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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dendritic cells respond to nasopharygeal carcinoma cells through annexin A2-recognizing DC-SIGN.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in immunity and are used in cancer immunotherapy. However, these cells can be tuned by tumors with immunosuppressive responses. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, recognizes certain carbohydrate structures which can be found on cancer cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial cell-derived malignant tumor, in which immune response remains unclear. This research is to reveal the molecular link on NPC cells that induces the immunosuppressive responses in DCs. In this article, we report identification of annexin A2 (ANXA2) on NPC cells as a ligand for DC-SIGN on DCs. N-linked mannose-rich glycan on ANXA2 may mediate the interaction. ANXA2 was abundantly expressed in NPC, and knockdown of ANXA2 suppressed NPC xenograft in mice, suggesting a crucial role of ANXA2 in NPC growth. Interaction with NPC cells caused DC-SIGN activation in DCs. Consequently DC maturation and the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 production were inhibited, and the immunosuppressive IL-10 production was promoted. Blockage of either DC-SIGN or ANXA2 eliminated the production of IL-10 from DCs. This report suggests that suppression of ANXA2 at its expression or glycosylation on NPC may improve DC-mediated immunotherapy for the tumor.
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Study of optical design of Blu-ray pickup head system with a liquid crystal element.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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This paper proposes a newly developed optical design and an active compensation method for a Blu-ray pickup head system with a liquid crystal (LC) element. Different from traditional pickup lens design, this new optical design delivers performance as good as the conventional one but has more room for tolerance control, which plays a role in antishaking devices, such as portable Blu-ray players. A hole-pattern electrode and LC optics with external voltage input were employed to generate a symmetric nonuniform electrical field in the LC layer that directs LC molecules into the appropriate gradient refractive index distribution, resulting in the convergence or divergence of specific light beams. LC optics deliver fast and, most importantly, active compensation through optical design when errors occur. Simulations and tolerance analysis were conducted using Code V software, including various tolerance analyses, such as defocus, tilt, and decenter, and their related compensations. Two distinct Blu-ray pickup head system designs were examined in this study. In traditional Blu-ray pickup head system designs, the aperture stop is always set on objective lenses. In the study, the aperture stop is on the LC lens as a newly developed lens. The results revealed that an optical design with aperture stop set on the LC lens as an active compensation device successfully eliminated up to 57% of coma aberration compared with traditional optical designs so that this pickup head lens design will have more space for tolerance control.
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Asymmetrical dual tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for fiber-optic directional tilt sensor.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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This work proposes a novel, highly sensitive and directional fiber tilt sensor that is based on an asymmetrical dual tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (ADTFMZI). The fiber-optic tilt sensor consists of two abrupt tapers with different tapered waists into which are incorporated a set of iron spheres to generate an asymmetrical strain in the ADTFMZI that is correlated with the tilt angle and the direction of inclination. Owing to the asymmetrical structure of the dual tapers, the proposed sensor can detect the non-horizontal/horizontal state of a structure and whether the test structure is tilted to clockwise or counterclockwise by measuring the spectral responses. Experimental results show that the spectral wavelengths are blue-shifted and red-shifted when the sensor tilts to clockwise (-?) and counterclockwise ( + ?), respectively. Tilt angle sensitivities of about 335pm/deg. and 125pm/deg. are achieved in the -? and + ? directions, respectively, when the proposed sensing scheme is utilized.
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Correlation Between EGFR Mutation Status and Computed Tomography Features in Patients With Advanced Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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To correlate computed tomography (CT) imaging features and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.
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Insight into the reactivity and electronic structure of dinuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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A combination of N/S/Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction data, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations provides an efficient way to unambiguously delineate the electronic structures and bonding characters of Fe-S, N-O, and Fe-N bonds among the direduced-form Roussin's red ester (RRE) [Fe2(?-SPh)2(NO)4](2-)(1) with {Fe(NO)2}(10)-{Fe(NO)2}(10) core, the reduced-form RRE [Fe2(?-SPh)2(NO)4](-)(3) with {Fe(NO)2}(9)-{Fe(NO)2}(10) core, and RRE [Fe2(?-SPh)2(NO)4] (4) with {Fe(NO)2}(9)-{Fe(NO)2}(9) core. The major contributions of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) 113?/? in complex 1 is related to the antibonding character between Fe(d) and Fe(d), Fe(d), and S atoms, and bonding character between Fe(d) and NO(?*). The effective nuclear charge (Zeff) of Fe site can be increased by removing electrons from HOMO to shorten the distances of Fe···Fe and Fe-S from 1 to 3 to 4 or, in contrast, to increase the Fe-N bond lengths from 1 to 3 to 4. The higher IR ?NO stretching frequencies (1761, 1720 cm(-1) (4), 1680, 1665 cm(-1) (3), and 1646, 1611, 1603 cm(-1) (1)) associated with the higher transition energy of N1s ??*(NO) (412.6 eV (4), 412.3 eV (3), and 412.2 eV (1)) and the higher Zeff of Fe derived from the transition energy of Fe1s ? Fe3d (7113.8 eV (4), 7113.5 eV (3), and 7113.3 eV (1)) indicate that the N-O bond distances of these complexes are in the order of 1 > 3 > 4. The N/S/Fe K-edge XAS spectra as well as DFT computations reveal the reduction of complex 4 yielding complex 3 occurs at Fe, S, and NO; in contrast, reduction mainly occurs at Fe site from complex 3 to complex 1.
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An in vitro biomechanical evaluation of a new commercial titanium-zirconium alloy dental implant: a pilot study.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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The study compared the implant mobility and surrounding bone strain between the titanium-zirconium (Ti-Zr) alloy and the commercial pure (CP) Ti implants.
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Terfenadine induces anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer through histamine receptor-independent Mcl-1 cleavage and Bak up-regulation.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Although the results of several studies have underscored the regulatory effect of H1-histamine receptors in cell proliferation of some cancer cell types, its effect in prostate cancers remains unclear. We have therefore studied the effect of terfenadine (an H1-histamine receptor antagonist) in prostate cancer cell lines. Our data demonstrate that terfenadine was effective against PC-3 and DU-145 cells (two prostate cancer cell lines). In contrast, based on the sulforhodamine B assay, loratadine had less potency while fexofenadine and diphenhydramine had little effect. Terfenadine induced the cleavage of Mcl-1 cleavage into a pro-apoptotic 28-kDa fragment and up-regulation of Bak, resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor into the cytosol. The activation of caspase cascades was detected to be linked to terfenadine action. Bak up-regulation was also examined at both the transcriptional and translational levels, and Bak activation was validated based on conformational change to expose the N terminus. Terfenadine also induced an indirect-but not direct-DNA damage response through the cleavage and activation of caspase-2, phosphorylation and activation of Chk1 and Chk2 kinases, phosphorylation of RPA32 and acetylation of Histone H3; these processes were highly correlated to severe mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation of caspase cascades. In conclusion, terfenadine induced apoptotic signaling cascades against HRPCs in a sequential manner. The exposure of cells to terfenadine caused the up-regulation and activation of Bak and the cleavage of Mcl-1, leading to the loss of ??m and activation of caspase cascades which further resulted in DNA damage response and cell apoptosis.
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Sputtering deposition of P-type SnO films with SnO? target in hydrogen-containing atmosphere.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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In this work, we had investigated sputtering deposition of p-type SnO using the widely used and robust SnO2 target in a hydrogen-containing reducing atmosphere. The effects of the hydrogen-containing sputtering gas on structures, compositions, optical, and electrical properties of deposited SnOx films were studied. Results show that polycrystalline and SnO-dominant films could be readily obtained by carefully controlling the hydrogen gas ratio in the sputtering gas and the extent of reduction reaction. P-type conductivity was unambiguously observed for SnO-dominant films with traceable Sn components, exhibiting a p-type Hall mobility of up to ?3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). P-type SnO thin-film transistors using such SnO-dominant films were also demonstrated.
