JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Protozoa and protozoan infections of humans in Central Europe].
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article is a condensed review of the medically relevant protozoa in Central Europe and the infections and diseases caused by them. Information is given on modes and sources of infection, organs involved in the disease, prevalence, diagnostics, therapy, and prophylaxis. Moreover, travel-associated infections with protozoa are briefly outlined.
Related JoVE Video
Rediscovery of Nucleophaga amoebae, a novel member of the Rozellomycota.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies showed that the huge diversity branching at or near the phylogenetic root of the fungal kingdom, mostly constituted by uncultured environmental clones, is actually characterized by intracellular predators/parasites of various eukaryotes. These form three related lineages: the Aphelidea, endoparasites of algae; the Rozellomycota, with Rozella species mainly endoparasites of water moulds, and Paramicrosporidium species endonuclear parasites of amoebae; and the Microsporidia, mainly endoparasites of animals. Increasing evidence suggests the emergence of Microsporidia from within Rozellomycota; however, their fungal or protistan nature is still unclear. Here, we report the molecular phylogeny based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) gene, of an additional endoparasite of amoebae, corresponding to the old enigmatic chytrid Nucleophaga amoebae described in the nineteenth century. Our results show that Nucleophaga, possessing a morphotype intermediate between Rozella and Paramicrosporidium, emerges as a unique lineage within the Rozellomycota. The recovery and characterization of new members of Rozellomycota are of high value for the understanding of the early evolutionary history of the Fungi and related lineages.
Related JoVE Video
Acanthamoeba everywhere: high diversity of Acanthamoeba in soils.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoeba is a very abundant genus of soil protists with fundamental importance in nutrient cycling, but several strains can also act as human pathogens. The systematics of the genus is still unclear: currently 18 small-subunit (SSU or 18S) ribosomal RNA sequence types (T1-T18) are recognized, which sometimes contain several different morphotypes; on the other hand, some morphological identical strains belong to different sequence types, sometimes appearing in paraphyletic positions. In this study, we cultivated 65 Acanthamoeba clones from soil samples collected under grassland at three separate locations in the Netherlands, in Sardinia and at high altitude mountains in Tibet. We obtained 24 distinct partial sequences, which predominantly grouped within sequence type T4 followed by T2, T13, T16 and "OX-1" (in the T2/T6 clade). Our sequences were 98-99% similar, but none was identical to already known Acanthamoeba sequences. The community composition of Acanthamoeba strains differed between locations, T4 being the dominant sequence type in Sardinia and Tibet, but represented only half of the clones from soils in the Netherlands. The other half of clones from the Dutch soils was made up by T2, T16 and "OX-1", while T13 was only found in Sardinia and Tibet. None of the sequences was identical between localities. Several T4 clones from all three localities and all T13 clones grew at 37 °C while one T4 clone was highly cytopathogenic.
Related JoVE Video
Twenty Years of Acanthamoeba Diagnostics in Austria.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5.
Related JoVE Video
Article for the "Free-living amoebae Special Issue": Isolation and characterisation of various amoebophagous fungi and evaluation of their prey spectrum.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article gives an overview on the isolation and characterisation of endoparasitic fungi invading free-living amoebae (FLA), including the ones forming thalli inside their hosts such as Cochlonema euryblastum and also the predatory fungi which capture amoebae by adhesive hyphae. They trap, intrude, and exploite amoebal trophozoites such as Acaulopage spp. and Stylopage spp. Previous phylogenetic studies proved Cochlonema to be a member of the Zoopagales. The genetic investigation of Acaulopage tetraceros demonstrated its close relationship to Cochlonema. Co-cultivation of A. tetraceros with a number of FLA revealed a great prey spectrum of this amoebophageous fungus. In addition it was shown that solitary amoebal stages of slime moulds such as Dictyostelium sp. and Physarum sp. are also suited as welcome prey amoebae.
Related JoVE Video
Microsporidia-like parasites of amoebae belong to the early fungal lineage Rozellomycota.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Molecular phylogenies based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU or 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)) revealed recently the existence of a relatively large and widespread group of eukaryotes, branching at the base of the fungal tree. This group, comprising almost exclusively environmental clones, includes the endoparasitic chytrid Rozella as the unique known representative. Rozella emerged as the first fungal lineage in molecular phylogenies and as the sister group of the Microsporidia. Here we report rDNA molecular phylogenetic analyses of two endonuclear parasites of free-living naked amoebae having microsporidia-like ultrastructural features but belonging to the rozellids. Similar to microsporidia, these endoparasites form unflagellated walled spores and grow inside the host cells as unwalled nonphagotrophic meronts. Our endonuclear parasites are microsporidia-like rozellids, for which we propose the name Paramicrosporidium, appearing to be the until now lacking morphological missing link between Fungi and Microsporidia. These features contrast with the recent description of the rozellids as an intermediate wall-less lineage of organisms between protists and true Fungi. We thus reconsider the rozellid clade as the most basal fungal lineage, naming it Rozellomycota.
Related JoVE Video
Free-living amoebae (FLA) co-occurring with legionellae in industrial waters.
