Transfer of phage-related pathogenicity islands of Staphylococcus aureus (SaPI-s) was recently reported to be activated by helper phage dUTPases. This is a novel function for dUTPases otherwise involved in preservation of genomic integrity by sanitizing the dNTP pool. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of the dUTPase-induced gene expression control using direct techniques. The expression of SaPI transfer initiating proteins is repressed by proteins called Stl. We found that ?11 helper phage dUTPase eliminates SaPIbov1 Stl binding to its cognate DNA by binding tightly to Stl protein. We also show that dUTPase enzymatic activity is strongly inhibited in the dUTPase:Stl complex and that the dUTPase:dUTP complex is inaccessible to the Stl repressor. Our results disprove the previously proposed G-protein-like mechanism of SaPI transfer activation. We propose that the transfer only occurs if dUTP is cleared from the nucleotide pool, a condition promoting genomic stability of the virulence elements.
2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)FDG) is a tumor diagnostic radiotracer of great importance in both diagnosing primary and metastatic tumors and in monitoring the efficacy of the treatment. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an active transporter that is often expressed in various malignancies either intrinsically or appears later upon disease progression or in response to chemotherapy. Several authors reported that the accumulation of (18)FDG in P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expressing cancer cells (Pgp(+)) and tumors is different from the accumulation of the tracer in Pgp nonexpressing (Pgp(-)) ones, therefore we investigated whether (18)FDG is a substrate or modulator of Pgp pump. Rhodamine 123 (R123) accumulation experiments and ATPase assay were used to detect whether (18)FDG is substrate for Pgp. The accumulation and efflux kinetics of (18)FDG were examined in two different human gynecologic (A2780/A2780AD and KB-3-1/KB-V1) and a mouse fibroblast (3T3 and 3T3MDR1) Pgp(+) and Pgp(-) cancer cell line pairs both in cell suspension and monolayer cultures. We found that (18)FDG and its derivatives did not affect either the R123 accumulation in Pgp(+) cells or the basal and the substrate stimulated ATPase activity of Pgp supporting that they are not substrates or modulators of the pump. Measuring the accumulation and efflux kinetics of (18)FDG in different Pgp(+) and Pgp(-) cell line pairs, we have found that the Pgp(+) cells exhibited significantly higher (p?0.01) (18)FDG accumulation and slightly faster (18)FDG efflux kinetics compared to their Pgp(-) counterparts. The above data support the idea that expression of Pgp may increase the energy demand of cells resulting in higher (18)FDG accumulation and faster efflux. We concluded that (18)FDG and its metabolites are not substrates of Pgp.
With the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistances old antibiotics became a valuable source to find agents suitable to address this problem. More than 20 years after the last report, our purpose was to re-evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the topical agent primycin against current important bacterial pathogens. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of primycin were tested in comparison with agents widely applied topically, and with those of mupirocin and vancomycin, the topical and the non-topical gold-standard anti-MRSA agents. Primycin was ineffective (MIC>64?g/ml) against all the Gram-negative isolates tested. On the other hand, all the tested Gram-positive isolates were susceptible with MIC90 values of 0.06?g/ml for staphylococci and 0.5-1?g/ml for enterococci, streptococci, and P. acnes isolates, including all the multiresistant strains. Against MRSA isolates primycin showed slightly higher activity than mupirocin, and inhibited the mupirocin-resistant strains also. MBC90 values ranged from 0.25 to 2?g/ml for the investigated Gram-positive species. The bactericidal effect proved to be concentration-dependent in time-kill experiments. Spontaneous resistant mutants did not emerge in single-step mutation experiments and the resistance development was very slow by serial passaging. Passaged S. aureus strains showing increased primycin MIC values exhibited elevated vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values also. Though elucidation of the mechanisms behind warrants further investigations, these correlations can be related to development of vancomycin-intermediate phenotype. From the point of view of medical practice it is noteworthy that the increased primycin MIC values remained far below the concentration accessible by local application of the agent. These data make primycin a remarkable object of further investigations as well as a promising candidate for topical application against multiresistant Gram-positive pathogens.
Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2 mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10 mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2+10 mg/kg, resp.), as compared to a toxin free control. Samplings were performed after 2 and 4 weeks. Bodyweight of the T-2 fed group was lower after 4 weeks; the liver weight increased dramatically. Red blood cell (RBC) Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity decreased after 4 weeks in the T-2 group, it increased in the FB1 group and antagonism was found by the combined treatment. The RBC membrane fatty acid profile was modified by both toxins similarly during the entire feeding. After 4 weeks T-2 alone and in combination (with FB1) was found to increase mean cell volume (MCV). The time-dependent alterations in the T-2 group were significant for MCV (increase) and the mean cell haemoglobin (increase). The active monovalent cation transport was altered by both mycotoxins. Most probably FB1 exerts its sodium pump activity modification via an altered ceramide metabolism (behenic acid decrease in the RBC membrane), while for T-2 toxin a moderate membrane disruption and enzyme (protein) synthesis inhibition was supposed (ca. 75% decrease of the sodium pump activity).