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Possible intermediates of Cu(phen)-catalyzed C-O cross-coupling of phenol with an aryl bromide by in situ ESI-MS and EPR studies.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The C-O coupling reaction between 2,4-dimethylphenol and 4-bromotoluene catalyzed by the CuI/K2CO3/phen system can be inhibited by the radical scavenger cumene. Complexes [Cu(i)(phen)(1-(2,4-dimethylphenoxy)-4-methylbenzene)](+) (denoted as A), {H[Cu(i)(phen)(2,4-dimethylphenoxy)]}(+) and [Cu(i)(2,4-dimethylphenoxy)2](-) (denoted as B) were observed by in situ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of the copper(i)-catalyzed C-O coupling reaction under the catalytic reaction conditions indicating that they could be intermediates in the reaction. The in situ EPR study of the reaction solution detected the Cu(ii) species with a fitted g value of 2.188. A catalytic cycle with a single electron transfer (SET) step was proposed based on these observations.
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Relevance of hybridization and filling of 3d orbitals for the Kondo effect in transition metal phthalocyanines.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Magnetic organic molecules, such as 3d transition metal phthalocyanines (TMPc), exhibit properties which make them promising candidates for future applications in magnetic data storage or spin-based data processing. Due to their small size, however, TMPc molecules are prone to quantum effects. For example, the interaction of uncompensated molecular spins with conduction electrons of the substrate may lead to the formation of a many-body singlet state, which gives rise to the so-called Kondo effect. Although the Kondo effect of TMPc molecules has been the object of several investigations, a consistent picture to describe under which conditions a Kondo state is formed is still missing. Here, we study the Kondo properties of MnPc on Ag(001) by means of the low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (LT-STS) measurements. Differential conductance dI/dU spectra reveal a zero-bias peak that is localized on the Mn ion site. Ab initio calculations combined with a many-body treatment of the multiorbital interaction show that the local Hund coupling favors the high-spin configuration on the 3d shell of the central TM atom. Therefore, each orbital gets close to its individual half-filling creating the necessary condition for many of the 3d orbitals to contribute to the observed Kondo resonance. This, however, happens only for the 3dz(2) orbital, whose hybridization to the substrate is much stronger than for the other orbitals thanks to its shape and its orientation.
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Degeneration of fungiform and circumvallate papillae following molar extraction in rats.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Abstract Objective. Proper occlusion facilitates food intake and gustatory function is indispensable for the enjoyment of food. Although an interaction between dentoalveolar and gustatory afferent neurons has been suggested by previous studies, the relationship between occlusion and gustation remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of upper molar extraction which diminished occlusal support on peripheral gustatory receptors in rats. Materials and methods. Thirty-six 7-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control group. All maxillary molars were extracted from rats in the experimental group under anesthesia, while a sham operation was conducted in the control group. The rats were euthanized 7, 14 or 28 days after the procedure. The morphology of the circumvallate papillae and taste buds using immunohistochemical methods and the fungiform papillae were visualized with 1% methylene blue. Results. Defects in the gustatory epithelium were observed after maxillary molar extraction. Rats in the experimental group had significantly fewer fungiform papillae, narrower circumvallate papillae, shallower trench depth, smaller trench area, smaller taste bud area, lower ratios of taste bud area to trench area and fewer taste buds than those in the control group. Conclusions. The findings indicate that molar extraction would affect peripheral gustatory receptors. This is the first study to characterize changes in rat fungiform and circumvallate papillae after maxillary molar extraction. This study suggests a possible synergic relationship between dentoalveolar perception and gustatory function, which has clinical implications that occlusion is closely correlated with gustatory perception.
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Augmented multiple instance regression for inferring object contours in bounding boxes.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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In this paper, we address the problem of the high annotation cost of acquiring training data for semantic segmentation. Most modern approaches to semantic segmentation are based upon graphical models, such as the conditional random fields, and rely on sufficient training data in form of object contours. To reduce the manual effort on pixel-wise annotating contours, we consider the setting in which the training data set for semantic segmentation is a mixture of a few object contours and an abundant set of bounding boxes of objects. Our idea is to borrow the knowledge derived from the object contours to infer the unknown object contours enclosed by the bounding boxes. The inferred contours can then serve as training data for semantic segmentation. To this end, we generate multiple contour hypotheses for each bounding box with the assumption that at least one hypothesis is close to the ground truth. This paper proposes an approach, called augmented multiple instance regression (AMIR), that formulates the task of hypothesis selection as the problem of multiple instance regression (MIR), and augments information derived from the object contours to guide and regularize the training process of MIR. In this way, a bounding box is treated as a bag with its contour hypotheses as instances, and the positive instances refer to the hypotheses close to the ground truth. The proposed approach has been evaluated on the Pascal VOC segmentation task. The promising results demonstrate that AMIR can precisely infer the object contours in the bounding boxes, and hence provide effective alternatives to manually labeled contours for semantic segmentation.
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Combined Tractional and Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in the Anti-VEGF Era.
J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Purpose. To investigate the clinical features, surgical outcomes, and prognostic factors of combined rhegmatogenous and tractional detachment (combined RD) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in recent years. Methods. Medical records of PDR and combined RD treated with vitrectomy from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Results. A total of 57 eyes from 49 patients were included. Nine eyes had received panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and 7 eyes had intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) within 3 months before RD developed. Thirty-eight eyes (66.7%) had ?3 sites of broad adhesion of fibrovascular proliferation (FVP). Thirty-three eyes (57.9%) showed active FVP. Thirty-four eyes (59.6%) had extent of RD involving 3 or 4 quadrants. The primary reattachment rate was 93.0%, and the final visual acuity (VA) improved by more than 3 lines in 80.7% of eyes. Neovascular glaucoma occurred in 4 eyes postoperatively. Poor preoperative VA, severe vitreoretinal adhesion, and broad extent of RD had significant correlation with poor visual outcomes. Conclusion. PRP or IVB might play a role in provoking combined RD. The anatomical and functional success rates of surgery were high. Poor preoperative VA and severe proliferations predicted poor visual outcomes.
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A novel small molecule hybrid of vorinostat and DACA displays anticancer activity against human hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer through dual inhibition of histone deacetylase and topoisomerase I.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Vorinostat, which is an extensively studied inhibitor against histone deacetylase (HDAC), shows limited clinical activity to solid tumors. WJ35435, a new hybrid of vorinostat and DACA (a topoisomerase inhibitor) potently inhibited HDAC activity (in particular HDAC1 and HDAC6) in kinase assay and cell-based examination. The anti-HDAC effect was confirmed by the induction of histone H3 acetylation and phosphorylation, ?-tubulin acetylation and ?-H2AX formation. WJ35435 showed better potency than vorinostat and DACA against PC-3 and DU-145, two human hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer (HRMPC) cell lines, but not benign prostate cells. WJ35435 at differential concentrations induced G1- or G2-phase arrest of the cell cycle in HRMPCs but not in benign prostate cells. WJ35435 induced the formation of topoisomerase I-DNA cleavable complexes but not type-II? or -II?. Topoisomerase activity assay confirmed the selective inhibition of topoisomerase I. WJ35435 induced profound DNA damage using comet tailing assay. WJ35435 was less effective than camptothecin and etoposide in inducing the phosphorylation and activation of Chk1, Chk2 and RPA32 which were crucial coordinators in DNA repair pathway, indicating a low DNA repair activity to WJ35435 action. Furthermore, WJ35435 showed an in vivo antitumor activity. A synergistic apoptosis (combination index=0.55) was obtained in combination between WJ35435 and MG-132 (a proteasome inhibitor). In summary, WJ35435 is a dual-targeted anticancer hybrid induces anti-HDAC and anti-topoisomerase I activities that cause DNA damage associated with a low DNA repair capability, and induce cell cycle arrest at G1- and G2-phase. Ultimately, WJ35435 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of HRMPCs.
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Early-onset seizures are correlated with late-onset seizures in children with arterial ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Early-onset seizures are common in children with arterial ischemic stroke, but the clinical features and effects on the outcome of early-onset seizures have been less studied in children.