Eur. J. Protistol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Legionella pneumophila is known as the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease and free-living amoebae (FLA) can serve as vehicles for legionellae. The aim of this study was to screen industrial waters for the occurrence of FLA and their co-occurrence with legionellae. A total of 201 water samples, including 129 cooling waters and 72 process waters, and 30 cooling lubricants were included in the study. Treated waters were screened periodically, pre and post treatment. Altogether, 72.6% of the water samples were positive for FLA, acanthamoebae being most prevalent (in 23.9% of the samples) followed by Vermamoeba vermiformis (19.4%). Only one cooling lubricant was positive (Acanthamoeba genotype T4). Legionella spp. were detected in 34.8% of the water samples and in 15% in high concentrations (>1000 CFU/100 ml). Altogether, 81.4% of the Legionella-positive samples were positive for FLA by standard methods. By applying a highly sensitive nested PCR to a representative set of random samples it was revealed that Legionella spp. always co-occurred with Acanthamoeba spp. Although the addition of disinfectants did influence amoebal density and diversity, treated waters showed no difference concerning FLA in the interphases of disinfection. It appears that FLA can re-colonize treated waters within a short period of time.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro efficacy of curcumin on Trichomonas vaginalis.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichomonosis, the disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common curable sexually transmitted disease with 174 million cases per year worldwide. The emerging resistance against the current standard therapy with metronidazole is pushing the search for alternative drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of curcumin, a derivate of Curcuma longa, on T. vaginalis. The effective concentrations (ECs) were evaluated using three strains of T. vaginaliswith different metronidazole susceptibilities (ATCC 30001, ATCC 30236 and ATCC 50138) and dilution series of curcumin in 24-well microtitre assays. Curcumin was shown to be highly effective against T. vaginalis, and the susceptibility of the different strains was not affected by an existing resistance to metronidazole. After 24 h of incubation, the EC50 ranged from 73.0 to 105.8 µg/ml and the EC90 from 216.3 to 164.9 µg/ml. In all strains tested, a 100?% eradication of all trichomonal cells within 24 h was reached at a concentration of 400 µg/ml curcumin, the 50-fold concentration still being very well tolerated by human mucosa. Altogether, curcumin seems to be a promising candidate for topical treatment of trichomonosis.
Related JoVE Video
Wherefrom and whereabouts of an alien: the American liver fluke Fascioloides magna in Austria: an overview.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna, an invasive species originating from North America, was recorded in Austria in the wild for the first time in 2000. Since then, various data concerning the epidemiology in snail intermediate hosts and cervid final hosts have been reported. Galba truncatula acts as snail intermediate host, and red deer, roe deer and fallow deer act as final hosts. G. truncatula is abundant throughout the region, especially along muddy shores of slow-flowing branches of the river system. Prevalence in deer (20-100?%) is much higher than in snails (0.03-0.2?%). Despite medical treatment of parts of the deer population, the parasite has successfully established itself on both sides of the Danube floodplain environments southeast of Vienna. Genetic analysis revealed that the infection of Austrian deer populations apparently originated from foci in the Czech Republic or from populations of Danube tributaries. Areas adjacent southwards, which will soon be joined through wildlife crossings, have not yet evidenced F. magna. Nonetheless, these environments are inhabited by host snails and deer and therefore constitute suitable habitats for F. magna. Invading alien parasites not only threaten native individual hosts but also influence host populations, thus potentially also modifying parasite communities and interactions. The host range of F. magna includes a variety of potential hosts, notably other Lymnaeidae as potential intermediate hosts and various ungulates, including sheep and cattle, as final hosts. Because eradication after medical treatment was unsuccessful, and due to the risk of further spread of the parasite into unaffected regions, enhanced control strategies need to be developed. We recommend assessment of introduction pathways and dispersal, continuous monitoring of host abundance and distribution and the prevalence of flukes in intermediate and final hosts, as well as coordinated and concerted actions with neighbouring countries. This strategy could help to reduce potential negative impacts of this and other invasive parasites on host populations in Europe.
Related JoVE Video
Protein profiles and immunoreactivities of Acanthamoeba morphological groups and genotypes.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan found in a wide variety of habitats. A classification of Acanthamoeba into currently eighteen genotypes (T1-T18) has been established, however, data on differences between genotypes on the protein level are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare protein and immunoreactivity profiles of Acanthamoeba genotypes. Thirteen strains, both clinical and non-clinical, from genotypes T4, T5, T6, T7, T9, T11 and T12, representing three morphological groups, were investigated for their protein profiles and IgG, IgM and IgA immunoreactivities. It was shown that protein and immunoreactivity profiles of Acanthamoeba genotypes T4, T5, T6, T7, T9, T11 and T12 are clearly distinct from each other, but the banding patterns correlate to the morphological groups. Normal human sera revealed anti-Acanthamoeba antibodies against isolates of all investigated genotypes, interestingly, however only very weak IgM and virtually no IgA immunoreactivity with T7 and T9, both representing morphological group I. The strongest IgG, IgM and IgA immunoreactivities were observed for genotypes T4, T5 and T6. Differences of both, protein and immunological patterns, between cytopathic and non-cytopathic strains, particularly within genotype T4, were not at the level of banding patterns, but rather in expression levels.
