective study were retrieved from the population-based Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System of China. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to analyse the trend of NMRs due to immaturity. The national NMR due to immaturity has decreased by 38.7% in 6 years. However, the proportion of preterm births among the causes of neonatal death has increased significantly from 33.6% in 2003 to 40.9% in 2008. The relative risk of neonatal death among preterm babies has shown significant regional disparity. In 2008, the adjusted relative risk was 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95, 1.78] in the inland regions and 2.37 [95% CI 1.56, 3.60] in the remote regions, both compared with the coastal regions. The proportion of neonatal deaths with a gestational age <32 weeks or a birthweight <1500 g was highest among the coastal regions. Most neonatal deaths of preterm babies in remote areas were born at home and were not treated before death. Our study suggests that preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death in China and neonatal mortality due to immaturity displayed regional differences. The Chinese government should implement major effective strategies for reducing the mortality of preterm infants to further decrease the total NMR. Priority interventions should be region-specific, depending on the availability of economic and health care resources.
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Protective effect of cerium ion against ultraviolet B radiation-induced water stress in soybean seedlings.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Effects of cerium ion (Ce(III)) on water relations of soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) under ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) stress were investigated under laboratory conditions. UV-B radiation not only affected the contents of two osmolytes (proline, soluble sugar) in soybean seedlings, but also inhibited the transpiration in soybean seedlings by decreasing the stomatal density and conductance. The two effects caused the inhibition in the osmotic and metabolic absorption of water, which decreased the water content and the free water/bound water ratio. Obviously, UV-B radiation led to water stress, causing the decrease in the photosynthesis in soybean seedlings. The pretreatment with 20 mg L(-1) Ce(III) could alleviate UV-B-induced water stress by regulating the osmotic and metabolic absorption of water in soybean seedlings. The alleviated effect caused the increase in the photosynthesis and the growth of soybean seedlings. It is one of the protective effect mechanisms of Ce(III) against the UV-B radiation-induced damage to plants.
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Study of KAP with regard to taking folic acid supplements and factors affecting the recommendation and prescription of those supplements among obstetricians and specialists in womens health in six provinces of Northern China, 2009.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Taking folic acid (FA) supplements reduces the risks of neural tube defects (NTDs) in early pregnancy. Obstetricians and specialists in womens health play important roles in promoting FA intake. However, surveys on their knowledge of, attitudes toward, and behavior regarding giving FA to pregnant women are limited. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 5,860 obstetricians and specialists in womens health using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on participants demographic characteristics and their knowledge of and attitudes toward and practices related to taking FA supplements. Chi-square analysis was used for rate comparison while logistic regression analysis was performed to predict influencing factors. For items on knowledge about FA and taking FA supplements the overall correct response rate was 60.3% (24,235/40,173). Questions about related practices and attitudes were correctly answered for the most part (more than 90%), but participants were less likely to follow the practice of prescribing FA tablets to women planning a pregnancy while working (77.2%). Statistical analysis indicated that the "Level of facility where the participant works" and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants recommendation to take FA while "Job title", "Amount of professional work experience", and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants prescription of FA. In conclusion, participants had a good deal of knowledge about NTDs and FA but the lack of some knowledge possibly led to the relatively low rate of correct behaviors. Therefore, educating obstetricians and specialists in womens health in this regard is crucial.
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Hippocampal endocannabinoids play an important role in induction of long-term potentiation and regulation of contextual fear memory formation.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Recent studies show contradictory results regarding the contribution of endocannabinoids in fear memory formation and long-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigated the effects of both cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) antagonist AM281 and anandamide reuptake inhibitor AM404 on the formation of contextual fear memory in adult mice. Both i.p. and intra-hippocampal injections of AM281 promoted contextual fear memory while a high dose of AM404 inhibited it. These findings demonstrate that CB1 receptor-mediated signaling negatively contributes to contextual fear memory formation. We further investigated the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slices and found that AM281 impaired the induction of LTP. Additionally, the blockade of LTP by AM281 was completely prevented by bath application of picrotoxin, a selective antagonist of GABA(A) receptor. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of CB1 receptor contributes to induction of LTP via a GABA(A) receptor-mediated mechanism.