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A unique amidoanthraquinone derivative displays antiproliferative activity against human hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancers through activation of LKB1-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer (HRMPC), which is metastatic and resistant to hormone therapy, is an intractable problem in clinical treatment. Anthraquinone-based natural products and synthetic compounds have shown anticancer activity. However, cardiac toxicity is a major adverse reaction in these compounds. CC-36, a unique anthraquinone derivative, displayed higher antiproliferative activity in HRMPC than that in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and normal prostate cells with the selectivity of five and twelve times, respectively. CC-36 caused G1 arrest of the cell cycle associated with an upregulation of p21 and downregulated levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E expressions. Immunoprecipitation assay and Western blotting analysis showed that CC-36 triggered an increase of TSC1/TSC2 association and suppressed the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Ser2448) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) (Thr389), indicating the inhibition of both kinases' activities. CC-36 induced liver kinase B1 (LKB1) phosphorylation at Thr189, leading to LKB1 translocation from nucleus to cytosol for AMPK? phosphorylation (Thr172) and the kinase activation. The signaling pathway was validated using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique with LKB1 knockdown. The combination treatment of MK2206 (a specific Akt inhibitor) with CC-36 showed a synergistic apoptosis in PC-3 cells indicating a potential combination strategy for LKB1 activators. Taken together, the data suggest that CC-36 displays anti-HRMPC activity through the activation of LKB1-AMPK pathway, leading to an inhibition of mTOR signaling and the induction of G1 arrest of the cell cycle. The combination use of Akt inhibitors with agents acting through LKB1-AMPK-mTOR pathway is a potential strategy for HRMPC treatment.
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Calanquinone A induces anti-glioblastoma activity through glutathione-involved DNA damage and AMPK activation.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Glioblastoma, a highly malignant glioma, is resistant to both radiation and chemotherapy and is an intractable problem in clinical treatment. New therapeutic approaches are in urgent need. Calanquinone A, an herbal constituent, displayed anti-proliferative activity against glioblastoma cells, including A172, T98 and U87. Flow cytometric analysis showed an S phase arrest and a subsequent apoptosis to calanquinone A action. Further identification demonstrated a rapid increase of ?H2A.X formation at S phase. The data together with comet tail formation and Chk1 activation indicated DNA damage response. N-acetyl cysteine (an antioxidant and a glutathione precursor) and exogenously applied glutathione, but not trolox (an antioxidant), completely abolished calanquinone A-induced effects. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that calanquinone A decreased the intracellular glutathione levels in both A172 and T98 cells. However, calanquinone A, by itself, did not conjugate glutathione. The data suggested that the decrease of cellular glutathione predominantly contributed to the anticancer mechanism. Furthermore, calanquinone A induced the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the inhibition of p70S6K activity. Rhodamine efflux assay showed that calanquinone A did not block efflux activity, indicating that calanquinone A was not a P-glycoprotein substrate. In summary, the data suggest that calanquinone A displays anti-glioblastoma activity through a decrease of cellular glutathione levels that subsequently induces DNA damage stress and AMPK activation, leading to cell cycle arrest at S-phase and apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, calanquinone A does not serve as a P-glycoprotein substrate, suggesting a potential for further development in anti-glioblastoma therapy.
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Metallic ureteral stents in malignant ureteral obstruction: clinical factors predicting stent failure.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To provide clinical outcomes of the Resonance metallic ureteral stent in patients with malignant ureteral obstruction, as well as clinical factors predicting stent failure.
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Study of the nano-morphological versatility by self-assembly of a peptide mimetic molecule in response to physical and chemical stimuli.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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A small peptide mimetic molecule can form diverse nanostructures such as nano-vesicles, nano-tubes and nano-ribbons/fibrils by self-assembly, in response to various physical and chemical stimulations.
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NPRL-Z-1, as a New Topoisomerase II Poison, Induces Cell Apoptosis and ROS Generation in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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NPRL-Z-1 is a 4?-[(4?-benzamido)-amino]-4'-O-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin derivative. Previous reports have shown that NPRL-Z-1 possesses anticancer activity. Here NPRL-Z-1 displayed cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, A549, ACHN, and A498) and exhibited potent activity in A498 human renal carcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 2.38 µM via the MTT assay. We also found that NPRL-Z-1 induced cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and detected DNA double-strand breaks in A498 cells. NPRL-Z-1 induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein kinase phosphorylation at serine 1981, leading to the activation of DNA damage signaling pathways, including Chk2, histone H2AX, and p53/p21. By ICE assay, the data suggested that NPRL-Z-1 acted on and stabilized the topoisomerase II (TOP2)-DNA complex, leading to TOP2cc formation. NPRL-Z-1-induced DNA damage signaling and apoptotic death was also reversed by TOP2? or TOP2? knockdown. In addition, NPRL-Z-1 inhibited the Akt signaling pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results demonstrated that NPRL-Z-1 appeared to be a novel TOP2 poison and ROS generator. Thus, NPRL-Z-1 may present a significant potential anticancer candidate against renal carcinoma.
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A comparison of micro-CT and dental CT in assessing cortical bone morphology and trabecular bone microarchitecture.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dental cone-beam computed tomography (dental CT).
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Biological characteristics of the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells on composite tantalum carbide/amorphous carbon films.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tantalum (Ta) is a promising metal for biomedical implants or implant coating for orthopedic and dental applications because of its excellent corrosion resistance, fracture toughness, and biocompatibility. This study synthesizes biocompatible tantalum carbide (TaC) and TaC/amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings with different carbon contents by using a twin-gun magnetron sputtering system to improve their biological properties and explore potential surgical implant or device applications. The carbon content in the deposited coatings was regulated by controlling the magnetron power ratio of the pure graphite and Ta cathodes. The deposited TaC and TaC/a-C coatings exhibited better cell viability of human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 than the uncoated Ti and Ta-coated samples. Inverted optical and confocal imaging was used to demonstrate the cell adhesion, distribution, and proliferation of each sample at different time points during the whole culture period. The results show that the TaC/a-C coating, which contained two metastable phases (TaC and a-C), was more biocompatible with MG-63 cells compared to the pure Ta coating. This suggests that the TaC/a-C coatings exhibit a better biocompatible performance for MG-63 cells, and they may improve implant osseointegration in clinics.
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Reevesioside A, a cardenolide glycoside, induces anticancer activity against human hormone-refractory prostate cancers through suppression of c-myc expression and induction of G1 arrest of the cell cycle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the past decade, there has been a profound increase in the number of studies revealing that cardenolide glycosides display inhibitory activity on the growth of human cancer cells. The use of potential cardenolide glycosides may be a worthwhile approach in anticancer research. Reevesioside A, a cardenolide glycoside isolated from the root of Reevesia formosana, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity against human hormone-refractory prostate cancers. A good correlation (r²?=?0.98) between the expression of Na?/K?-ATPase ?? subunit and anti-proliferative activity suggested the critical role of the ?? subunit. Reevesioside A induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis in a thymidine block-mediated synchronization model. The data were supported by the down-regulation of several related cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDC25A. Reevesioside A also caused a profound decrease of RB phosphorylation, leading to an increased association between RB and E2F1 and the subsequent suppression of E2F1 activity. The protein and mRNA levels of c-myc, which can activate expression of many downstream cell cycle regulators, were dramatically inhibited by reevesioside A. Transient transfection of c-myc inhibited the down-regulation of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein expression to reevesioside A action, suggesting that c-myc functioned as an upstream regulator. Flow cytometric analysis of JC-1 staining demonstrated that reevesioside A also induced the significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In summary, the data suggest that reevesioside A inhibits c-myc expression and down-regulates the expression of CDC25A, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, leading to a profound decrease of RB phosphorylation. G1 arrest is, therefore, induced through E2F1 suppression. Consequently, reevesioside A causes mitochondrial damage and an ultimate apoptosis in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells.
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Moniliformediquinone induces in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity through glutathione-involved DNA damage response and mitochondrial stress in human hormone-refractory prostate cancers.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer (HRMPC) is a major obstacle in clinical treatment. Discovery and development of anti-HRMPC are the key focus in this study.
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Outcome of allotransplants in patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia following imatinib failure: prognosis revisited.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The outcome of allotransplants in patients with chronic -phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who progressed to accelerated phase (AP) or blast phase (BP) following imatinib failure, especially those without preceding suboptimal response, remains unclear.