Related JoVE Video
Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.
Related JoVE Video
Miltefosine and polyhexamethylene biguanide: a new drug combination for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PURPOSE: In this study, a series of compounds - miltefosine (MLT), polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), chlorhexidine (CHX), and propamidine isethionate (PI) - and combinations of the latter three agents with miltefosine were prepared and used in a rat model for the topical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. METHODS: The corneas of rats were infected with Acanthamoeba hatchetti. On the fifth day, all corneas were microscopically examined in order to determine the grade of infections. Nine groups were then prepared: MLT (65.12 ?g/mL); CHX (0.02%); PHMB (0.02%), PI (0.1%), MLT plus CHX, MLT plus PHMB; MLT plus PI; infected control; and a non-infected control group. The treatment was continued for 28 days. After the treatment, the corneas were excised and used for Acanthamoeba culture to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba growth. For the determination of cytotoxicity of the drugs on L929 cells, colorimetric assays were performed. RESULTS: The best treatment results were obtained from the PHMB plus MLT group: the ratio of fully recovered eyes was 28.4%. It was proven that the MLT-PHMB combination yielded the highest anti-acanthamoebal activity in that approximately 86% of the eyes were cleared from amoebae. The cytotoxicity values of the MLT and the control groups were compared with other groups, and found to be statistically different (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This in vivo study demonstrates that a MLT-PHMB combination is highly effective for the treatment of AK.
Related JoVE Video
The N-glycans of Trichomonas vaginalis contain variable core and antennal modifications.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichomonad species are widespread unicellular flagellated parasites of vertebrates which interact with their hosts through carbohydrate-lectin interactions. In the past, some data have been accumulated regarding their lipo(phospho)glycans, a major glycoconjugate on their cell surfaces; on the other hand, other than biosynthetic aspects, few details about their N-linked oligosaccharides are known. In this study, we present both mass spectrometric and high-performance liquid chromatography data about the N-glycans of different strains of Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasite of the human reproductive tract. The major structure in all strains examined is a truncated oligomannose form (Man(5)GlcNAc(2)) with ?1,2-mannose residues, compatible with a previous bioinformatic examination of the glycogenomic potential of T. vaginalis. In addition, dependent on the strain, N-glycans modified by pentose residues, phosphate or phosphoethanolamine and terminal N-acetyllactosamine (Gal?1,4GlcNAc) units were found. The modification of N-glycans by N-acetyllactosamine in at least some strains is shared with the lipo(phospho)glycan and may represent a further interaction partner for host galectins, thereby playing a role in binding of the parasite to host epithelia. On the other hand, the variation in glycosylation between strains may be the result of genetic diversity within this species.
Related JoVE Video
Linguatula serrata tongue worm in human eye, Austria.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Linguatula serrata, the so-called tongue worm, is a worm-like, bloodsucking parasite belonging to the Pentastomida group. Infections with L. serrata tongue worms are rare in Europe. We describe a case of ocular linguatulosis in central Europe and provide molecular data on L. serrata tongue worms.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of miltefosine for topical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Syrian hamsters.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a painful corneal infection and difficult to treat because no sufficiently efficient drug has yet been available. The aim of the study therefore was to assess the therapeutic potential of miltefosine on Acanthamoeba keratitis-infected hamster eyes. The cornea of hamsters were infected with Acanthamoeba hatchetti, a human corneal isolate. On the fifth day, all the cornea were microscopically examined in order to determine the degree of infections (G, from 0 to 3). Four groups were then prepared: miltefosine (160 ?M); 0.1% propamidine isetionate plus 0.02% polyhexnide; infected control (0.05% ethanol in PBS) and a non-infected control (0.05% ethanol in PBS) groups. The treatment was continued for 28 days. After the treatment, the cornea were excised and used for Acanthamoeba culture to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba growth. Miltefosine treatment yielded much higher cure scores than propamidine isetionate plus polyhexanide. On the last day of treatment, 85% of the miltefosine-treated eyes were graded as G0; no changes were observed in the uninfected control group eyes; G3 eyes showed only a partial improvement. Furthermore, no Acanthamoeba cells could be recovered from the miltefosine-treated eye samples. Miltefosine appeared to hold necessary therapeutic properties for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis.
Related JoVE Video
Cutaneous leishmaniasis after travel to Cyprus and successful treatment with miltefosine.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A patient presenting with an atypical manifestation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after travel to Cyprus was successfully treated with miltefosine. The K26 typing revealed a hitherto undescribed strain of the Leishmania donovani/infantum complex as the causing agent.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-leishmanial activity of plant-derived acridones, flavaglines, and sulfur-containing amides.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are an important public health problem in endemic geographic regions in 88 countries worldwide, with around 12 million infected people. Treatment options are limited due to toxicity and teratogenicity of the available drugs, response problems in HIV/Leishmania co-infections, and upcoming resistances. In this study, we investigated the anti-leishmanial activity of 13 plant-derived compounds in vitro aiming to find new drug candidates. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated in human primary hepatocytes, and hemolytic activity was examined in freshly isolated erythrocytes. Two acridones, 5-hydroxynoracronycine and yukocitrine, two flavaglines, aglafoline and rocaglamide, and the sulfur-containing amide methyldambullin showed promising anti-leishmanial activities with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 34.84, 29.76, 7.45, 16.45, and 6.29 ?M, respectively. Hepatotoxic activities of 5-hydroxynoracronycine, yukocitrine, and methyldambullin were significantly lower compared to miltefosine and lower or equal compared to artesunate, whereas the ones of rocaglamide and aglafoline were slightly higher compared to miltefosine and significantly higher compared to artesunate. None of the compounds showed hemolytic activity.
