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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Differential microstrip lines with reduced crosstalk and common mode effect based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We apply the concept of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) to the design of differential microstrip lines by introducing periodic subwavelength corrugations on their edges. The dispersion relation and field distribution of those lines are analyzed numerically. And then through designing practical coupling circuits, we found that compared with conventional differential microstrip lines, the electromagnetic field can be strongly confined inside the grooves of the corrugated microstrip lines, so the crosstalk between the differential pair and the adjacent microstrip lines is greatly reduced, and the conversion from the differential signal to the common mode signal can also be effectively suppressed. The propagation length of those lines is also very long in a wide band. Moreover, the experimental results in time domain demonstrate those lines perform very well in high-speed circuit. Therefore, those novel kinds of spoof SPPs based differential microstrip lines can be widely utilized in high-density microwave circuits and guarantee signal integrity in high-speed systems.
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Metagenomics of ancient fermentation pits used for the production of chinese strong-aroma liquor.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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The complex microbiota of pit mud of solid-state fermentation reactors used for the production of Chinese liquor is responsible for producing one of the oldest distillates in the world. We apply a deep-sequencing approach to characterize the microbiota from pits that have been in use for up to 440 years.
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[Protection and mechanism of shenqi compound for diabetic angiopathy model rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of Shenqi Compound on diabetic angiopathy modeled rats.
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Development of a Colorimetric Sensor Array for the Discrimination of Chinese Liquors Based on Selected Volatile Markers Determined by GC-MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A new colorimetric sensor array was developed for the discrimination of 12 high-alcoholic Chinese base liquors from Luzhou Co., Ltd., and 15 commercial Chinese liquor of different brands as well as flavor types. Seventeen volatile compounds within four chemical groups were determined as markers in the base liquor by GC-MS analysis and factor analysis method (FAM). A specialized colorimetric sensor array composed of 20 sensitive dots was fabricated accordingly to obtain sensitive interaction with different types of volatile markers. Discrimination of the liquor samples was subsequently performed using chemometric and statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The results suggested that facile identification of either base liquors with high-alcoholic volume or commercial liquors of the same flavor types could be achieved by analysis of the color change profiles. The response of the sensor improved significantly in comparison with those that rely on nonspecific interactions, and no misclassification was observed for both liquor samples using two chemometric methods. Besides, it was also found that the discrimination is closely related to the characteristic flavor compounds (esters, aldehydes, and acids) and alcoholic strength in liquors, and its performance was even comparable with that of GC-MS.
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Dosimetric Evaluation of Different Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Techniques for Breast Cancer After Conservative Surgery.
Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) potentially leads to a more favorite dose distribution compared to 3-dimensional or conventional tangential radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer after conservative surgery or mastectomy. The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) among helical tomotherapy (HT), inverse-planned IMRT (IP-IMRT), and forward-planned field in field (FP-FIF) IMRT techniques after breast-conserving surgery. Computed tomography scans from 20 patients (12 left sided and 8 right sided) previously treated with T1N0 carcinoma were selected for this dosimetric planning study. We designed HT, IP-IMRT, and FP-FIF plans for each patient. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analysis in terms of PTV homogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) as well as OARs dose and volume parameters. Both HI and CI of the PTV showed statistically significant difference among IP-IMRT, FP-FIF, and HT with those of HT were best (P < .05). Compared to FP-FIF, IP-IMRT showed smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and breast, while HT indicated smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung but larger exposed volumes of contralateral lung and breast as well as heart. In addition, HT demonstrated an increase in exposed volume of ipsilateral lung (except for fraction of lung volume receiving >30 Gy and 20 Gy), heart, contralateral lung, and breast compared with IP-IMRT. For breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) after conservative surgery, HT provides better dose homogeneity and conformity of PTV compared to IP-IMRT and FP-FIF techniques, especially for patients with supraclavicular lymph nodes involved. Meanwhile, HT decreases the OAR volumes receiving higher doses with an increase in the volumes receiving low doses, which is known to lead to an increased rate of radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Hence, composite factors including dosimetric advantage, clinical effect, and economic burden should be taken into comprehensive consideration when choosing an RT technique in clinical practice.