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Chemical bond characterization of a mixed-valence tri-cobalt complex, Co3(?-admtrz)4(?-OH)2(CN)6·2H2O.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Charge density study of a mixed-valence tri-cobalt compound, Co3(?-admtrz)4(?-OH)2(CN)6·2H2O (1) (admtrz = 3,5-dimethyl-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole), is investigated based on high resolution X-ray diffraction data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The molecular structure of this compound contains three cobalt atoms in a linear fashion, where two terminal ones are Co(III) at a low-spin (LS) state and a central one is Co(II) at a high-spin (HS) state with a total spin quantum number, S(total), of 3/2. It is centrosymmetric with the center of inversion located at the central Co atom (Co2). The Co2 ion is linked with each terminal cobalt (Co1) ion through two ?-admtrz ligands and a ?-OH ligand in a CoN4O2 coordination, where the Co1 is bonded additionally to three CN ligands with CoN2OC3 coordination. The combined experimental and theoretical charge density study identifies the different characters of two types of cobalt ions; more pronounced charge concentration and depletion features in the valence shell charge concentration (VSCC) are found in the Co(III) ion than in the Co(II) ion, and d-orbital populations also show the difference. According to topological properties associated with the bond critical point (BCP), the Co1-C(N) bond is the strongest among all the Co-ligand bonds in this compound; the Co-O is stronger than Co-N bond. Again Co1-O is stronger than Co2-O, so as the Co1-N being stronger than Co2-N bond. The electronic configuration of each type of Co atom is further characterized through magnetic measurement, Co-specific X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and X-ray emission spectra (XES).
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Trabecular bone structural parameters evaluated using dental cone-beam computed tomography: cellular synthetic bones.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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This study compared the adequacy of dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro computed tomography (micro-CT) in evaluating the structural parameters of trabecular bones.
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Bond characterization of a unique thiathiophthene derivative: combined charge density study and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Thiathiophthene (TTP), a planar molecule with two fused heterocyclic five-membered rings and an essentially linear S-S-S bond, is a molecule of great interest due to its unique chemical bondings. To elucidate the remarkable bonding nature, a combined experimental and theoretical study on the electron density distribution of 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-trimethylene-6a-TTP (1) is investigated based on a multipole model through high-resolution X-ray diffraction data experimentally and on the density functional calculations (DFT) theoretically. In addition, S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is measured to verify the chemical bonding concerning the sulfur atoms. The molecule can be firmly described as 10? electron with aromatic character among the eight atoms, S3C5, of the two fused five-membered rings plus three-center four-electron ? character along the S-S-S bond. Such bonding description is verified with the calculated XAS spectrum, where the pre-edge absorption for transitions from S 1s to ?* and ?* are located. The three-center four-electron S-S-S ? bond makes the terminal S atoms richer in electron density than the central one.
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Legionnaires disease caused by Legionella longbeachae in Taiwan, 2006-2010.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of Legionnaires disease (LD) caused by Legionella longbeachae in Taiwan during 2006-2010. A total of six cases were identified prospectively, accounting for 1.6% of all laboratory-confirmed LD cases and 4.4% of culture-positive LD cases. All six cases occurred between April and August. The male to female ratio was 0.5. These six LD patients had a higher median age than those with LD due to Legionella pneumophila. Four of the six patients presented with pleural effusion and five survived the infection episode. Only two patients had a potential soil contact history prior to LD onset. The patients resided in divergent geographical areas without a common exposure history. The individual genomic DNA banding patterns of the six L. longbeachae isolates analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were unique, supporting the hypothesis that the L. longbeachae infections occurred sporadically.
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Creation of high density ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nitrogen-rich type Ib nanodiamonds.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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This work explores the possibility of increasing the density of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers ([NV(-)]) in nanodiamonds using nitrogen-rich type Ib diamond powders as the starting material. The nanodiamonds (10-100 nm in diameter) were prepared by ball milling of microdiamonds, in which the density of neutral and atomically dispersed nitrogen atoms ([N(0)]) was measured by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. A systematic measurement of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of the crushed monocrystalline diamonds as a function of [N(0)] indicated that [NV(-)] increases nearly linearly with [N(0)] at 100-200 ppm. The trend, however, failed to continue for nanodiamonds with higher [N(0)] (up to 390 ppm) but poorer crystallinity. We attribute the result to a combined effect of fluorescence quenching as well as the lower conversion efficiency of vacancies to NV(-) due to the presence of more impurities and defects in these as-grown diamond crystallites. The principles and practice of fabricating brighter and smaller fluorescent nanodiamonds are discussed.
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Mid-term follow-up results of transcatheter treatment in patients with unroofed coronary sinus.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Objective: We present the mid-term results of transcatheter treatment of unroofed coronary sinus (CS) using the Amplatzer septal occluder. Background: The unroofed CS is a rare atrial septal defect communicating the left atrium and CS. Surgery has been the mainstay of treatment. Methods: In a 4.5-year period, 9 patients (5 males) with ages ranging from 26 to 69 years (median 39 years) diagnosed with an unroofed CS but without a persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) underwent transcatheter treatment. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed in 8 patients. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was used to monitor the procedure. Results: The mean Qp/Qs ratio was 2.4 ± 1 and mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 35 ± 19 mmHg. An Amplatzer septal occluder was deployed in all 9 patients. The device was implanted in the defect in 1 patient and at the CS ostium in the other 8 patients. The median device size used was 22 mm (16-28 mm). The left disc herniated into the CS in the single patient in whom the device was implanted within the defect. All patients were available for the three-month follow-up. None had a residual shunt on the three-month follow-up echocardiography. One patient died of a stroke 4.5 months after the procedure. At mean follow-up 42.6 ± 18.3 months, symptomatic improvement was documented in the remaining 8 patients. All 8 patients had an O2 saturation above 96 %. Conclusion: Transcatheter treatment for unroofed CS without persistent LSVC using Amplatzer septal occluder is safe and feasible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A novel hydroxysuberamide derivative potentiates MG132-mediated anticancer activity against human hormone refractory prostate cancers--the role of histone deacetylase and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are successful for treatment of advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma but only show modest effect in solid tumors. Approaches for HDAC inhibitors to improve activity against solid tumors are necessary.
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Location of the mandibular canal and thickness of the occlusal cortical bone at dental implant sites in the lower second premolar and first molar.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the location of the mandibular canal and the thickness of the occlusal cortical bone at dental implant sites in the lower second premolar and lower first molar by using dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Seventy-nine sites (47 second premolar and 32 first molar sites) were identified in the dental CBCT examinations of 47 patients. In this study, 4 parameters were measured: (1) MC-the distance from the mandibular canal to the upper border of the mandible; (2) CD-the distance from the mandibular canal to the buccal border of the mandible; (3) MD-the distance from the mandibular canal to the lingual border of the mandible; (4) TC-the thickness of the cortical bone at the occlusal side. A statistical analysis was employed to compare the size and differences between these 4 parameters at the lower second premolar and lower first molar. Regarding the MC and MD, the experimental results showed no statistical difference between the first molar and second premolar. However, the TC for the second premolar was greater than that of the first molar. Thus, careful consideration is necessary in choosing the size of and operation type for dental implants.
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Metallic ureteral stents in malignant ureteral obstruction: short-term results and radiological features predicting stent failure in patients with non-urological malignancies.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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To provide short-term result of the metallic ureteral stent in patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and identify radiological findings predicting stent failure.
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The assessment of trabecular bone parameters and cortical bone strength: a comparison of micro-CT and dental cone-beam CT.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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This study compared the capabilities of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in assessing trabecular bone parameters and cortical bone strength. Micro-CT and CBCT scans were applied to 28 femurs from 14 rats to obtain independent measurements of the volumetric cancellous bone mineral density (vCanBMD) in the femoral head, volumetric cortical bone mineral density (vCtBMD) in the femoral diaphysis, cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), and bone strength index (BSI) (=CSMI×vCtBMD). Five structural parameters of the trabecular bone of the femoral head were calculated from micro-CT images. A three-point bending test was then conducted to measure the fracture load of each femur. Bivariate linear Pearson analysis was conducted to calculate the correlation coefficients (r values) of the micro-CT, dental CBCT, and three-point bending measurements. The statistical analyses showed a strong correlation between vCanBMD values obtained using micro-CT and dental CBCT (r=0.830). There were strong or moderate correlation between vCanBMD measured using dental CBCT and five parameters of trabecular structure measured using micro-CT. Additionally, the results were satisfactory regardless of whether micro-CT or dental CBCT was used to measure the femoral diaphysis vCtBMD (r=0.733 and 0.680, respectively), CSMI (r=0.756 and 0.726, respectively), or BSI (r=0.846 and 0.847, respectively) to predict fracture loads. This study has yielded a new method for using dental CBCT to evaluate bone parameters and bone strength; however, further studies are necessary to validate the use of dental CBCT on humans.