Related JoVE Video
High detection rate of Trichomonas vaginalis in benign hyperplastic prostatic tissue.
Med. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While Trichomonas vaginalis, a protozoan parasite, is a well-investigated pathogen in the female population, there is little awareness of its significance in the male uro-genital tract. The presence of T. vaginalis in the prostate gland has only been scarcely investigated and has never been attested in conditions other than clinical prostatitis. Still, by some authors, this organ is regarded as ecologic niche for T. vaginalis. Since normal prostate tissue of sufficient quality is hard to come by, we investigated samples from 86 patients (mean age 68.7 ± 7.6 years) suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a medical condition currently ranked as noninfectious, but characterized by chronic inflammatory tissue infiltrates of unknown etiology. Applying two different PCR protocols and sequence analysis of the respective amplicons, we detected T. vaginalis DNA in 29/86 (34%) BPH tissue samples, whereas in only 2/86 (2.3%) cases T. vaginalis grew in culture. Detection of T. vaginalis DNA correlated significantly (P < 0.01) with elevated peripheral blood monocytic cell counts, appearing along with protozoan infections. Given the unexpected high prevalence of T. vaginalis in BPH tissue of a nonselected, elderly study population from Austria, further epidemiological studies have to confirm this finding. Potential interactions of T. vaginalis in its prostatic habitat may be investigated with respect to their possible contribution to the inflammatory pathogenesis of BPH, since inflammatory cytokines have been shown to sustain prostatic hyperplastic growth.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical and molecular characterization of a near fatal case of human babesiosis in Austria.
J Travel Med
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A previously healthy febrile patient with travel history to Nicaragua showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemodynamic shock and anuria. Diagnosis of severe malaria was established based on intra-erythrocytic parasites and antimalarial treatment was initiated. However, upon reevaluation Babesia microti infection was suspected and molecular characterization by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis was performed.
Related JoVE Video
Indigenous Plasmodium ovale malaria in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In spite of the high prevalence of malaria in Southeastern Bangladesh, there remains a significant shortage of information regarding the presence of three of five human malaria parasites: Plasmodium ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. The presence of P. ovale and P. knowlesi has previously never been reported from Bangladesh. We used a genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction, targeting highly conserved regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, to investigate the presence of malaria parasites in a total number of 379 patient samples in a survey of patients with febrile illnesses in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh. We identified the first cases of P. ovale in Bangladesh. They were confirmed by sequence analysis; 189 of 379 samples (49.9%; 95% confidence interval = 44.9-54.9%) were positive for Plasmodium sp. by PCR. P. falciparum monoinfections accounted for 68.3% (61.3-74.5%), followed by P. vivax (15.3%; 10.9-21.2%), P. malariae (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), P. ovale (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), and mixed infections (13.2%; 9.1-18.8%). We found no evidence of P. knowlesi in this region.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro activity of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) in combination with NH4Cl against Trichomonas vaginalis.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is usually treated with metronidazole, however resistance is on the rise. In this study, N-chlorotaurine (NCT), a new endogenous mild active chlorine compound for topical use, killed T. vaginalis in vitro within 15 min of treatment at a concentration of 55 mM (1%), which is well tolerated by human tissue. The activity of NCT was further enhanced by addition of ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl). A combination of 5.5 mM (0.1%) NCT plus 19 mM (0.1%) NH(4)Cl killed 100% of trichomonads within 5 min.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic aspects of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae infection in Acanthamoeba spp.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The free-living but facultatively pathogenic amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are frequently infected with bacterial endosymbionts that can have a profound influence on the physiology and viability of their host. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, a chlamydial endosymbiont in acanthamoebae, is known to be either symbiotic or lytic to its host, depending on the ambient conditions, for example, temperature. Moreover, parachlamydiae can also inhibit the encystment process in Acanthamoeba, an essential survival strategy of their host for the evasion of chemotherapeutic agents, heat, desiccation and radiation. To obtain a more detailed picture of the intracellular interactions of parachlamydiae and acanthamoebae, we studied parachlamydial infection in several Acanthamoeba isolates at the proteomic level by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry. We observed that P. acanthamoebae can infect all three morphological subtypes of the genus Acanthamoeba and that the proteome pattern of released P. acanthamoebae elementary bodies was always practically identical regardless of the Acanthamoeba strain infected. Moreover, by comparing proteome patterns of encysting cells from infected and uninfected Acanthamoeba cultures, it was shown that encystment is blocked by P. acanthamoebae at a very early stage. Finally, on 2D-gels of purified P. acanthamoebae from culture supernatants, a subunit of the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex, that is, an enzyme that has been described as an indicator for bacterial virulence was identified by a mass spectrometric and bioinformatic approach.