An in vitro model has been developed for study of cariogenic potential of different Candida species. Slices were prepared from the root of extracted healthy teeth. These disks were covered with inert material, only the central hole, i.e. the root canal dentin surface remained uncovered. These preparates with free root dentin surfaces were incubated in Sabouraud medium in the presence of six-six Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua and Candida norvegensis strains. The calcium release was detected for 15 days. Two types of release could be distinguished. C. albicans deliberated calcium more aggressively (type "A" curve), while other Candidas were characterized by less expressed calcium releasing capacity (type "B" curve). Curves type "A" and "B" were divided into four steps in order to characterize more precisely the different dynamics of calcium release. Analyses of the different steps also suggested the more aggressive behaviour of C. albicans. Our results indicate that in addition to cariogenic role of different bacteria, fungi may also actively take part in the dentinal caries progress.
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for maintaining genomic integrity, which is challenged by a wide variety of potentially lethal DNA lesions. Regardless of the damage type, recombination is known to proceed by RAD51-mediated D-loop formation, followed by DNA repair synthesis. Nevertheless, the participating polymerases and extension mechanism are not well characterized. Here, we present a reconstitution of this step using purified human proteins. In addition to Pol ?, TLS polymerases, including Pol ? and Pol ?, also can extend D-loops. In vivo characterization reveals that Pol ? and Pol ? are involved in redundant pathways for HR. In addition, the presence of PCNA on the D-loop regulates the length of the extension tracks by recruiting various polymerases and might present a regulatory point for the various recombination outcomes.
Genome integrity requires well controlled cellular pools of nucleotides. dUTPases are responsible for regulating cellular dUTP levels and providing dUMP for dTTP biosynthesis. In Staphylococcus, phage dUTPases are also suggested to be involved in a moonlighting function regulating the expression of pathogenicity-island genes. Staphylococcal phage trimeric dUTPase sequences include a specific insertion that is not found in other organisms. Here, a 2.1?Å resolution three-dimensional structure of a ?11 phage dUTPase trimer with complete localization of the phage-specific insert, which folds into a small ?-pleated mini-domain reaching out from the dUTPase core surface, is presented. The insert mini-domains jointly coordinate a single Mg(2+) ion per trimer at the entrance to the threefold inner channel. Structural results provide an explanation for the role of Asp95, which is suggested to have functional significance in the moonlighting activity, as the metal-ion-coordinating moiety potentially involved in correct positioning of the insert. Enzyme-kinetics studies of wild-type and mutant constructs show that the insert has no major role in dUTP binding or cleavage and provide a description of the elementary steps (fast binding of substrate and release of products). In conclusion, the structural and kinetic data allow insights into both the phage-specific characteristics and the generally conserved traits of ?11 phage dUTPase.
Extracorporeal stool transport (recycling of chyme discharged from the proximal stoma end to the distal end of a high jejunostomy or ileostomy) is thought to be beneficial in preventing malabsoprtion, sodium loss, cholestasis and atrophy of the distal intestine until restoration of the intestinal continuity becomes possible. However little is known about its adverse effects. Our aim was to investigate the microbiological safety of recycling.
Risk factors for invasive infections by heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) may involve resistance to opsonophagocytosis and bacterial killing. hVISA strains typically have a thickened cell wall with altered peptidoglycan cross-linking. To determine whether hVISA may be endowed with an increased resistance to phagocytosis, this study assessed the characteristics of uptake and killing by granulocytes of three hVISA strains. All isolates were analysed by multilocus sequence typing and staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec typing. One of the strains belonged to the Hungarian meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone ST239-MRSA-III and the other two to the New York/Japan MRSA clone ST5-MRSA-II. In the presence of 10 % normal serum, the extent of phagocytosis and killing by blood granulocytes was equivalent for hVISA, MRSA and meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains. Using granulocytes and serum from one patient who survived hVISA infection, the rate of phagocytosis and killing was also found to be comparable to that by control cells in the presence of 10 % serum. However, phagocytosis and killing of hVISA and MRSA (ATCC 25923) strains by normal granulocytes was markedly decreased in the presence of low concentrations (1 and 2.5 %) of serum from the patient who survived hVISA infection compared with that found with normal human serum. These data suggest that hVISA and MRSA isolates may be more resistant to opsonophagocytosis and bacterial killing than MSSA isolates, at least in some cases.
