Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission.
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a frequent comorbidity in a large percentage of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). PLWHA with comorbid AUDs are consistently found to perform poorly at most levels of the HIV treatment cascade, resulting in a higher likelihood of virologic nonsuppression. This has been partly attributed to lower rates of persistence with and adherence to antiretroviral therapies (ART). Focus groups of in-care PLWHA identify the need to suspend ART on drinking days because of the potential for toxicity and/or lack of therapeutic effectiveness. The aim of this study was to examine whether chronic binge alcohol (CBA) consumption decreases the effectiveness of uninterrupted ART, specifically that of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) tenofovir and emtricitabine in suppressing viral replication, or results in drug toxicity in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure.
The authors examined the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HKR) on cognitive and psychosocial functioning in a lifespan sample of adults 6 to 14 months after the storms. Participants were recruited from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Most were assessed during the immediate impact period and retested for this study. Analyses of pre-and post-disaster cognitive data confirmed that storm-related decrements in working memory for middle-aged and older adults observed in the immediate impact period had returned to pre-hurricane levels in the post-disaster recovery period. Middle-aged adults reported more storm-related stressors and greater levels of stress than the two older groups at both waves of testing. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions.
ABSTRACT We examined the effect of a semantic orienting task during encoding on free recall and recognition of simple line drawings and matching words in middle-aged (44-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90+ years) adults. Participants studied line drawings and matching words presented in blocked order. Half of the participants were given a semantic orienting task and the other half received standard intentional learning instructions. Results confirmed that the pictorial superiority effect was greater in magnitude following semantic encoding compared to the control condition. Analyses of clustering in free recall revealed that oldest-old adults encoding and retrieval strategies were generally similar to the two younger groups. Self-reported strategy use was less frequent among the oldest-old adults. These data strongly suggest that semantic elaboration is an effective compensatory mechanism underlying preserved episodic memory performance that persists well into the ninth decade of life.
Insulin sensitivity is impaired and ectopic fat (accretion of lipids outside of typical adipose tissue depots) increased in obese adults and adolescents. It is unknown how early in life this occurs; thus, it is important to evaluate young children to identify potential factors leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. We examined an ethnically diverse cohort of healthy, exclusively prepubertal children (N = 123; F = 57, M = 66; age 8.04 ± 0.77 years) to examine differences in insulin sensitivity and ectopic and visceral fat deposition between obese and nonobese youth. Obesity was categorized by age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores (nonobese = z-score <2 (N = 94) and obese = z-score ?2 (N = 29)). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by both a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (S(i)) and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)). Intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) from soleus and intrahepatic lipids (IHLs) were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by magnetic resonance imaging, and total body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We also examined serum lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and blood pressure (diastolic and systolic). Obese children exhibited significantly lower S(i) (5.9 ± 5.98 vs. 13.43 ± 8.18 (mµ/l)(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.01) and HDL-C and higher HOMA(IR) (1.68 ± 1.49 vs. 0.63 ± 0.47, P < 0.0001), IMCL (0.74 ± 0.39 vs. 0.44 ± 0.21% water peak, P < 0.0001), IHL (1.49 ± 1.13 vs. 0.54 ± 0.42% water peak, P < 0.0001), VAT (20.16 ± 8.01 vs. 10.62 ± 5.44 cm(2), P < 0.0001), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure relative to nonobese children. These results confirm significantly increased ectopic fat and insulin resistance in healthy obese vs. nonobese children prior to puberty. Excessive adiposity during early development appears concomitant with precursors of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.