Related JoVE Video
Acinetobacter baumannii in Localised Cutaneous Mycobacteriosis in Falcons.
Vet Med Int
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Between May 2007 and April 2009, 29 falcons with identically localized, yellowish discolored cutaneous lesions in the thigh and lateral body wall region were presented at Abu Dhabi Falcon Hospital. Out of 18 falcons integrated in this study, 16 tested positive to Mycobacterium. avium complex. The 2 negative falcons tested positive in the Mycobacterium genus PCR. Moreover, 1 falcon tested positive to M. avium. paratuberculosis in tissue samples by PCR. In all cases, blood and fecal samples tested negative. In the acid-fast stain, all samples showed the for mycobacteriosis typical rods. Moreover, in 13 samples Acinetobacter baumannii was detected by PCR and proven by DNA sequencing. Clinical features included highly elevated WBCs, heterophilia, lymphocytopenia, monocytosis, severe anemia and weight loss. A. baumannii, a gram-negative bacillus with the ability to integrate foreign DNA, has emerged as one of the major multidrug resistant bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has so far been detected in dogs, cats, horses and wild birds. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report of an A. baumannii infection in falcons and of a veterinary Mycobacterium-Acinetobacter coinfection.
Related JoVE Video
Leishmaniasis in the tongue of an immunocompetent man.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 49-year-old immunocompetent white man had a painful ulcer (1.5 cm in diameter) on the left ventrolateral surface of a grossly enlarged tongue. The ulcer was present for two months. Impaired swallowing resulted in substantial weight loss and fatigue. Histopathologic analysis of a punch biopsy specimen indicated numerous Leishman Donovan bodies within macrophages. A polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of L. donovani. Therapy with two cycles of liposomal amphotericin B over a three-month period was administered. Four months after discharge, the ulcer had healed completely and the tongue returned to its normal size and function.
Related JoVE Video
Saccamoeba lacustris, sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Lobosea: Hartmannellidae), a new lobose amoeba, parasitized by the novel chlamydia Candidatus Metachlamydia lacustris (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae).
Eur. J. Protistol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An amoeba isolated from an aquatic biotope, identified morphologically as Saccamoeba limax, was found harbouring mutualistic rod-shaped gram-negative bacteria. During their cultivation on agar plates, a coinfection also by lysis-inducing chlamydia-like organisms was found in some subpopulations of that amoeba. .Here we provide a molecular-based identification of both the amoeba host and the two bacterial endosymbionts. Analysis of the 18S rRNA gene revealed that this strain is the sister-group to Glaeseria, for which we proposed the name Saccamoeba lacustris. The rod-shaped endosymbiont was identified as a member of Variovorax paradoxus group (Comamonadaceae, Beta-Proteobacteria). No growth on bacteriological agars was recorded, hence this symbiont might be strictly intracellular. The chlamydia-like parasite was unable to infect Acanthamoeba and other amoebae in coculture, showing high host specificity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA indicated that it is a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales), for which we proposed the name Candidatus Metachlamydia lacustris.
Related JoVE Video
High antitrypanosomal activity of plant-derived sulphur-containing amides.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, represents an important public health problem in endemic geographic regions in Middle and South America, affecting 15 million infected people. Treatment options are still limited due to the toxicity of available drugs, parasite resistance and poor drug activity during the chronic phase of the disease. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 15 tropical plant-derived compounds with the aim of finding new drug candidates. Three novel sulphur-containing amides (methyldambullin, methylgerambullin and sakambullin) showed promising antitrypanosomal activities, with 50% effective concentrations (EC?? values) after 72 h exposure of 1.7, 1.23 and 5.18 ?M, respectively, compared with EC?? values for amphotericin B and benznidazole of 0.71 ?M and 30.89 ?M, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Major role for cysteine proteases during the early phase of Acanthamoeba castellanii encystment.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoeba castellanii is a facultative pathogen that has a two-stage life cycle comprising the vegetatively growing trophozoite stage and the dormant cyst stage. Cysts are formed when the cell encounters unfavorable conditions, such as environmental stress or food deprivation. Due to their rigid double-layered wall, Acanthamoeba cysts are highly resistant to antiamoebic drugs. This is problematic as cysts can survive initially successful chemotherapeutic treatment and cause relapse of the disease. We studied the Acanthamoeba encystment process by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and found that most changes in the protein content occur early in the process. Truncated actin isoforms were found to abound in the encysting cell, and the levels of translation elongation factor 2 (EF2) were sharply decreased, indicating that the rate of protein synthesis must be low at this stage. In the advanced stage of encystment, however, EF2 levels and the trophozoite proteome were partly restored. The protease inhibitors PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) and E64d [(2S,3S)-trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-3-methylbutane ethyl ester] inhibited the onset of encystment, whereas the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide was ineffective. Changes in the protein profile, similar to those of encysting cells, could be observed with trophozoite homogenates incubated at room temperature for several hours. Interestingly, these changes could be inhibited significantly by cysteine protease inhibitors but not by inhibitors against other proteases. Taken together, we conclude that the encystment process in A. castellanii is of a bipartite nature consisting of an initial phase of autolysis and protein degradation and an advanced stage of restoration accompanied by the expression of encystment-specific genes.
