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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rab geranylgeranyl transferase ? subunit is essential for male fertility and tip growth in Arabidopsis.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Rab proteins, key players in vesicular transport in all eukaryotic cells, are post-translationally modified by lipid moieties. Two geranylgeranyl groups are attached to the Rab protein by the heterodimeric enzyme Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGT) ??. Partial impairment in this enzyme activity in Arabidopsis, by disruption of the AtRGTB1 gene, is known to influence plant stature and disturb gravitropic and light responses. Here it is shown that mutations in each of the RGTB genes cause a tip growth defect, visible as root hair and pollen tube deformations. Moreover, FM 1-43 styryl dye endocytosis and recycling are affected in the mutant root hairs. Finally, it is demonstrated that the double mutant, with both AtRGTB genes disrupted, is non-viable due to absolute male sterility. Doubly mutated pollen is shrunken, has an abnormal exine structure, and shows strong disorganization of internal membranes, particularly of the endoplasmic reticulum system.
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Tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles show antiviral activity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections.
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Assessment of in vitro cellular responses of monocytes and keratinocytes to tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Hydrolyzable tannins are known to exhibit diverse biological effects, which can be used in combination with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we tested toxic and inflammatory properties of tannic-acid modified 13, 33, 46 nm and unmodified 10-65 nm AgNPs using murine 291.03C keratinocyte and RAW 264.7 monocyte cell lines. Both cell lines exposed for 24h to 1-10 ?g/ml of 13 nm, 33 nm, 46 nm and unmodified AgNPs showed dose-dependent toxicity and decreased cell proliferation. Only small-sized AgNPs induced production of ROS by monocytes, but not keratinocytes. Monocytes internalized large aggregates of 33, 46 nm and 10-65 nm AgNPs in cytoplasmic vacuoles, whereas keratinocytes accumulated less particles. AgNPs of 13 nm were localized ubiquitously within both cell types. The tested AgNPs strongly down-regulated production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) by monocytes, whereas keratinocytes exposed to AgNPs showed an opposite effect. Unmodified but not tannic acid-modified AgNPs increased production of the pro-inflammatory MCP-1 by monocytes and keratinocytes. In summary, low inflammatory potential and lack of ROS production by tannic-acid modified AgNPs sized above 30 nm suggests that tannic acid modification of large silver nanoparticles may help to increase AgNPs biosafety.
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Decrease in CD9 content and reorganization of microvilli may contribute to the oolemma block to sperm penetration during fertilization of mouse oocyte.
Zygote
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Tetraspanin CD9 is the only protein of the oocyte membrane (oolemma) known to be required for the fusion of gametes during fertilization in the mouse. Using electron microscopy and immunostaining we examined the differences in localization of CD9 between ovulated oocytes, zygotes and parthenogenetically activated eggs (parthenogenotes). Changes in ultrastructure of oolemma, which take place in oocytes after fertilization or artificial activation, were also assessed. We demonstrated that after fertilization the level of CD9 present on microvilli of zygote was two times lower than its level on the oolemma of the oocyte. In addition, we showed that the distribution of microvilli is less uniform in the zygotes than in the unfertilized oocytes. We propose that the changes of microvilli distribution and their CD9 content are responsible for the development of the oocyte membrane block to sperm penetration.
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Effect of Alkaloid-Free and Alkaloid-Rich preparations from Uncaria tomentosa bark on mitotic activity and chromosome morphology evaluated by Allium Test.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. is the most popular Peruvian plant, used in folk medicine for different purposes. It contains thousands of active compounds with great content of alkaloids.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.