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High expression of GLT-1 in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus subfields contributes to their inherent resistance to ischemia in rats.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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It is well known that neurons in the CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) subfields of the hippocampus are resistant to short period of ischemia which is usually lethal to pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 subfield. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether the inherent higher resistance of neurons in CA3 and DG to ischemia is associated with glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) in rats. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assay showed that the basal expressions of GLT-1 in both CA3 and DG were much higher than that in CA1 subfield. Mild global brain ischemia for 8 min induced delayed death of almost all CA1 pyramidal neurons and marked GLT-1 down-regulation in the CA1 subfield, but it was not lethal to the neurons in either CA3 or DG and induced GLT-1 up-regulation and astrocyte activation showed normal soma and aplenty slender processes in the both areas. When the global brain ischemia was prolonged to 25 min, neuronal death was clearly observed in CA3 and DG accompanied with down-regulation of GLT-1 expression and abnormal astrocytes represented with hypertrophic somas, but shortened processes. After down-regulating of GLT-1 expression and function by its antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or inhibiting GLT-1 function by dihydrokainate, an inhibitor of GLT-1, the mild global brain ischemia for 8 min, which usually was not lethal to CA3 and DG neurons, induced the neuronal death in CA3 and DG subfields. Taken together, the higher expression of GLT-1 in the CA3 and DG contributes to their inherent resistance to ischemia.
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[The changes of bioactive substances in the aqueous humor of Pseudoexfoliation syndrome].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, which represents the most commonly identified specific cause of open-angle glaucoma, is a kind of clinically systemic disease. Why there are so much exfoliative material deposited in the anterior chamber? Where did exfoliative material come from? The pathogenesis is never be confirmed exactly, though there are so many theories described by investigators. In recent years, in order to survey and evaluate the changes of the materials of the aqueous humor of patients with the Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, many investigators had done more works. This review will give a summarization of these findings.
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Transmembrane protein 198 promotes LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt signaling activation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Wnt/?-catenin signaling is fundamental in embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis in metazoans. Upon Wnt stimulation, cognate coreceptors LRP5 and LRP6 ([LRP5/6] low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6) are activated via phosphorylation at key residues. Although several kinases have been implicated, the LRP5/6 activation mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that transmembrane protein 198 (TMEM198), a previously uncharacterized seven-transmembrane protein, is able to specifically activate LRP6 in transducing Wnt signaling. TMEM198 associates with LRP6 and recruits casein kinase family proteins, via the cytoplasmic domain, to phosphorylate key residues important for LRP6 activation. In mammalian cells, TMEM198 is required for Wnt signaling and casein kinase 1-induced LRP6 phosphorylation. During Xenopus embryogenesis, maternal and zygotic tmem198 mRNAs are widely distributed in the ectoderm and mesoderm. TMEM198 is required for Wnt-mediated neural crest formation, antero-posterior patterning, and particularly engrailed-2 expression in Xenopus embryos. Thus, our results identified TMEM198 as a membrane scaffold protein that promotes LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt signaling activation.
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Preventable maternal mortality: geographic/rural-urban differences and associated factors from the population-based Maternal Mortality Surveillance System in China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) over the last 3 decades. Chinas reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the geographic and rural-urban differences, time trends and related factors in preventable maternal deaths in China during 1996-2005, with the aim of providing reliable evidence for effective interventions.
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Hospitalized delivery and maternal deaths from obstetric hemorrhage in China from 1996 to 2006.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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To evaluate the role of hospitalized delivery in reducing maternal deaths from obstetric hemorrhage in urban and rural areas of China.
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Birth defects surveillance in China.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China.
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Time trends and geographic variations in the prevalence of hypospadias in China.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Little is known about the main epidemiologic characteristics of hypospadias prevalence in China. We investigated the time trends and geographic variations in the prevalence of hypospadias in China from 1996 to 2008.