Related JoVE Video
Binding to complement factors and activation of the alternative pathway by Acanthamoeba.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoeba can cause severe ocular and cerebral diseases in healthy and immunocompromised individuals, respectively. Activation of complement appears to play an important role in host defence against infection. The exact mechanism, however, is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of normal human serum (NHS) and normal mouse serum (NMS) on Acanthamoeba trophozoites, the binding of different complement factors to Acanthamoeba and the activation of the complement system. Moreover, we aimed to work out any possible differences between different strains of Acanthamoeba. A virulent T4 strain, a non-virulent T4 strain and a virulent T6 strain were included in the study. It was shown that NHS, but not NMS clearly has amoebicidal properties. After 5min of incubation with NHS, amoebae showed plasma membrane disruption and extrusion of intracellular components. Cells were completely destroyed within 60min of incubation in NHS but stayed intact after incubation in heat-inactivated serum. The binding of human C3 and C9 to amoebae was established by immunoblotting. Although incubation with mouse serum did not result in lysis of Acanthamoeba trophozoites an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) demonstrated a strong deposition of mouse complement factor C3 activation products, moderate binding of C1q, but no binding of MBL-A and MBL-C. EDTA inhibited the binding of C3 to acanthamoebae. Binding of amoebae to C3b was observed with sera from C1qa-/- and MBL-A/C-/- mice, but not with serum from Bf/C2-/- mice demonstrating an activation of complement via the alternative pathway. There were no significant differences between the three Acanthamoeba strains investigated. Altogether, our results prove that NHS is amoebolytic and that Acanthamoeba binds to C3 and C9 and activates the complement system via the alternative pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Extraintestinal helminths of the common vole (Microtus arvalis) and the water vole (Arvicola terrestris) in Western Austria (Vorarlberg).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Between September and December 2004, a total of 411 voles (318 common voles and 93 water voles) were caught in the Austrian province of Vorarlberg (Lustenau, Hohenems, and Dornbirn) and were examined by macroscopy, microscopy, and molecular biological analysis to determine the presence and extent of medically important extraintestinal helminths. The following extraintestinal helminth species were detected: Taenia taeniaeformis (liver), Calodium hepaticum (liver), and Echinococcus multilocularis DNA (liver) in the common vole; and Taenia taeniaeformis (liver), Calodium hepaticum (liver), and Taenia crassiceps (musculature) in the water vole. Infestations with Toxocara canis and Trichinella sp. were not found. Our study documents the first description of E. multilocularis DNA in the intermediate host (Microtus arvalis) and of other medically relevant extraintestinal helminths in common and water voles in Austria.
Related JoVE Video
[Case report: Acanthamoeba keratitis].
Turkiye Parazitol Derg
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is an opportunistic protozoan infection caused by the pathogenic Acanthamoeba and associated with soft contact lens wear. If untreated, it can cause serious visual disability. A 23 year-old female wearing soft contact lenses applied to the Department of Ophthalmology of the Aydin Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, with symptoms of redness, pain and blurred vision of both eyes. She was given a diagnosis of AK on clinical and laboratory grounds. The agent isolated was found to be T4 genotype "Acanthamoeba castellani". The patient regained visual ability following treatment. Although contact lens wear is the major risk factor for Acanthamoeba keratitis, the disease is usually seen unilaterally whereas in our case a bilateral involvement was observed. Great care should be practiced during contact lens use and there should be strict adherence to hygienic conditions if infections affecting the eye are to be avoided.
Related JoVE Video
The genus Sappinia: history, phylogeny and medical relevance.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The genus Sappinia with the single species Sappinia pedata was established for an amoeba with two nuclei and pedicellate "cysts" by Dangeard in 1896. In 1912, Alexeieff transferred an also double nucleated, but apparently sexually reproducing amoeba to this genus as Sappinia diploidea, that had been described as Amoeba diploidea by Hartmann and Nägler in 1908. As the original isolates were lost, Michel and colleagues established a neotype for S. diploidea in 2006 and Brown and colleagues established a neotype for S. pedata in 2007. Molecular analyses have corroborated the differentiation between S. pedata and S. diploidea, however, the genus splits into more than two well separated clusters. Altogether, the genus Sappinia is now classified as a member of the Thecamoebidae and, moreover, as potentially pathogenic. In 2001, Gelman and colleagues reported a case of severe encephalitis in a non-immunocompromised young man caused by Sappinia.