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[Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from Panax notoginseng on three maize varieties (Zea mays)].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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It has been showed that there were obvious obstacle effects of Panax notoginseng replanting. Crop rotation was the main effective technique to overcome the obstacle. To find a reasonable crop rotation system for P. notoginseng, aqueous extracts from root, stem and leaf of P. notoginseng were analyzed for allelopathic effect on three maize varieties (which are often grown in regions where P. notoginseng grown). The main results were as follows: (1) Allelopathic effect of P. notoginseng stem and leaf extracts on the three other tested plants was stronger than that of root extracts; (2) Corn was more vulnerable to the effects of allelochemicals at seedling stage than at germination stage, and the corn root was more sensitive than aerial part to allelochemicals; (3) Lusan No. 3 and Yunrui No. 1 showed resistance to P. notoginseng allelopathy, with respective comprehensive sensitivity indexes (M3) of - 0.089 3 and -0.159 2, while Bainuo No. 1 is sensitive at M3 = -0.261 0. It then can be concluded that Lusan No. 3 and Yunrui No. 1 may be an alternative rotation plants for overcoming P. notoginseng continuous cropping obstacle.
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Hydrogen-bonded helical hydrazide oligomers and polymer that mimic the ion transport of gramicidin A.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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A new series of hydrogen-bonded helical aromatic hydrazide oligomers and polymer that bear phenylalanine tripeptide chains have been designed and synthesized. It was revealed that the helical structures could insert into lipid bilayers to form unimolecular channels. The longest oligomeric and polymeric helical channels exhibited an NH4(+)/K(+) selectivity that was higher than that of natural gramicidin A, whereas the transport of a short helical channel for Tl(+) could achieve an efficiency as high as that of gramicidin A.
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X-Linked thrombocytopenia causing mutations in WASP (L46P and A47D) impair T cell chemotaxis.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Mutation in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Protein (WASP) causes Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN). The majority of missense mutations causing WAS and XLT are found in the WH1 (WASP Homology) domain of WASP, known to mediate interaction with WIP (WASP Interacting Protein) and CIB1 (Calcium and Integrin Binding).
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Attenuation of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by inserting an additional transcription unit.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) play a key role in the synthesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subgenomic mRNAs, which resembles similarity-assisted RNA recombination. In this study, genome instability was found when a highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain was inserted by an additional transcription unit in which a foreign gene GFP was expressed from TRS2 while a copy of TRS6 drove ORF2a/b transcription. Structural protein gene-deleted genomes resulted from enhanced RNA recombinations were identified in the recombinant virus rHV-GFP. Moreover, rHV-GFP replicated slower than parental viruses, and caused less cell death in porcine alveolar macrophages. Pigs infected with rHV-GFP survived with no or mild syndromes, whereas all pigs infected with parental viruses died within 12 days. Our data showed that additional transcription unit insertion could confer genome instability and attenuation of HP-PRRSV.
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Zearalenone exposure affects epigenetic modifications of mouse eggs.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium fungi, which has been shown to cause several cases of mycotoxicosis in farm animals and humans. However, there is no evidence regarding the effect of ZEA on mouse egg developmental competence. In this study, we found that the activation rate of maturated oocytes was affected in mice by ZEA treatment, indicating that ZEA affects egg developmental competence. And we explored possible mechanisms of low mouse maturated oocyte developmental competence after ZEA treatment from an epigenetic modification perspective. The fluorescence intensity analysis showed that 5-methyl cytosine level increased after ZEA treatment, indicating that the general DNA methylation level increased in the treated eggs. Moreover, histone methylations were also altered: H3K4me2 as well as H3K9me3 and H4K20me1, me2, me3 levels decreased in eggs that were cultured in high-dose ZEA medium. Thus, our results indicated that ZEA decreased egg developmental competence by affecting the epigenetic modifications.
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Sorption behavior and modeling of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on natural sediments: role of biofilm covered on surface.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The surfaces of natural sediments are ubiquitously coated by biofilms that increase the content of organic matter in sediments. However, it is less understood whether the biofilms act as a sorbent or a barrier of mass transfer from water column to sediment phase. This study focused on the role of biofilms coverage on sediments in the sorption of bisphenol A (BPA), 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), and 4-nonylphenols (4-NP) as model compounds for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The OC-normalized distribution coefficients (k OC) for BPA, EE2 and 4-NP ranged from 10(1.87) to 10(3.09) l/kg, the k OC of EE2 was slightly higher (10(2.23) l/kg) for sediment after H2O2 oxidation than before (10(1.93) l/kg). A two-stage model with a fast section and slow section was employed to describe the sorption process (r (2)?>?0.95). The model results showed that the fast sorption section played a main role in the sorption process, while the slow section determined the extent of the reaction (the second-phase partition coefficient (k p2) ranged from 11.7 to 118.9 l/kg). The ratios of the mass transfer rate constant of the two stages for the natural sediment ranged from 6.0 to 7.2, which were somewhat lower than those for soil samples. These results indicated that the biofilm coverage on sediment may act as a barrier in mass transfer from water to sediment and scarcely increased the sorption capacity of sediments.
