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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Diverse neuronal lineages make stereotyped contributions to the Drosophila locomotor control center, the central complex.
J. Comp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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The Drosophila central brain develops from a fixed number of neuroblasts. Each neuroblast makes a clone of neurons that exhibit common trajectories. Here we identified 15 distinct clones that carry larval-born neurons innervating the Drosophila central complex (CX), which consists of four midline structures including the protocerebral bridge (PB), fan-shaped body (FB), ellipsoid body (EB), and noduli (NO). Clonal analysis revealed that the small-field CX neurons, which establish intricate projections across different CX substructures, exist in four isomorphic groups that respectively derive from four complex posterior asense-negative lineages. In terms of the region-characteristic large-field CX neurons, we found that two lineages make PB neurons, 10 lineages produce FB neurons, three lineages generate EB neurons, and two lineages yield NO neurons. The diverse FB developmental origins reflect the discrete input pathways for different FB subcompartments. Clonal analysis enlightens both development and anatomy of the insect locomotor control center.
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Clonal development and organization of the adult Drosophila central brain.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The insect brain can be divided into neuropils that are formed by neurites of both local and remote origin. The complexity of the interconnections obscures how these neuropils are established and interconnected through development. The Drosophila central brain develops from a fixed number of neuroblasts (NBs) that deposit neurons in regional clusters.
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A physiology-based seizure detection system for multichannel EEG.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable.
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Hydrogen-bonding induced cooperative effect on the energy transfer in helical polynorbornenes appended with porphyrin-containing amidic alanine linkers.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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Polynorbornenes appended with porphyrins containing a range of different linkers are synthesized. The use of bisamidic chiral alanine linkers between the pending porphyrins and the polymeric backbone has been shown to bring the adjacent porphyrin chromophores to more suitable orientation for exciton coupling owing to hydrogen bonding between the adjacent linkers. The hydrogen bonding between the adjacent pendants in these polymers may induce a cooperative effect and therefore render single-handed helical structures for these polymers. Such a cooperative effect is reflected in the enhancement of FRET efficiencies between zinc-porphyrin and free base porphyrin in random copolymers.
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A complete developmental sequence of a Drosophila neuronal lineage as revealed by twin-spot MARCM.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Drosophila brains contain numerous neurons that form complex circuits. These neurons are derived in stereotyped patterns from a fixed number of progenitors, called neuroblasts, and identifying individual neurons made by a neuroblast facilitates the reconstruction of neural circuits. An improved MARCM (mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker) technique, called twin-spot MARCM, allows one to label the sister clones derived from a common progenitor simultaneously in different colors. It enables identification of every single neuron in an extended neuronal lineage based on the order of neuron birth. Here we report the first example, to our knowledge, of complete lineage analysis among neurons derived from a common neuroblast that relay olfactory information from the antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain centers. By identifying the sequentially derived neurons, we found that the neuroblast serially makes 40 types of AL projection neurons (PNs). During embryogenesis, one PN with multi-glomerular innervation and 18 uniglomerular PNs targeting 17 glomeruli of the adult AL are born. Many more PNs of 22 additional types, including four types of polyglomerular PNs, derive after the neuroblast resumes dividing in early larvae. Although different offspring are generated in a rather arbitrary sequence, the birth order strictly dictates the fate of each post-mitotic neuron, including the fate of programmed cell death. Notably, the embryonic progenitor has an altered temporal identity following each self-renewing asymmetric cell division. After larval hatching, the same progenitor produces multiple neurons for each cell type, but the number of neurons for each type is tightly regulated. These observations substantiate the origin-dependent specification of neuron types. Sequencing neuronal lineages will not only unravel how a complex brain develops but also permit systematic identification of neuron types for detailed structure and function analysis of the brain.
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Laser-induced periodic structures for light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light emitting diodes.
Opt Express
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The laser-induced periodic surface structure technique was used to form simultaneously dual-scale rough structures (DSRS) with spiral-shaped nanoscale structure inside semi-spherical microscale holes on p-GaN surface to improve the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The light output power of DSRS-LEDs was 30% higher than that of conventional LEDs at an injection current of 20 mA. The enhancement in the light output power could be attributed to the increase in the probability of photons to escape from the increased surface area of textured p-GaN surface.
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Hierarchical deployment of factors regulating temporal fate in a diverse neuronal lineage of the Drosophila central brain.
Neuron
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The anterodorsal projection neuron lineage of Drosophila melanogaster produces 40 neuronal types in a stereotypic order. Here we take advantage of this complete lineage sequence to examine the role of known temporal fating factors, including Chinmo and the Hb/Kr/Pdm/Cas transcriptional cascade, within this diverse central brain lineage. Kr mutation affects the temporal fate of the neuroblast (NB) itself, causing a single fate to be skipped, whereas Chinmo null only elicits fate transformation of NB progeny without altering cell counts. Notably, Chinmo operates in two separate windows to prevent fate transformation (into the subsequent Chinmo-indenpendent fate) within each window. By contrast, Hb/Pdm/Cas play no detectable role, indicating that Kr either acts outside of the cascade identified in the ventral nerve cord or that redundancy exists at the level of fating factors. Therefore, hierarchical fating mechanisms operate within the lineage to generate neuronal diversity in an unprecedented fashion.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.