We investigated the potential (d)NDP/(d)NTP discrimination mechanisms in nucleotide pyrophosphatases. Here, we report that dUTPase, an essential nucleotide pyrophosphatase, uses a C-terminal P-loop-like sequence in a unique mechanism for substrate discrimination and efficient hydrolysis. Our spectroscopy and transient kinetics results on human dUTPase mutants combined with previous structural studies indicate that (i) H-bond interactions between the ?-phosphate and the P-loop-like motif V promote the catalytically competent conformation of the reaction center at the ?-phosphate group; (ii) these interactions accelerate the chemical step of the kinetic cycle and that (iii) hydrolysis occurs very slowly or not at all in the absence of the ?-phosphate--motif V interactions, i.e., in dUDP, dUDP.BeFx, or in the motif V-deleted mutant. The physiological role of dUTPase is to set cellular dUTPdTTP ratios and prevent injurious uracil incorporation into DNA. Based upon comparison with related pyrophosphate generating (d)NTPases, we propose that the unusual use of a P-loop-like motif enables dUTPases to achieve efficient catalysis of dUTP hydrolysis and efficient discrimination against dUDP at the same time. These specifics might have been advantageous on the appearance of uracil-DNA repair. The similarities and differences between dUTPase motif V and the P-loop (or Walker A sequence) commonly featured by ATP- and GTPases offer insight into functional adaptation to various nucleotide hydrolysis tasks.
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are common nosocomial pathogens; however, until now they have been rarely encountered in Hungary. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of VRE in the teaching hospitals of the University of Debrecen. Of 7,271 Enterococcus-containing clinical samples collected between 2004 and 2009, we identified 16 VRE. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterococcus gallinarum. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the vancomycin resistance genes: vanA, vanB, vanC1/C2, vanD, vanE, and vanG. Restriction digestion with SalI and HindIII was introduced to differentiate the vanC1 and vanC2 genes from each other. Genetic relationships between the strains were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Overall, we identified the vanC1 resistance gene in 14 E. gallinarum and the vanC2 resistance gene in two E. casseliflavus strains. Except for two samples, the isolates had different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types, suggesting sporadic emergence of the resistant bacteria. In addition, antibiotic resistance profile was determined by E-test. Three E. gallinarum strains proved to be resistant to gentamicin because of the presence of the aacA-aphD gene. Although the prevalence of VRE in Debrecen is rather low, the appearance of multiple resistances is of concern.
Cervical radiotherapy may leads to elevated caries risk in Hodgkin-lymphoma (HL) patients. Our aim was to estimate the late effect of cervical irradiation on periodontal status in HL patients. Patients filled out query-form, their clinical data were collected, periodontal status was examined, decayed-missing-filled-teeth and periodontal-indexes were calculated. We examined 68 patients who received, 64 patients who did not received cervical radiotherapy and 51 control person. 23.5% of cervical irradiated, 18.15% of not irradiated patients and 17.64% of controls had subjective xerostomia, but it was not objective by sialometry. Mean decayed-missing-filled-teeth-index was 22.53 among irradiated, 21.54 among not irradiated patients while it was 17.23 in control group. Periodontal index was 2.47, 2.42, and 2.14 in different groups. Difference between decayed-missing-filled-teeth indexes of irradiated patients and controls was significant. We have to emphasize the importance of prevention and closer dental observation of HL patients.
Long-term systematic population monitoring data sets are rare but are essential in identifying changes in species abundance. In contrast, community groups and natural history organizations have collected many species lists. These represent a large, untapped source of information on changes in abundance but are generally considered of little value. The major problem with using species lists to detect population changes is that the amount of effort used to obtain the list is often uncontrolled and usually unknown. It has been suggested that using the number of species on the list, the "list length," can be a measure of effort. This paper significantly extends the utility of Franklins approach using Bayesian logistic regression. We demonstrate the value of List Length Analysis to model changes in species prevalence (i.e., the proportion of lists on which the species occurs) using bird lists collected by a local bird club over 40 years around Brisbane, southeast Queensland, Australia. We estimate the magnitude and certainty of change for 269 bird species and calculate the probabilities that there have been declines and increases of given magnitudes. List Length Analysis confirmed suspected species declines and increases. This method is an important complement to systematically designed intensive monitoring schemes and provides a means of utilizing data that may otherwise be deemed useless. The results of List Length Analysis can be used for targeting species of conservation concern for listing purposes or for more intensive monitoring. While Bayesian methods are not essential for List Length Analysis, they can offer more flexibility in interrogating the data and are able to provide a range of parameters that are easy to interpret and can facilitate conservation listing and prioritization.