Related JoVE Video
Acanthamoeba strains show reduced temperature tolerance after long-term axenic culture.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living organisms that can be found in various habitats. We investigated the physiological characteristics of 15 Acanthamoeba isolates, representing five genotypes (T4, T5, T6, T7, and T11) of both clinical and nonclinical origins. Moreover, in order to evaluate possible alterations from long-term culture, old and fresh isolates were included, and results were compared to a previous study. We found that there is no significant difference in physiological characteristics between genotypes. However, Acanthamoeba strains that had been grown in axenic culture over long periods of time adapted to axenic growth. Overall growth rates under-agarose migration and particularly, temperature tolerance decrease after long-term axenic culture at room temperature. The only trait that remained rather constant was the cytopathic effect.
Related JoVE Video
N-Chlorotaurine shows high in vitro activity against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania species.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of life-threatening visceral as well as cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. First-line drugs are antimonials, but toxicity and resistance in some endemic areas cause serious problems. In the current study, the antileishmanial activity of the weak oxidant N-chlorotaurine (NCT) was investigated. NCT is a derivative of the amino acid taurine produced by granulocytes and monocytes during oxidative burst, but can also be synthesized chemically and used topically as an antiseptic at a concentration of 1 % (55 mM) in vivo. NCT susceptibility tests were performed in vitro with promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani. As NH(4)Cl is known to increase the activity of NCT by the formation of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl), co-treatment assays were included in the study. Mean EC(50) values after 1 h of treatment were 5.94 mM for L. infantum and 9.8 mM for L. donovani promastigotes. Co-treatment with 5.5 mM NCT plus 19 mM NH(4)Cl led to complete killing of promastigotes of both strains within 15 min. Amastigotes were inactivated by treatment with 2 mM NCT alone. The results of this study indicate a high potential of NCT against Leishmania species.
Related JoVE Video
Acanthamoeba castellanii : growth on human cell layers reactivates attenuated properties after prolonged axenic culture.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The free-living, but potentially pathogenic, bacteriovorous amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can be easily grown axenically in a laboratory culture. This, however, often leads to considerable losses in virulence, and encystment capacity, and to changes in drug susceptibility. We evaluated potential options for a reactivation of a number of physiological properties, attenuated by prolonged axenic laboratory culture, including encystment potential, protease activity, heat resistance, growth rates and drug susceptibility against N-chlorotaurine (NCT). Toward this end, a strain that had been grown axenically for 10 years was repeatedly passaged on human HEp-2 cell monolayers or treated with 5-azacytidine (AzaC), a methyltransferase inhibitor, and trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in order to uplift epigenetic gene regulation. Culture on human cell monolayers resulted in significantly enhanced encystment potentials and protease activities, and higher susceptibility against NCT, whereas the resistance against heat shock was not altered. Treatment with AzaC/TSA resulted in increased encystment rates and protease activities, indicating the participation of epigenetic mechanisms. However, lowered resistances against heat shock indicate that possible stress responses to AzaC/TSA have to be taken into account. Repeated growth on human cell monolayers appears to be a potential method to reactivate attenuated characteristics in Acanthamoeba.
Related JoVE Video
Ultrastructure, SSU rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic relationships of Flamella Schaeffer, 1926 (Amoebozoa), with description of three new species.
Protist
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We isolated and described three new freshwater amoebozoan species that could be unambiguously assigned to the genus Flamella Schaeffer, 1926 by light microscopy. The phylogenetic position of the genus Flamella within the Amoebozoa was unknown, and gene sequence data were lacking. We sequenced the SSU rRNA gene of five Flamella spp., including a previously described F. aegyptia Michel et Smirnov, 1999. The phylogenetic trees inferred from these data showed, that Flamella is monophyletic and robustly branches within Amoebozoa. It belongs to a clade comprising Filamoeba spp., "Arachnula" sp., some protostelids and several SSU rRNA sequences of unidentified or uncultured eukaryotes. This clade consistently branched close to Archamoebae, Mycetozoa, Acramoeba dendroida and Multicilia marina; in contrast to the previous hypotheses, Flamella spp. did not show any relatedness either to Leptomyxida, or to Flabellinea. The ultrastructure of trophic amoebae and especially cysts of the species studied showed considerable similarity to Comandonia operculata Pernin et Pussard, 1979. We therefore suggest that Comandonia may be a junior synonym of Flamella, although more ultrastructural data about Comandonia operculata are necessary to test this hypothesis.
Related JoVE Video
High genetic diversity of Sappinia-like strains (Amoebozoa, Thecamoebidae) revealed by SSU rRNA investigations.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sappinia diploidea is known as a free-living amoeba of worldwide distribution and has also been reported as causative agent of a brain infection in an immunocompetent young man. In the current study, we were able to isolate eight strains of S. diploidea-like amoebae identified by light microscopy from different habitats. Cultures of all strains were established successfully for molecular characterization. The small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of all strains were sequenced and compared to one another, to the neotype of S. diploidea, and to strains of Sappinia pedata, the only other Sappinia species known to date, from GenBank by multiple sequence alignment and cluster analysis. Altogether, the phylogenetic position of the genus Sappinia within the Thecamoebidae was corroborated; however, it was shown that the genus splits into several well-separated clusters making the establishment of new species within this genus inevitable. Furthermore, two of the S. diploidea-like strains were actually more closely related to S. pedata than to S. diploidea, although the diagnostically relevant standing form which seems to be characteristic for S. pedata was not observed in either of the two strains.