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Gene expression profiling to predict and assess the consequences of therapy-induced virus eradication in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Systems biology has proven to be a powerful tool to identify reliable predictors of treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In the present study, we studied patients with chronic HCV infection who responded to interferon (IFN)-based therapy, as evidenced by an absence of HCV RNA at the end of treatment, and focused on two issues that have not received much attention. First, we evaluated whether specific genes or gene expression patterns in blood were able to distinguish responder patients with a viral relapse from responder patients who remained virus negative after cessation of treatment. We found that patients with chronic HCV infection who were sustained responders and relapsers after IFN-based therapy showed comparable baseline clinical parameters and immune compositions in blood. However, at baseline, the gene expression profiles of a set of 18 genes predicted treatment outcome with an accuracy of 94%. Second, we examined whether patients with successful therapy-induced clearance of HCV still exhibited gene expression patterns characteristic of HCV or whether normalization of their transcriptome was observed. We observed that the relatively high expression levels of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in patients with chronic HCV infection prior to therapy were reduced after successful IFN-based antiviral therapy (at 24 weeks of follow-up). These ISGs included the CXCL10, OAS1, IFI6, DDX60, TRIM5, and STAT1 genes. In addition, 1,428 differentially expressed non-ISGs were identified in paired pre- and posttreatment samples from sustained responders, which included genes involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling, apoptosis, autophagy, and nucleic acid and protein metabolism. Interestingly, 1,424 genes with altered expression levels in responder patients after viral eradication were identified, in comparison to normal expression levels in healthy individuals. Additionally, aberrant expression levels of a subset of these genes, including the interleukin-32 (IL-32), IL-16, CCND3, and RASSF1 genes, were also observed at baseline. Our findings indicate that successful antiviral therapy for patients with chronic HCV infection does not lead to normalization of their blood transcriptional signature. The altered transcriptional activity may reflect HCV-induced liver damage in previously infected individuals.
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[Influence of different original processing methods on quality of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Shandong].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.
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Preorganized aryltriazole foldamers as effective transmembrane transporters for chloride anion.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Preorganized aryltriazole foldamers 1 and 2 were designed and synthesized. NMR studies and X-ray analysis demonstrate that 1 adopts a crescent conformation driven by a series of continuous hydrogen bonds at the periphery of the foldamer, whereas 2 displays a coil conformation. NMR titrations reveal that the affinities of fully preorganized foldamer 1 for halogen anions are much stronger that those of partially preorganized foldamer 2. Furthermore, it is found that such full preorganization makes 1 an effective transmembrane transporter for the chloride anion across a lipid bilayer.
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RNAi screening identifies HAT1 as a potential drug target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is one of the most fatal carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Aberrant activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs)/deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in carcinogenesis through the regulation of the genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, cellular functions of HATs/HDACs in esophageal cancer and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. An RNAi screen was used in this study to identify the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) that could be critical for the survival of EC cells. We demonstrated that HAT1 (histone acetyltransferase 1) was an important determinant to regulate the proliferation of human EC Eca-109 cells. Furthermore, we showed that the knockdown of HAT1 induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the disruption of cell cycle-related events, including the decrease of cyclinD1 as well as alteration in cyclinB1 expression. The expression of HAT1 was validated to be higher in the primary tumors and adjacent tissue as compared to that of the normal esophageal tissue. Furthermore, we found that HAT1 expression was directly correlated with the poor tumor differentiation of EC tissue, which suggested that HAT1 played an important role in esophageal carcinoma and that it could be a novel EC therapeutic target.
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Mangiferin loaded magnetic PCEC microspheres: preparation, characterization and antitumor activity studies in vitro.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Mangiferin is a promising effective chemopreventive agent against various tumors. However, its clinical use is limited by poor water solubility and low bioavailability. In this article, mangiferin loaded magnetic PCEC microspheres (MG-MS) were designed, characterized and the antitumor activity of MG-MS was evaluated in vitro. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were synthesized via the high-temperature reaction of iron acetylacetonate in phenyl ether in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. Poly (?-caprolactone)-poly (ethyleneglycol)-poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) copolymers were formed by ring-opening copolymerization of ?-CL initiated by PEG-diol using Sn(Oct)2 as a catalyst and MG-MS were prepared by solvent diffusion method. MNP, PCEC copolymer, and MG-MS were characterized by GPC, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, (1)H-NMP and Malvern Laser Particle Sizer. Meanwhile, the antiproliferative activity in vitro and in vitro release behavior of this microspheres were studied in detail. The results indicate that the obtained magnetic microspheres might have great potential as an effective carrier for mangiferin used in cancer chemotherapy.