In the present study, we examined adult age differences in short-term and working memory performance in middle-aged (45-64 years), young-old (65-74 years), old-old (75-89 years), and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Previous research suggests that measures of working memory are more sensitive to age effects than are simple tests of short-term memory Bopp and Verhaeghen (Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 60:223-233, 2005), Myerson, Emery, White, and Hale, (Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 10:20-27, 2003). To test this hypothesis, we examined output serial position curves of recall data from three span tasks: forward and backward digit span and size judgment span. Participants recall patterns in the size judgment span task revealed that the two oldest groups of adults showed the largest decreases in recall performance across output serial positions, but did not differ significantly from each other. Correlation analyses indicated the strongest negative correlation with age occurred with the size judgment span task. Implications of these findings for understanding strategic processing abilities in late life are discussed.
Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a lifespan sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late life health.
We examined health-related quality of life in adults in the Louisiana Health Aging Study (LHAS) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HK/R) that made landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast region in 2005. Analyses of pre- and post-disaster SF-36 scores yielded changes in physical function and bodily pain. Mental health scores were lower for women than men. Gender differences were observed in religious beliefs and religious coping, favoring women. Religious beliefs and religious coping were negatively correlated with physical function, implying that stronger reliance on religiosity as a coping mechanism may be more likely among those who are less physically capable.
The search for longevity-determining genes in human has largely neglected the operation of genetic interactions. We have identified a novel combination of common variants of three genes that has a marked association with human lifespan and healthy aging. Subjects were recruited and stratified according to their genetically inferred ethnic affiliation to account for population structure. Haplotype analysis was performed in three candidate genes, and the haplotype combinations were tested for association with exceptional longevity. An HRAS1 haplotype enhanced the effect of an APOE haplotype on exceptional survival, and a LASS1 haplotype further augmented its magnitude. These results were replicated in a second population. A profile of healthy aging was developed using a deficit accumulation index, which showed that this combination of gene variants is associated with healthy aging. The variation in LASS1 is functional, causing enhanced expression of the gene, and it contributes to healthy aging and greater survival in the tenth decade of life. Thus, rare gene variants need not be invoked to explain complex traits such as aging; instead rare congruence of common gene variants readily fulfills this role. The interaction between the three genes described here suggests new models for cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying exceptional survival and healthy aging that involve lipotoxicity.
C57BL/6 J (B6) and CAST/EiJ (CAST), the inbred strain derived from M. musculus castaneus, differ in nutrient intake behaviors, including dietary fat and carbohydrate consumption in a two-diet-choice paradigm. Significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for carbohydrate (Mnic1) and total energy intake (Kcal2) are present between these strains on chromosome (Chr) 17. Here we report the refinement of the Chr 17 QTL in a subcongenic strain of the B6.CAST-( D17Mit19-D17Mit91 ) congenic mice described previously. This new subcongenic strain possesses CAST Chr 17 donor alleles from 4.8 to 45.4 Mb on a B6 background. Similar to CAST, the subcongenic mice exhibit increased carbohydrate and total calorie intake per body weight, while fat intake remains equivalent. Unexpectedly, this CAST genomic segment also confers two new physical activity phenotypes: 22% higher spontaneous physical activity levels and significantly increased voluntary wheel-running activity compared with the parental B6 strain. Overall, these data suggest that gene(s) involved in carbohydrate preference and increased physical activity are contained within the proximal region of Chr 17. Interval-specific microarray analysis in hypothalamus and skeletal muscle revealed differentially expressed genes within the subcongenic region, including neuropeptide W (Npw); glyoxalase I (Glo1); cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily f, polypeptide 1 (Cyp4f15); phospholipase A2, group VII (Pla2g7); and phosphodiesterase 9a (Pde9a). This subcongenic strain offers a unique model for dissecting the contributions and possible interactions among genes controlling food intake and physical activity, key components of energy balance.
How signals from fatty acid metabolism are translated into changes in food intake remains unclear. Previously we reported that mice with a genetic inactivation of Acads (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, short-chain), the enzyme responsible for mitochondrial beta-oxidation of C4-C6 short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), shift consumption away from fat and toward carbohydrate when offered a choice between diets. In the current study, we sought to indentify candidate genes and pathways underlying the effects of SCFA oxidation deficiency on food intake in Acads-/- mice.
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