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An Aqueous-Ethanol Extract of Liriope spicata var. prolifera Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy through Suppression of Renal Inflammation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The tuberous root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera (TRLS; Liliaceae family) is valued for the ability to promote glucose homeostasis, and it may therefore be utilized as an adjuvant therapy in the control of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an aqueous ethanol extract from TRLS (TRLS-ext) (100 or 200 mg kg(-1) per day for eight weeks) on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). Renal dysfunction in diabetic rats was ameliorated by TRLS-ext as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, as well as increased blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria. Treatment with TRLS-ext was found to markedly improve histological architecture in the diabetic kidney. Hyperglycemia induced degradation of inhibitory kappa B and reduced nuclear factor kappa B activation, leading to increased infiltration of macrophages and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor- ? . All of the above abnormalities were reversed by TRLS-ext treatment, which also decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibronectin in the diabetic kidneys. These findings provide a perspective on the renoprotective effects of TRLS-ext in DN.
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Biomechanical investigation of thread designs and interface conditions of zirconia and titanium dental implants with bone: three-dimensional numeric analysis.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Bone stress and interfacial sliding at the bone-implant interface (BII) were analyzed in zirconia and titanium implants with various thread designs and interface conditions (bonded BII and contact BIIs with different frictional coefficients) for both conventional and immediately loaded treatments.
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Relationship of three-dimensional bone-to-implant contact to primary implant stability and peri-implant bone strain in immediate loading: microcomputed tomographic and in vitro analyses.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The relationships between three-dimensional (3D) bone-to-implant contact (BIC), cortical bone height, and trabecular bone density were measured by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to determine correlations with primary implant stability and peri-implant bone strain in an immediate loading scenario.
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Intraoperative retrograde ureteroscopy during laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy: Precise localization of the lesion.
Asian J Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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In a case of upper ureteral stricture refractory to laser ureterotomy, laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy was performed for resection of the stricture and reanastomosis of the ureter. Precise localization of the stricture segment was achieved by retrograde ureteroscopy performed concurrently with laparoscopy, with minimal change in the patients position.
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A fluorescent organic nanotube assembled from novel p-phenylene ethynylene-based dicationic amphiphiles.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Novel ?-extended conjugated amphiphiles composed of a hydrophilic section of two quaternary ammonium groups and p-phenylene ethynylene with adjustable alkyl chain hydrophobic section were prepared by a multistep synthesis. These dicationic amphiphiles showed good water solubility and formed a tubular assembly in water. The evidence for the nanotubular comes from direct optical and TEM observations. A strong ?-? stacking interaction between neighboring molecules, as evidenced by the red-shift and self-quenching in fluorescence, is proposed for the self-assembly. At the same time, dehydration of the bromide led to strong counterion condensation in headgroups, which resulted in the small curvature structure of the nanotubes. A bilayer lamellar structural model for the organic nanotube is proposed, and a reasonable structural model based on the experimental XRD pattern, as well as cell constants, is proposed.
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Comparisons of maximum deformation and failure forces at the implant--abutment interface of titanium implants between titanium-alloy and zirconia abutments with two levels of marginal bone loss.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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BACKGROUND: Zirconia materials are known for their optimal aesthetics, but they are brittle, and concerns remain about whether their mechanical properties are sufficient for withstanding the forces exerted in the oral cavity. Therefore, this study compared the maximum deformation and failure forces of titanium implants between titanium-alloy and zirconia abutments under oblique compressive forces in the presence of two levels of marginal bone loss. METHODS: Twenty implants were divided into Groups A and B, with simulated bone losses of 3.0 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Groups A and B were also each divided into two subgroups with five implants each: (1) titanium implants connected to titanium-alloy abutments and (2) titanium implants connected to zirconia abutments. The maximum deformation and failure forces of each sample was determined using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann--Whitney test. RESULTS: The mean maximum deformation and failure forces obtained the subgroups were as follows: A1 (simulated bone loss of 3.0 mm, titanium-alloy abutment) = 540.6 N and 656.9 N, respectively; A2 (simulated bone loss of 3.0 mm, zirconia abutment) = 531.8 N and 852.7 N; B1 (simulated bone loss of 1.5 mm, titanium-alloy abutment) = 1070.9 N and 1260.2 N; and B2 (simulated bone loss of 1.5 mm, zirconia abutment) = 907.3 N and 1182.8 N. The maximum deformation force differed significantly between Groups B1 and B2 but not between Groups A1 and A2. The failure force did not differ between Groups A1 and A2 or between Groups B1 and B2. The maximum deformation and failure forces differed significantly between Groups A1 and B1 and between Groups A2 and B2. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this experimental study, the maximum deformation and failure forces are lower for implants with a marginal bone loss of 3.0 mm than of 1.5 mm. Zirconia abutments can withstand physiological occlusal forces applied in the anterior region.
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Positively Charged Dendron Micelles Display Negligible Cellular Interactions.
ACS Macro Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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PEGylated dendron-based copolymers (PDC) with different end-group functionalities (-NH(2), -COOH, and -Ac) were synthesized and self-assembled into dendron micelles to investigate the effect of terminal surface charges on size, morphology, and cellular interactions of the micelles. All of the dendron micelles exhibited similar sizes (20-60 nm) and spherical morphologies, as measured using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The cellular interactions of dendron micelles were evaluated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Surprisingly, although amine-terminated dendrimers are known to strongly interact with cells non-specifically, all of the surface-modified dendron micelles exhibited charge-independent low-levels of cellular interaction. The unexpected results, particularly from the amine-terminated dendron micelles, could be attributed to: i) minimal end-group effects, as each PDC has an approximately 10-fold lower charge-number-to-molecular-weight ratio compared to the dendrimer; and ii) intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding between positively charged terminal groups with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) backbones, which leads to the sequestration of the charges, as demonstrated by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. With the narrow size distribution, uniform morphologies, and low levels of non-specific cellular interactions, the dendron micelles offer a promising drug delivery platform.
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Biomechanical effects of the implant material and implant-abutment interface in immediately loaded small-diameter implants.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Small-diameter implants have been available since the 1990s, but few studies have analyzed their mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effects of the implant material and the implant-abutment connection designs on the primary stability and the marginal bone strain of small-diameter implant subject to immediate loading.
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MDM2 promoter polymorphism and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in chronic myeloid leukemia: The association between MDM2 promoter genotype and disease susceptibility, age of onset, and blast-free survival in chronic phase patients receiving imatinib.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The genetic or functional inactivation of the p53 pathway plays an important role with regards to disease progression from the chronic phase (CP) to blast phase (BP) and imatinib treatment response in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), p53 R72P and MDM2 SNP309, are associated with alternation of p53 activity, however the association regarding CML susceptibility and BP transformation under imatinib treatment is unclear. The MDM2 SNP309 genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and confirmed by direct sequencing from 116 CML patients, including 104 in the CP at diagnosis, and 162 healthy Taiwanese controls. The p53 R72P polymorphism was examined in all CML patients. The SNP309 G/G genotype was associated with an increased risk of CML susceptibility (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.03-3.22, P?=?0.037), and an earlier age of disease onset (log-rank P?=?0.005) compared with the T/T?+?T/G genotypes. Higher MDM2 mRNA expression was found in G/G genotype compared with T/T (P?=?0.034) and T/T?+?T/G (P?=?0.056) genotypes. No associations were found between the p53 R72P genotypes and clinical parameters and survival outcomes. Among 62 CP patients receiving imatinib as first-line therapy, the G/G genotype was associated with a shorter blast-free survival (log-rank P?=?0.048) and more clonal evolution compared with the T/T?+?T/G genotypes. In patients with advanced diseases at diagnosis, the G/G genotype was associated with a poor overall survival (log-rank P?=?0.006). Closely monitoring CML patients harboring the G/G genotype and further large-scale studies are warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Analyses of antibacterial activity and cell compatibility of titanium coated with a Zr-C-N film.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The purpose of this study was to verify the antibacterial performance and cell proliferation activity of zirconium (Zr)-carbon (C)-nitride (N) coatings on commercially pure titanium (Ti) with different C contents.