The 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar) was introduced as a recommended (but not yet obligatory) vaccine in Hungary in April 2009 and there was a sharp increase in the number of children vaccinated. Hence there is an urgent need for in-depth epidemiological data on invasive pneumococci before vaccination becomes widespread. Such a study has never been done before in Hungary.
The performance of the VITEK 2 System (bioMérieux) version 3.01 software was compared to that of the E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) for antibiotic susceptibility testing of 17 clinical isolates of vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE). Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST) by VITEK 2 produced 10 minor (59%) errors, resulting in false phenotypes. Reporting of vancomycin resistance in enterococcal strains has enormous therapeutic and epidemiological consequences. Therefore, at laboratories using automated systems (e.g. VITEK 2) for routine microbiological susceptibility testing data must be confirmed by independent validated methods, e.g. E-test, or microdilution.
Invasive lobular carcinoma--comprising approximately 10 percent of breast cancers--is considered to be a histologically, molecular genetically, clinically distinct entity metastasizing mainly the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal system is much more likely involved in advanced invasive lobular carcinoma, than it is in invasive ductal carcinoma. They manifest after 3-20 years from the recognition of the primary tumor and they appear to be inflammatory disease or a secondary tumor. Here we show the case of a female patient with breast cancer, who died at the age of 53 years. 8 years after tumor-free state upper abdominal spastic pain emerged irradiating into the back with belt-like pattern. Radiologically, Crohns disease was diagnosed. Ileum biopsy was negative. Patient was treated ex juvantibus with methylprednisolon. In the background of mechanic ileus the resection of the terminal ileum and partly the ascended colon was surgically removed. The patient died in 3 weeks after the operation. Microscopically the thickened wall of the terminal ileum showed diffuse small cell carcinomatous infiltration. Immuno-histochemically the metastatic carcinoma cells were reacting with Breast Carcinoma Antigen (BRCA 1) and CA 15-3. The patient had AB blood group according to her red blood cell phenotype. Lectins and monoclonal antibodies with ABH blood group specificity reacted strongly with the metastatic carcinoma cells.
Transition state analogue (TSA) complexes formed by phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) have been used to test the hypothesis that balancing of charge within the transition state dominates enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer. High-resolution structures of trifluoromagnesate (MgF(3)(-)) and tetrafluoroaluminate (AlF(4)(-)) complexes of PGK have been determined using X-ray crystallography and (19)F-based NMR methods, revealing the nature of the catalytically relevant state of this archetypal metabolic kinase. Importantly, the side chain of K219, which coordinates the alpha-phosphate group in previous ground state structures, is sequestered into coordinating the metal fluoride, thereby creating a charge environment complementary to the transferring phosphoryl group. In line with the dominance of charge balance in transition state organization, the substitution K219A induces a corresponding reduction in charge in the bound aluminum fluoride species, which changes to a trifluoroaluminate (AlF(3)(0)) complex. The AlF(3)(0) moiety retains the octahedral geometry observed within AlF(4)(-) TSA complexes, which endorses the proposal that some of the widely reported trigonal AlF(3)(0) complexes of phosphoryl transfer enzymes may have been misassigned and in reality contain MgF(3)(-).
Locusts and grasshoppers cause considerable economic damage to agriculture worldwide. The Australian Plague Locust Commission uses multiple pesticides to control locusts in eastern Australia. Avian exposure to agricultural pesticides is of conservation concern, especially in the case of rare and threatened species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the probability of pesticide exposure of native avian species during operational locust control based on knowledge of species occurrence in areas and times of application. Using presence-absence data provided by the Birds Australia Atlas for 1998 to 2002, we developed a series of generalized linear models to predict avian occurrences on a monthly basis in 0.5 degrees grid cells for 280 species over 2 million km2 in eastern Australia. We constructed species-specific models relating occupancy patterns to survey date and location, rainfall, and derived habitat preference. Model complexity depended on the number of observations available. Model output was the probability of occurrence for each species at times and locations of past locust control operations within the 5-year study period. Given the high spatiotemporal variability of locust control events, the variability in predicted bird species presence was high, with 108 of the total 280 species being included at least once in the top 20 predicted species for individual space-time events. The models were evaluated using field surveys collected between 2000 and 2005, at sites with and without locust outbreaks. Model strength varied among species. Some species were under- or over-predicted as times and locations of interest typically did not correspond to those in the prediction data set and certain species were likely attracted to locusts as a food source. Field surveys demonstrated the utility of the spatially explicit species lists derived from the models but also identified the presence of a number of previously unanticipated species. These results also emphasize the need for special consideration of rare and threatened species that are poorly predicted by presence-absence models. This modeling exercise was a useful a priori approach in species risk assessments to identify species present at times and locations of locust control applications, and to discover gaps in our knowledge and need for further focused data collection.