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[IL-1? can promote proliferation and migration of Hepa1-6 cells and impair IFN?-induced cell growth inhibition in vitro].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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To analyze the effect of recombinant IL-1? on proliferation, migration, and the effect on IFN? induced cell growth inhibtion.
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Assessing the trend of gastroschisis prevalence in China from 1996 to 2007 using two analytical methods.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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In recent years, the prevalence of gastroschisis has increased remarkably in some areas and remained unchanged in other areas; however, in general, there is a recent increasing trend compared to the 1970s and 1980s. In this study, we explored the time trend of gastroschisis prevalence in China during 1996 to 2007.
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[Trends of maternal mortality ratio during 1996-2010 in China].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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To analyze time trend and regional disparities in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and major causes of maternal death in China from 1996 to 2010.
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Fatty acid synthase inhibitors from the hulls of Nephelium lappaceum L.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Natural products inhibiting fatty acid synthase (FAS) are appearing as potential therapeutic agents to treat cancer and obesity. The bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the hulls of Nephelium lappaceum L. resulted in the isolation of ten compounds (1-10) mainly including flavonoids and oleane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, in which all of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. Additionally, compounds 8 and 9 were new hederagenin derivatives and were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(2,3-di-O-acetyl-?-l-arabinofuranosyl)-(1?3)-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?2)]-?-l-arabinopyranoside and hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-?-l-arabinofuranosyl)-(1?3)-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-l-arabinopyranoside, respectively. All these isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS, which showed these isolates had inhibitory activity against FAS with IC(50) values ranging from 6.69 to 204.40 ?M, comparable to the known FAS inhibitor EGCG (IC(50)=51.97 ?M). The study indicates that the hulls of Nephelium lappaceum L. could be considered as potential sources of promising FAS inhibitors and the oleane-type triterpene oligoglycosides could be considered as another type of natural FAS inhibitors.
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Diversity of bovine rumen methanogens In vitro in the presence of condensed tannins, as determined by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene library.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Molecular diversity of rumen archaeal populations from bovine rumen fluid incubated with or without condensed tannins was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries. The predominant order of rumen archaea in the 16S rRNA gene libraries of the control and condensed tannins treatment was found to belong to a novel group of rumen archaea that is distantly related to the order Thermoplasmatales, with 59.5% (15 phylotypes) and 81.43% (21 phylotypes) of the total clones from the control and treatment clone libraries, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene library of the control was found to have higher proportions of methanogens from the orders Methanomicrobiales (32%) and Methanobacteriales (8.5%) as compared to those found in the condensed tannins treatment clone library in both orders (16.88% and 1.68% respectively). The phylotype distributed in the order Methanosarcinales was only found in the control clone library. The study indicated that condensed tannins could alter the diversity of bovine rumen methanogens.
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Molecular basis of Wnt activation via the DIX domain protein Ccd1.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2010
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The Wnt signaling plays pivotal roles in embryogenesis and cancer, and the three DIX domain-containing proteins, Dvl, Axin, and Ccd1, play distinct roles in the initiation and regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Overexpressed Dvl has a tendency to form large polymers in a cytoplasmic punctate pattern, whereas the biologically active Dvl in fact forms low molecular weight oligomers. The molecular basis for how the polymeric sizes of Dvl proteins are controlled upon Wnt signaling remains unclear. Here we show that Ccd1 up-regulates canonical Wnt signaling via acting synergistically with Dvl. We determined the crystal structures of wild type Ccd1-DIX and mutant Dvl1-DIX(Y17D), which pack into "head-to-tail" helical filaments. Structural analyses reveal two sites crucial for intra-filament homo- and hetero-interaction and a third site for inter-filament homo-assembly. Systematic mutagenesis studies identified critical residues from all three sites required for Dvl homo-oligomerization, puncta formation, and stimulation of Wnt signaling. Remarkably, Ccd1 forms a hetero-complex with Dvl through the "head" of Dvl-DIX and the "tail" of Ccd1-DIX, depolymerizes Dvl homo-assembly, and thereby controls the size of Dvl polymer. These data together suggest a molecular mechanism for Ccd1-mediated Wnt activation in that Ccd1 converts latent polymeric Dvl to a biologically active oligomer(s).