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Insight into one-electron oxidation of the {Fe(NO)2}9 dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC): aminyl radical stabilized by [Fe(NO)2] motif.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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A reversible redox reaction ({Fe(NO)(2)}(9) DNIC [(NO)(2)Fe(N(Mes)(TMS))(2)](-) (4) ? oxidized-form DNIC [(NO)(2)Fe(N(Mes)(TMS))(2)] (5) (Mes = mesityl, TMS = trimethylsilane)), characterized by IR, UV-vis, (1)H/(15)N NMR, SQUID, XAS, single-crystal X-ray structure, and DFT calculation, was demonstrated. The electronic structure of the oxidized-form DNIC 5 (S(total) = 0) may be best described as the delocalized aminyl radical [(N(Mes)(TMS))(2)](2)(-•) stabilized by the electron-deficient {Fe(III)(NO(-))(2)}(9) motif, that is, substantial spin is delocalized onto the [(N(Mes)(TMS))(2)](2)(-•) such that the highly covalent dinitrosyl iron core (DNIC) is preserved. In addition to IR, EPR (g ? 2.03 for {Fe(NO)(2)}(9)), single-crystal X-ray structure (Fe-N(O) and N-O bond distances), and Fe K-edge pre-edge energy (7113.1-7113.3 eV for {Fe(NO)(2)}(10) vs 7113.4-7113.9 eV for {Fe(NO)(2)}(9)), the (15)N NMR spectrum of [Fe((15)NO)(2)] was also explored to serve as an efficient tool to characterize and discriminate {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) (? 23.1-76.1 ppm) and {Fe(NO)(2)}(10) (? -7.8-25.0 ppm) DNICs. To the best of our knowledge, DNIC 5 is the first structurally characterized tetrahedral DNIC formulated as covalent-delocalized [{Fe(III)(NO(-))(2)}(9)-[N(Mes)(TMS)](2)(-•)]. This result may explain why all tetrahedral DNICs containing monodentate-coordinate ligands isolated and characterized nowadays are confined in the {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) and {Fe(NO)(2)}(10) DNICs in chemistry and biology.
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A novel method of estimating dose responses for polymer gels using texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy images.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Polymer gels are regarded as a potential dosimeter for independent validation of absorbed doses in clinical radiotherapy. Several imaging modalities have been used to convert radiation-induced polymerization to absorbed doses from a macro-scale viewpoint. This study developed a novel dose conversion mechanism by texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The modified N-isopropyl-acrylamide (NIPAM) gels were prepared under normoxic conditions, and were administered radiation doses from 5 to 20 Gy. After freeze drying, the gel samples were sliced for SEM scanning with 50×, 500×, and 3500× magnifications. Four texture indices were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The results showed that entropy and homogeneity were more suitable than contrast and energy as dose indices for higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. After parameter optimization, an R (2) value of 0.993 can be achieved for homogeneity using 500× magnified SEM images with 27 pixel offsets and no outlier exclusion. For dose verification, the percentage errors between the prescribed dose and the measured dose for 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy were -7.60%, 5.80%, 2.53%, and -0.95%, respectively. We conclude that texture analysis can be applied to the SEM images of gel dosimeters to accurately convert micro-scale structural features to absorbed doses. The proposed method may extend the feasibility of applying gel dosimeters in the fields of diagnostic radiology and radiation protection.
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A computerized method for automated identification of erect posteroanterior and supine anteroposterior chest radiographs.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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A computerized scheme was developed for automated identification of erect posteroanterior (PA) and supine anteroposterior (AP) chest radiographs. The method was based on three features, the tilt angle of the scapula superior border, the tilt angle of the clavicle and the extent of radiolucence in lung fields, to identify the view of a chest radiograph. The three indices A(scapula), A(clavicle) and C(lung) were determined from a chest image for the three features. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify PA and AP chest images based on the three indices. The performance of the method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The proposed method was evaluated using a database of 600 PA and 600 AP chest radiographs. The discriminant performances Az of A(scapula), A(clavicle) and C(lung) were 0.878 ± 0.010, 0.683 ± 0.015 and 0.962 ± 0.006, respectively. The combination of the three indices obtained an Az value of 0.979 ± 0.004. The results indicate that the combination of the three indices could yield high discriminant performance. The proposed method could provide radiologists with information about the view of chest radiographs for interpretation or could be used as a preprocessing step for analyzing chest images.
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Concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters for percutaneous retrieval of dislodged central venous port catheter.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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The purpose of this study was to report our experience of percutaneous retrieval of dislodged port catheters with concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters. During a 5-year period at our institute (June 2005 to July 2010), a total of 23 dislodged port catheters were retrieved. The interval between port catheter implantation and dislodged catheter retrieval ranged from 43 days to 1,414 days (mean 586.7 days). The time of delayed retrieval ranged from 1 day to 45 days (mean 4.6 days). All dislodged catheters were retrieved with the concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters via femoral venous route. The prevalence of port catheter dislodgement at our institute was 3.4%. All dislodged port catheters were removed successfully with pigtail and loop snare catheters together. No procedure-related complications were encountered, except for transient arrhythmia in two patients, which required no medication. In conclusion, the concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters is a feasible and easy way for percutaneous retrieval of a dislodged central venous port catheter.
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Peptide-bound dinitrosyliron complexes (DNICs) and neutral/reduced-form Roussins red esters (RREs/rRREs): understanding nitrosylation of [Fe-S] clusters leading to the formation of DNICs and RREs using a de novo design strategy.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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This manuscript describes the interaction of low-molecular-weight DNICs with short peptides designed to explore the stability and structure of DNIC-peptide/RRE-peptide constructs. Although characterization of protein-bound and low-molecular-weight DNICs is possible via EPR, XAS, and NRVS, this study demonstrates that the combination of aqueous IR ?(NO) and UV-vis spectra can serve as an efficient tool to characterize and discriminate peptide-bound DNICs and RREs. The de novo chelate-cysteine-containing peptides KC(A)(n)CK-bound (n = 1-4) dinitrosyliron complexes KC(A)(n)CK-DNIC (CnA-DNIC) and monodentate-cysteine-containing peptides KCAAK-/KCAAHK-bound Roussins red esters (RREs) KCAAK-RRE/KCAAHK-RRE were synthesized and characterized by aqueous IR, UV-vis, EPR, CD, XAS, and ESI-MS. In contrast to the inertness of chelate-cysteine-containing peptide-bound DNICs toward KCAAK/KCAAHK, transformation of KCAAK-RRE/KCAAHK-RRE into CnA-DNIC triggered by CnA and reversible transformation between CnA-DNIC and CnA-RRE via {Fe(NO)(2)}(9)-{Fe(NO)(2)}(10) reduced-form peptide-bound RREs demonstrate that the {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) motif displays a preference for chelate-cysteine-containing peptides over monodentate-cysteine-containing peptides. Also, this study may signify that nitrosylation of [Fe-S] proteins generating protein-bound RREs, reduced protein-bound RREs, or protein-bound DNICs are modulated by both the oxidation state of iron and the chelating effect of the bound proteins of [Fe-S] clusters.
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In vitro antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of bismuth doped micro-arc oxidized titanium.
J Biomater Appl
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Chemical manipulations of the implant surface produce a bactericidal feature to prevent infections around dental implants. Despite the successful use of bismuth against mucosal and dermis infections, the antibacterial effect of bismuth in the oral cavity remains under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of bismuth compounds against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Staphylococcus mutans, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of bismuth doped micro-arc oxidation (MAO) titanium via an agar diffusion test. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization level of MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the coatings were evaluated at 1, 7, and 14 days. The results demonstrate that bismuth nitrate possess superior antibacterial activity when compared with bismuth acetate, bismuth subgallate, and silver nitrate. The bismuth doped MAO coating (contained 6.2 atomic percentage bismuth) had good biological affinities to the MG63 cells and showed a higher antibacterial efficacy against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and MRSA, where the reduction rates of colony numbers is higher than that of the control group by 1.5 and 1.9 times, respectively. These in vitro evaluations demonstrate that titanium implants with bismuth on the surface may be useful for better infection control.
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Zone-based analysis for automated detection of abnormalities in chest radiographs.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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The aim of this study was to develop an automated method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities in chest radiographs.