Related JoVE Video
Exploring the unique N-glycome of the opportunistic human pathogen Acanthamoeba.
J. Biol. Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glycans play key roles in host-pathogen interactions; thus, knowing the N-glycomic repertoire of a pathogen can be helpful in deciphering its methods of establishing and sustaining a disease. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the glycomic potential of the facultative amoebal parasite Acanthamoeba. This is the first study of its asparagine-linked glycans, for which we applied biochemical tools and various approaches of mass spectrometry. An initial glycomic screen of eight strains from five genotypes of this human pathogen suggested, in addition to the common eukaryotic oligomannose structures, the presence of pentose and deoxyhexose residues on their N-glycans. A more detailed analysis was performed on the N-glycans of a genotype T11 strain (4RE); fractionation by HPLC and tandem mass spectrometric analyses indicated the presence of a novel mannosylfucosyl modification of the reducing terminal core as well as phosphorylation of mannose residues, methylation of hexose and various forms of pentosylation. The largest N-glycan in the 4RE strain contained two N-acetylhexosamine, thirteen hexose, one fucose, one methyl, and two pentose residues; however, in this and most other strains analyzed, glycans with compositions of Hex(8-9)HexNAc(2)Pnt(0-1) tended to dominate in terms of abundance. Although no correlation between pathogenicity and N-glycan structure can be proposed, highly unusual structures in this facultative parasite can be found which are potential virulence factors or therapeutic targets.
Related JoVE Video
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic airborne microorganisms as tracers of microclimatic changes in the underground (Postojna Cave, Slovenia).
Microb. Ecol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bioaerosols in cave air can serve as natural tracers and, together with physical parameters, give a detailed view of conditions in the cave atmosphere and responses to climatic changes. Airborne microbes in the Postojna Cave system indicated very dynamic atmospheric conditions, especially in the transitory seasonal periods between winter and summer. Physical parameters of cave atmosphere explained the highest variance in structure of microbial community in the winter and in the summer. The airborne microbial community is composed of different microbial groups with generally low abundances. At sites with elevated organic input, occasional high concentrations of bacteria and fungi can be expected of up to 1,000 colony-forming units/m(3) per individual group. The most abundant group of airborne amoebozoans were the mycetozoans. Along with movements of air masses, airborne algae also travel deep underground. In a cave passage with elevated radon concentration (up to 60 kBq/m(3)) airborne biota were less abundant; however, the concentration of DNA in the air was comparable to that in other parts of the cave. Due to seasonal natural air inflow, high concentrations of biological and inanimate particles are introduced underground. Sedimentation of airborne allochthonous material might represent an important and continuous source of organic material for cave fauna.
Related JoVE Video
Activity of selected phytochemicals against Plasmodium falciparum.
Acta Trop.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
According to the WHO, in 2008, there were 247 million reported cases of malaria and nearly one million deaths from the disease. Parasite resistance against first-line drugs, including artemisinin and mefloquine, is increasing. In this study the plant-derived compounds aglafolin, rocaglamid, kokusaginine, arborine, arborinine and tuberostemonine were investigated for their anti-plasmodial activity in vitro. Fresh Plasmodium falciparum isolates were taken from patients in the area of Mae Sot, north-western Thailand in 2008 and the inhibition of schizont maturation was determined for the respective compounds. With inhibitory concentrations effecting 50%, 90% and 99% inhibition (IC(50), IC(90) and IC(99)) of 60.95 nM, 854.41 nM and 7351.49 nM, respectively, rocaglamid was the most active of the substances, closely followed by aglafoline with 53.49 nM, 864.55 nM and 8354.20 nM. The activity was significantly below that of artemisinin, but moderately higher than that of quinine. Arborine, arborinine, tuberostemonine and kokusaginine showed only marginal activity against P. falciparum characterized by IC(50) and IC(99) values higher than 350 nM and 180 ?M, respectively, and regressions with relatively shallow slopes S>14.38. Analogues of rocaglamid and aglafoline merit further exploration of their anti-plasmodial activity.
Related JoVE Video
Recovery of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) population in spite of treatment programme? Screening of Galba truncatula (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae) from Lower Austria.
Vet. Parasitol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During the past decade, Fascioloides magna, the large American liver fluke, has spread within free-living deer in wetlands of the Danube in Lower Austria. The aim of this study was to determine the current infection rates with F. magna and other digenean parasites in the intermediate host snail Galba truncatula from risk areas in Lower Austria. A total of 3444 G. truncatula were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of digenean trematodes. A set of randomly selected snails and isolated trematode stages were also investigated molecular biologically by PCR and sequencing. Digenean parasites were detected with a prevalence of 2.41% (1.83% Paramphistomoidea; 0.46% Echinostomatoidea; 0.09% Strigeida; 0.06% Plagiorchiida). F. magna was found with an overall prevalence of 0.23%, which may indicate a recovery of the parasite population in spite of an ongoing triclabendazole treatment programme. Moreover, high risk areas and a seasonality of infections were observed.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.