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[Analysis on the diarrhea mortality rate, pre-death diagnosis and treatment of children under-5 in China, 1996-2006].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2010
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To understand the trends of diarrhea mortality rate, pre-death diagnosis and treatment of children under-5 in China, from 1996 to 2006.
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[Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies for human BCSC-1 protein].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
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To obtain monoclonal antibodies against human BCSC-1 protein for further study of the structure and function of human BCSC-1 protein.
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Trends in maternal mortality due to obstetric hemorrhage in urban and rural China, 1996-2005.
J Perinat Med
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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To analyze the characteristics and trends of maternal deaths due to obstetric hemorrhage in urban and rural areas during the period of 1996-2005 in China, and to provide evidence for decision-making for further reducing the national maternal mortality ratio (MMR).
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[A multi-center study to evaluate the dynamic changes of uterine artery and umbilical artery flow in a normal pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
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To investigate the dynamic changes of uterine artery and umbilical artery in the first, second, and third trimester of normal pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP).
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[Combined injured effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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Combined effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling (Glycine max) and its inherent mechanism were studied in this paper. Compared with treatments by simulated acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5) or rare earth La(III) (60, 100 and 300 mg x L(-1)), the decrease degree of growth parameters in combined treatments was higher, indicating that there were a synergistic effects between acid rain and La. Moreover,the inhibition effects of acid rain and La(III) were more obvious when pH value of acid rain was lower or the concentration of La(III) was higher. The changes of photosynthetic parameters were similar to those of growth, but the decrease degree of each parameter was not same in the same treatment group. The decrease degree of optimal PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content (Chl) were 9.35%-22.75% and 9.14%-24.53%, respectively, lower than that of photosynthetic rate Pn (22.78%-84.7%), Hill reaction rate (15.52%-73.38%) and Mg2+ -ATPase activity (14.51%-71.54%), showing that the sensitivity of photosynthetic parameters to the combined factors was different. Furthermore, relative analysis showed that the change of Pn were mainly affected by Hill reaction rate and Mg2+ -ATPase activity, and was less influenced by Chl and Fv/Fm. It indicates that the effect of acid rain and La on each reaction in photosynthesis was different, and the inhibition of combined treatments on photosynthesis in plants was one of the main factors affecting growth of plant.
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The tear fluid mucin 5AC change of primary angle-closure glaucoma patients after short-term medications and phacotrabeculectomy.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2010
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This paper proposed to evaluate the tear fluid mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) change in Chinese primary angle-closure glaucoma and cataract patients after short-term medications and phacotrabeculectomy.
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Fermentation of xylose into ethanol by a new fungus strain Pestalotiopsis sp. XE-1.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2010
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A new fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp. XE-1, which produced ethanol from xylose with yield of 0.47 g ethanol/g of consumed xylose was isolated. It also produced ethanol from arabinose, glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and sucrose with yields of 0.38, 0.47, 0.45, 0.46, 0.31, 0.25, 0.31, and 0.34 g ethanol/g of sugar consumed, respectively. It produced maximum ethanol from xylose at pH 6.5, 30°C under a semi-aerobic condition. Acetic acid produced in xylose fermenting process inhibited ethanol production of XE-1. The ethanol yield in the pH-uncontrolled batch fermentation was about 27% lower than that in the pH-controlled one. The ethanol tolerance of XE-1 was higher than most xylose-fermenting, ethanol-producing microbes, but lower than Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula polymorpha. XE-1 showed tolerance to high concentration of xylose, and was able to grow and produce ethanol even when it was cultivated in 97.71 g/l xylose.
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Multiple induced mutagenesis for improvement of ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2010
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Kluyveromyces marxianus GX-15 was mutated multiple times by alternately treatment with UV irradiation and NTG for two cycles. Four mutant strains with improved ethanol yield were obtained. The maximum ethanol concentration, ethanol yield coefficient and theoretical ethanol yield of the best mutant strain, GX-UN120, was 69 g/l, 0.46 g/g and 91%, respectively, when fermenting 150 g glucose/l at 40°C. The corresponding values for GX-15 were 58 g/l, 0.39 g/g and 76%, respectively. GX-UN120 grew well in 11% (v/v) of ethanol, while GX-15 could not grow when ethanol was greater than 8% (v/v).