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Large enhancements in optoelectronic efficiencies of nano-plastically stressed conjugated polymer strands.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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The photoluminescence (PL) of well dispersed molecules of a conjugated polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV), in an optically inert matrix manifested dramatic increases when the individual molecular strands were fully stretched. The PL increase rose with stretching and may reach several folds when the mechanical strain of the matrix polymer went beyond 550%. Strong polarization effects indicate that stretching individual polymer chains was responsible for the PL enhancement. This effect was attributed to suppression of electron-phonon interactions in the stress-rigidified polymer chain segments and may be useful for efficiency-enhanced polymer-based optoelectronic devices.
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Meigs syndrome with elevated serum cancer antigen 125 levels in a case of ovarian sclerosing stromal tumor.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Meigs syndrome presenting as an ovarian tumor with elevated serum cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) levels is unusual. Only 37 cases have been reported, including three cases of ovarian sclerosing stromal tumor (SCT). Many reports have suggested that the presence of ascites is the major factor inducing mesothelial expression of CA 125.
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Differential adhesion and actomyosin cable collaborate to drive Echinoid-mediated cell sorting.
Development
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Cell sorting involves the segregation of two cell populations into `immiscible adjacent tissues with smooth borders. Echinoid (Ed), a nectin ortholog, is an adherens junction protein in Drosophila, and cells mutant for ed sort out from the surrounding wild-type cells. However, it remains unknown which factors trigger cell sorting. Here, we dissect the sequence of this process and find that cell sorting occurs when differential expression of Ed triggers the assembly of actomyosin cable. Conversely, Ed-mediated cell sorting can be rescued by recruitment of Ed, via homophilic or heterophilic interactions, to the wild-type cell side of the clonal interface, even when differential Ed expression persists. We found, unexpectedly, that when actomyosin cable was largely absent, differential adhesion was sufficient to cause limited cell segregation but with a jagged tissue border (imperfect sorting). We propose that Ed-mediated cell sorting is driven both by differential Ed adhesion that induces cell segregation with a jagged border and by actomyosin cable assembly at the interface that smoothens this border.
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ICAM-1 and AMPK regulate cell detachment and apoptosis by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, a widely spread environmental chemical, in human hormone-refractory prostate cancers.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a sensor of DNA damage, plays a crucial role in the regulation of DNA repair. PARP-1 hyperactivation causes DNA damage and cell death. The underlying mechanism is complicated and is through diverse pathways. The understanding of responsible signaling pathways may offer implications for effective therapies. After concentration-response determination of N-Methyl-N-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, a PARP-1 activating agent and an environmental mutagen) in human hormone-refractory prostate cancers, the data showed that concentrations below 5?M did not change cell survival but cause a time-dependent up-regulation of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in mRNA, total protein and cell surface levels. Detection of phosphorylation and degradation of I?B-? and nuclear translocation of NF-?B showed that MNNG induced the activation of NF-?B that was responsible for the ICAM-1 up-regulation since PDTC (a NF-?B inhibitor) significantly abolished this effect. However, higher concentrations (e.g., 10?M) of MNNG induced a 61% detachment of the cells which were apoptosis associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Further identification showed that both AMPK and JNK other than p38 MAPK functionally contributed to cell death. The remaining 39% attached cells were survival associated with high ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion, the data suggest that NF-?B-dependent up-regulation of ICAM-1 plays a key role on cell attachment and survival; whereas, activation of AMPK and JNK participates in cytotoxic signaling pathways in detached cells caused by PARP-1 activation.
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Three-dimensional bone structure and bone mineral density evaluations of autogenous bone graft after sinus augmentation: a microcomputed tomography analysis.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2011
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The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships and differences in three-dimensional (3D) bone mineral density (BMD) and microtrabecular structures between autogenous bone grafts and their adjacent native bone after a healing period following maxillary sinus augmentation.
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Discrimination of mononuclear and dinuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) by S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy: insight into the electronic structure and reactivity of DNICs.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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In addition to probing the formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) by the characteristic Fe K-edge pre-edge absorption energy ranging from 7113.4 to 7113.8 eV, the distinct S K-edge pre-edge absorption energy and pattern can serve as an efficient tool to unambiguously characterize and discriminate mononuclear DNICs and dinuclear DNICs containing bridged-thiolate and bridged-sulfide ligands. The higher Fe-S bond covalency modulated by the stronger electron-donating thiolates promotes the Fe ? NO ?-electron back-donation to strengthen the Fe-NO bond and weaken the NO-release ability of the mononuclear DNICs, which is supported by the Raman ?(Fe-NO) stretching frequency. The Fe-S bond covalency of DNICs further rationalizes the binding preference of the {Fe(NO)(2)} motif toward thiolates following the trend of [SEt](-) > [SPh](-) > [SC(7)H(4)SN](-). The relative d-manifold energy derived from S K-edge XAS as well as the Fe K-edge pre-edge energy reveals that the electronic structure of the {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) core of the mononuclear DNICs [(NO)(2)Fe(SR)(2)](-) is best described as {Fe(III)(NO(-))(2)}(9) compared to [{Fe(III)(NO(-))(2)}(9)-{Fe(III)(NO(-))(2)}(9)] for the dinuclear DNICs [Fe(2)(?-SEt)(?-S)(NO)(4)](-) and [Fe(2)(?-S)(2)(NO)(4)](2-).
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The effects of cortical bone thickness and trabecular bone strength on noninvasive measures of the implant primary stability using synthetic bone models.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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This study investigated how the primary stability of a dental implant as measured by the insertion torque value (ITV), Periotest value (PTV), and implant stability quotient (ISQ) is affected by varying thicknesses of cortical bone and strengths of trabecular bone using synthetic bone models.
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Isomalyngamide A, A-1 and their analogs suppress cancer cell migration in vitro.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Isomalyngamide A (1) and A-1 (2) were isolated from the Taiwanese Lyngbya majuscule and the latter structure was elucidated by a combination of NMR spectroscopic analysis and HRESIMS measurement. We report the isolation of isomalyngamide A (1), discovery of isomalyngamide A-1 (2) and their synthetic analogs (3-9), which are further demonstrated to have therapeutic potential against tumor cell migration at the level of nanomolar to micromolar ranges, perhaps, by inactivating the expression of p-FAK, FAK, p-Akt and Akt through ?1 integrin-mediated antimetastatic pathway.
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Influences of internal tapered abutment designs on bone stresses around a dental implant: three-dimensional finite element method with statistical evaluation.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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The aim of this study is to determine the effects of various designs of internal tapered abutment joints on the stress induced in peri-implant crestal bone by using the three-dimensional finite element method and statistical analyses.
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Effects of orthodontic tooth movement on alveolar bone density.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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The object of this study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth and the direction of tooth movement by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT was used to measure the bone densities around six maxilla anterior teeth before and after 7 months of orthodontic treatment in eight patients. Each root was divided into three levels (cervical, intermediate, and apical) to determine whether the bone density change varied with the tooth level. Moreover, each level was divided into four regions (palatal, distal, mesial, and buccal sides). Three-dimensional computer models of the maxilla before and after orthodontic treatment were created to detect the direction of tooth movement. The percentage for all 144 samples [8 (patients) × 6 (teeth) × 3 (levels)] in which the side (palatal, distal, mesial, or buccal sides) of maximum bone density reduction (before and after orthodontic treatment) coincided with the direction of tooth movement was calculated; this was referred to as the "coincidence percentage". The bone density around the teeth reduced by 24.3 ± 9.5%. The average coincidence percentage for the eight patients was 59.0%. The coincidence percentages for the eight patients were 62.5%, 62.5%, and 52.1% at the cervical, intermediate, and apical levels, respectively. The obtained results demonstrate that the direction of tooth movement is associated with the side of maximum bone density reduction, and that CBCT is a useful approach for evaluating bone density changes around teeth induced by orthodontic treatment.
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Altered expression of circadian clock genes in human chronic myeloid leukemia.