The energetic changes accompanying domain closure of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, a typical hinge-bending enzyme, were assessed. Calorimetric titrations of the enzyme with each substrate, both in the absence and presence of the other one, provide information not only about the energetics of substrate binding, but of the associated conformational changes, including domain closure. Our results suggest that conformational rearrangements in the hinge generated by binding of both substrates provide the main driving force for domain closure overcoming the slightly unfavourable contact interactions between the domains.
3-Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is a promising candidate for the activation of nucleotide analogues used in antiviral and anticancer therapies. PGK is a key enzyme in glycolysis; it catalyzes the reversible reaction 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + ADP <--> 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP. Here we explored the catalytic role in human PGK of the highly conserved Lys 215 that has been proposed to be essential for PGK function by a transient and equilibrium kinetic study with the active site mutant K215A. By the stopped-flow method we show that the kinetics of substrate binding and the associated protein isomerization steps are fast and identical for the wild-type PGK and mutant K215A. By the use of a chemical sampling method (rapid quench flow) under multiple and single turnover conditions and in both directions of the reaction, we show that the rate-limiting step with wild-type PGK follows product formation (presumably product release), whereas with the mutant it is the phospho-transfer step itself that is rate-limiting. Mutant K215A has a low inherent phosphotransferase activity, and to explain this, we carried out a molecular modeling study. This suggests that with the mutant the conserved Arg 65 replaces the missing Lys 215 by helping to position the transferable phospho group during the reaction. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that in the mutant the closed conformation of the enzyme is stabilized by a salt bridge between Asp 218 and Arg 170 rather than Arg 65 in the wild-type PGK.
Post-operative pulmonary infection often appears to result from aspiration of pathogens colonizing the oral cavity. It was hypothesized that impaired periodontal status and pathogenic oral bacteria significantly contribute to development of aspiration pneumonia following neurosurgical operations. Further, the prophylactic effects of a single dose preoperative cefazolin on the oral bacteria were investigated.
Birds have long fascinated scientists and travellers, so their distribution and abundance through time have been better documented than those of other organisms. Many bird species are known to have gone extinct, but information on subspecies extinctions has never been synthesised comprehensively. We reviewed the timing, spatial patterns, trends and causes of avian extinctions on a global scale, identifying 279 ultrataxa (141 monotypic species and 138 subspecies of polytypic species) that have gone extinct since 1500. Species extinctions peaked in the early 20(th) century, then fell until the mid 20(th) century, and have subsequently accelerated. However, extinctions of ultrataxa peaked in the second half of the 20(th) century. This trend reflects a consistent decline in the rate of extinctions on islands since the beginning of the 20(th) century, but an acceleration in the extinction rate on continents. Most losses (78.7% of species and 63.0% of subspecies) occurred on oceanic islands. Geographic foci of extinctions include the Hawaiian Islands (36 taxa), mainland Australia and islands (29 taxa), the Mascarene Islands (27 taxa), New Zealand (22 taxa) and French Polynesia (19 taxa). The major proximate drivers of extinction for both species and subspecies are invasive alien species (58.2% and 50.7% of species and subspecies, respectively), hunting (52.4% and 18.8%) and agriculture, including non-timber crops and livestock farming (14.9% and 31.9%). In general, the distribution and drivers of subspecific extinctions are similar to those for species extinctions. However, our finding that, when subspecies are considered, the extinction rate has accelerated in recent decades is both novel and alarming.
Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease affecting the coronary, carotid, intracerebral, renal and peripherial arteries. The early morphological and functional impairments could be detected in the second or third decades of life and their progression depend on the number and severity of risk factors and individual susceptility. Although the vascular risk factors (smoking, overweight, age, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and dyslipidemia) are the same and common in the different vascular diseases, the present clinical routine artificially classifies the diagnosis and therapy of different vascular diseases into different subfields of medicine with the negative impact of possible polypragmasia. Recently, worldwide health surveys (e.g. REACH registry) have proven the usefulness of a holistic approach in the diagnosis and therapy of multiorgan-affected vascular patients. This review summarizes the multidisciplinary advances and future perspective of vascular diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.