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A study on rural-urban differences in neonatal mortality rate in China, 1996-2006.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2010
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This study examined the differences in neonatal mortality rates between urban and rural areas in China.
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Fatty acid synthase inhibitors of phenolic constituents isolated from Garcinia mangostana.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2010
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Natural inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FAS) are emerging as potential therapeutic agents to treat cancer and obesity. The bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the hulls of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of 13 phenolic compounds (1-13) mainly including xanthone and benzophenone, in which compounds 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 9 was a new natural product. These isolates possess strong inhibitory activity of FAS with the IC(50) values ranging from 1.24 to 91.07 ?M. The study indicates that two types of natural products, xanthones and benzophenones, could be considered as promising FAS inhibitors.
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[Mortality from congenital malformations in children under 5 years old in China, 1996-2006].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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To identify the trend and pattern of mortality from congenital malformations in children under 5 years old in China.
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[Prevalence of congenital split hand/split foot malformation in Chinese population].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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To study the epidemiological and clinical features of congenital split hand/split foot malformation (SHFM) in Chinese population.
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[Study on the chemical constituents of Antipathes dichotoma].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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To investigate the chemical constituents of Antipathes dichotoma.
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Maternal mortality in China, 1996-2005.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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To analyze the trend in maternal mortality ratio (MMR), characteristics and causes of maternal deaths, and factors influencing the MMR in China between 1996 and 2005.
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Xenopus skip modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and functions in neural crest induction.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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The beta-catenin-lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) protein complex is the key mediator of canonical Wnt signaling and initiates target gene transcription upon ligand stimulation. In addition to beta-catenin and LEF themselves, many other proteins have been identified as necessary cofactors. Here we report that the evolutionally conserved splicing factor and transcriptional co-regulator, SKIP/SNW/NcoA62, forms a ternary complex with LEF1 and HDAC1 and mediates the repression of target genes. Loss-of-function studies showed that SKIP is obligatory for Wnt signaling-induced target gene transactivation, suggesting an important role of SKIP in the canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with its involvement in beta-catenin signaling, the C-terminally truncated forms of SKIP are able to stabilize beta-catenin and enhance Wnt signaling. In Xenopus embryos, both overexpression and knockdown of Skip lead to reduced neural crest induction, consistent with down-regulated Wnt signaling in both cases. Our results indicate that SKIP is a novel component of the beta-catenin transcriptional complex.
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The association of CaM and Hsp70 regulates S-phase arrest and apoptosis in a spatially and temporally dependent manner in human cells.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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The cell cycle is controlled by regulators functioning at the right time and at the right place. We have found that calmodulin (CaM) has specific distribution patterns during different cell-cycle stages. Here, we identify cell-cycle-specific binding proteins of CaM and examine their function during cell-cycle progression. We first applied immunoprecipitation methods to isolate CaM-binding proteins from cell lysates obtained at different cell-cycle phases and then identified these proteins using mass spectrometry methods. A total of 41 proteins were identified including zinc finger proteins, ribosomal proteins, and heat shock proteins operating in a Ca(2+)-dependent or independent manner. Fifteen proteins were shown to interact with CaM in a cell-phase-specific manner. The association of the selected proteins and CaM were confirmed with in vitro immunoprecipitation and immunostaining methods. One of the identified proteins, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), was further studied with respect to its cell-cycle-related function. In vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis showed that the interaction of CaM and Hsp70 was found in the nucleus during the S phase. Overexpression of Hsp70 is shown to arrest cells at S phase and, thus, induce cell apoptosis. When we disrupted the CaM-Hsp70 association with HSP70 truncation without the CaM-binding domain, we found that S-phase arrest and apoptosis could be rescued. The results suggest that the spatial and temporal association of CaM and Hsp70 can regulate cell-cycle progression and cell apoptosis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.