J. Biol. Rhythms
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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Circadian clock genes use transcriptional-translational feedback loops to control circadian rhythms. Recent studies have demonstrated that expression of some circadian clock genes displays daily oscillation in peripheral tissues including peripheral blood and bone marrow. Circadian rhythms regulate various functions of human body, and the disruption of circadian rhythm has been associated with cancer development and tumor progression. However, the direct links between aberrant circadian clock gene expression and human disorders remain largely unknown. In this study, comparisons were made between the expression profiles of 9 circadian clock genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) from 18 healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood (PB) total leukocytes from 54 healthy volunteers and 95 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were also investigated. Similar expression profiles of all 9 circadian clock genes were observed in PBMCs and PMNs of healthy individuals. In PB total leukocytes of healthy individuals, the daily pattern of PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, and CKI? expression level peaked at 0800 h, and BMAL1 peaked at 2000 h. Daily pattern expression of these 7 genes was disrupted in newly diagnosed pre-imatinib mesylate-treated and blast crisis-phase patients with CML. Partial daily pattern gene expression recoveries were observed in patients with CML with complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response. The expression of CLOCK and TIM did not show a time-dependent variation among the healthy and patients with CML. These results indicate a possible association of the disrupted daily patterns of circadian clock gene expression with the pathogenesis of CML.
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Costunolide induces apoptosis through nuclear calcium2+ overload and DNA damage response in human prostate cancer.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Costunolide is a natural sesquiterpene lactone. We elucidated what to our knowledge is a novel mechanism to highlight its potential in chemotherapy for prostate cancer, particularly androgen refractory prostate cancer.
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Bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced by conditioned stimulations with different number of pulse at hippocampal CA1 synapses: roles of N-methyl-D-aspartate and metabotropic glutamate receptors.
Synapse
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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In the mammalian brain, the hippocampus has been established as a principle structure for learning and memory processes, which involve synaptic plasticity. Although a relationship between synaptic plasticity and stimulation frequency has been reported in numerous studies, little is known about the importance of pulse number on synaptic plasticity. Here we investigated whether the pulse number can modulate bidirectional plasticity in hippocampal CA1 areas. When a CA1 area was induced by a paired-pulse (PP) with a 10-ms interval, the strength of the synapse was altered to form a long-term depression (LTD), with a 68 ± 4% decrease in expression. The PP-induced LTD (PP-LTD) was blocked by the metabotropic glutamate receptors subtype 5 (mGluR5) antagonist MPEP, suggesting that the PP-LTD relied on the activation of GluR5. In addition, this modulation of LTD was protein kinase C (PKC)- and Group II mGluR-independent. However, when increasing the pulse number to 4 and 6, potentiated synaptic strength was observed, which was N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent but mGluR5-independent. Surprisingly, when blocking mGluR, the synaptic efficacy induced by triple-pulse stimulation was altered to form a long-term potentiation (LTP) with a 142 ± 7% enhancement, and was further blocked by NMDA antagonist APV. Following treatment with APV and PKC blocker chelerythrine, the LTP expression induced by 4- and 6-pulse stimulation was switched to LTD. We suggest that CA1 synaptic plasticity is regulated by the result of competition between NMDA and mGluR5 receptors. We suggest that the pulse number can bidirectionally modulate synaptic plasticity through the activation of NMDA and mGluR5 in hippocampal CA1 areas.
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Additional chromosome abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome and/or Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus oncogene transcript are unique markers for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, CML demonstrates heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. We analyzed the cytogenetic and molecular results of CML patients to evaluate their correlation with clinical presentations and outcome. A total of 84 newly diagnosed CML patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated according to disease status. Bone marrow samples were obtained to perform cytogenetic and molecular studies. Clinical presentations, treatment courses, and survival were reviewed retrospectively. Among 84 patients, 72 had chronic phase and 12 had accelerated phase CML. Cytogenetic study showed 69 (82.1%) with the classic Ph chromosome, 6 (7.2%) with a variant Ph chromosome, and 9 (10.7%) with additional chromosome abnormalities. Fifty-four (64.3%) cases harbored b3a2 transcripts, 29 (34.5%) had b2a2 transcript, and 1 had e19a2 transcript. There was no difference in clinical presentations between different cytogenetic and molecular groups; however, additional chromosome abnormalities were significantly associated with the accelerated phase. Imatinib therapy was an effective treatment, as measured by cytogenetic response, when administered as first- and second-line therapy in chronic phase patients. Survival analysis showed that old age, additional chromosome abnormalities, high Sokal score, and no cytogenetic response in second-line therapy had a significant poor impact (p<0.05). In conclusion, we presented the cytogenetic and molecular pattern of CML patients and demonstrated that the additional chromosome abnormality was associated with poor outcome.
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JAK2V617F mutation is associated with special alleles in essential thrombocythemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Janus kinase 2 mutation (JAK2V617F) has been identified in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Furthermore, special single nucleoside polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found to be associated with the JAK2V617F mutation. Therefore, the associations among JAK2V617F and special SNPs and the allelic location between them were investigated in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET). A total of 61 patients with ET and 106 healthy individuals were enrolled. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to investigate the pattern of three SNPs, rs10974944, rs12343867, and rs12340895. Allele-specific PCR was used to examine the allelic location between rs10974944 and JAK2V617F. Among the patients with ET, 34 (55.7%, 34/61) were JAK2V617F positive (heterozygous) while the other 27 (44.3%, 27/61) were negative, and there were no MPLW515L/K mutations noted. The pattern of special SNPs in JAK2V617F(+) was significantly different from that in normal individuals (p?<0.05), while there was no difference between JAK2V617F(-) patients and normal individuals. Allele-specific PCR showed high association of a cis-location between the special G-allele of rs10974944 and JAK2V617F(+). Based on this small numbered study, the results show the association between special SNPs and JAK2V617F mutation and a cis-location between the special G-allelic form of rs10974944 and the JAK2V617F mutation. These data highlight a close relationship between them in patients with ET.
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Assessments of inclinations of the mandibular fossa by computed tomography in an Asian population.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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This study aims to evaluate the inclinations of right and left sides the mandibular fossa in Asian population using computed tomography (CT) images and determine its effects according to the parameters of gender, age, and asymmetry. CT images of the heads of 198 Asian subjects [95 females aged 44.2?±?20.7 years, range 11-88 years; and 103 males aged 44.5?±?19.7 years, range 15-98 years] were selected. The following eight parameters characterizing the inclinations of the mandibular fossa were measured by medical imaging software: anterior and posterior inclinations on the left and right sides on a sagittal view, and medial and lateral inclinations on the left and right sides on a coronal view. The anterior inclination was significant steeper in males than in females on both the left and right sides. A moderate positive correlation was found between age and anterior inclinations on the left and right sides. None of the other parameters were significantly affected by age or gender. None of the parameters differed significantly between the right and left sides of the mandibular fossa in males, females, or all subjects. The anterior inclination of the mandibular fossa was affected by aging and gender becoming steeper in Asians males than females. Besides, there were no asymmetry in the right and left side inclinations of the mandibular fossa.
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Antibacterial properties and human gingival fibroblast cell compatibility of TiO2/Ag compound coatings and ZnO films on titanium-based material.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Titanium (Ti)-based materials are widely used in biomedical implant components and are applied successfully in various types of bone-anchored reconstructions. However, in dental implants the Ti materials contact not only bone but also gingival tissues, and are partially exposed to the oral cavity that includes bacteria. This study used titania and silver (TiO(2)/Ag) compound coatings and zinc oxide (ZnO) films to enhance the antibacterial activity of the Ti-based implant. The hydrophobicity of each sample was examined by measuring the contact angle. Streptococcus mutans and human gingival fibroblast (HGF) was cultured on the coated samples, and the antibacterial effects and cell compatibility were determined using a Syto9 fluorescence staining and MTT methods. For the TiO(2)/Ag samples, depositing Ag on the plate at a higher power (which increased the proportion of Ag) increased the contact angle and the hydrophobicity. The bacterial count was lowest for the 50 W TiO(2)/Ag sample, which contained 5.9% Ag. The contact angles of the ZnO samples did not show the same tendency. The antibacterial effect was higher on ZnO-coated samples since bacterial count was threefold lower on ZnO samples as compared to control samples (Ti plate). From the MTT assay test, the mean optical density values for TiO(2)/Ag-coated samples after 72 h of HGF adhesion were similar to the value obtained from the uncoated Ti. However, biocompatibility was lower on ZnO films than in control samples. Conclusively, the antibacterial activity was higher but the cell compatibility was lower on ZnO films than on TiO(2)/Ag coatings.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.