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Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuates experimental acute pancreatitis in mice.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Increasing evidence has demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces oxidative stress and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS), a well-known ROS scavenger, has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit on AP in many animal experiments. Recent findings have indicated that the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, an intracellular multiprotein complex required for the maturation of interleukin- (IL-) 1?, may probably be a potential target of HRS in the treatment of AP. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and meanwhile assessed the degree of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades, as well as the histological alterations in mice suffering from cerulein-induced AP after the treatment of HRS. The results showed that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in AP mice was substantially inhibited following the administration of HRS, which was paralleled with the decreased NF-?B activity and cytokines production, attenuated oxidative stress and the amelioration of pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our study has, for the first time, revealed that inhibition of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome probably contributed to the therapeutic potential of HRS in AP.
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IFN-?-mediated IL-12 production in macrophages induces IFN-? production in human NK cells.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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With increasing interest in alternative options to interferon-alpha-based treatments, IFN-? has shown therapeutic promise in a variety of diseases. Although the antiviral activity of IFN-? has been extensively studied, there is limited knowledge regarding the immunological functions of IFN-? and how these differ from those of other classes of IFNs. In this study, we investigated the effects of IFN-? on primary human NK cells, both in a direct and indirect capacity. We demonstrate that in contrast to interferon-alpha, IFN-? is unable to directly stimulate NK cells, due to the absence of IFN-? receptor chain 1 (IFN-?R1) on NK cells. However, IFN-?, in combination with TLR4 challenge, is able to induce the production of select members of the IL-12 family of cytokines in monocyte-derived macrophages. We further show that through macrophage-mediated IL-12 production, IFN-? is able to indirectly affect NK cells and ultimately induce IFN-? production.
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Triterpenoids and ?-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Salacia hainanensis.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Thirteen triterpenoids (1-13), including two new lupane triterpenoids, salacinins A and B (1 and 2), as well as one new friedelane triterpenoid, salacinin C (3), were isolated from the roots and stems of Salacia hainanensis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR, and MS experiments. Compound 1 possesses rare 2,3-seco-lupane skeleton. Compounds 4, 6 and 7 showed inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase in vitro.
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An ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) with spliced long-type PML-RARA fusion transcripts in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Cancer Genet
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) is a relatively rare chromosomal rearrangement in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. We describe herein a case of APL with a poor prognosis and ider(17)(q10)t(15;17)(q22;q12), which was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing of PCR products were used to detect the PML-RARA fusion gene and delineate the sequence of the fusion transcripts. We found that the PML-RARA fusion gene of this patient was the long isoform, which only generated transcripts of a splice variant lacking PML exon 5 and a splice variant lacking PML exons 5 and 6. Although the clinical and prognostic significance of patients with an ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) remains unclear, a combination of cytogenetics and molecular biology analysis should be performed to obtain further information about this chromosomal abnormality.
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Myeloma cells resistance to NK cell lysis mainly involves an HLA class I-dependent mechanism.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The anti-multiple myeloma (MM) potential of natural killer (NK) cells has been of rising interest in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism of NK cell cytotoxicity to myeloma cells remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and HLA-G in patient myeloma cells, and determined their relevance in patient tumor-cell susceptibility to NK cell cytotoxicity. Our results showed that patient myeloma cells (n = 12) were relatively resistant to NK-92 cell lysis, compared with myeloma cell lines (n = 7, P < 0.01). Gene expression profiling and flow cytometry analysis showed that both mRNA and protein of HLA class I were highly expressed in 12 patient myeloma cells. Interestingly, no or low HLA-G surface expression was detected, although multiple HLA-G transcripts were detected in these myeloma cells. NK cell function assay showed that down-regulating HLA class I expression on patient cells by acid treatment significantly increased the susceptibility of MM cells to NK-mediated lysis. Furthermore, we found that the blocking of membrane-bound HLA class I rather than HLA-G using antibodies on myeloma samples markedly increased their susceptibility to NK-mediated killing. These results demonstrated that the resistance of patient MM cells to NK lysis mainly involves an HLA class I-dependent mechanism, suggesting that HLA class I may be involved in protecting MM cells from NK-mediated attack and contribute to their immune escape in vivo.
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Effect of mycotoxin-containing diets on epigenetic modifications of mouse oocytes by fluorescence microscopy analysis.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin B1, zearalenone (ZEA), and deoxynivalenol (DON), are commonly found in many food commodities. Mycotoxins have been shown to increase DNA methylation levels in a human intestinal cell line. We previously showed that the developmental competence of oocytes was affected in mice that had been fed a mycotoxin-containing diet. In this study, we explored possible mechanisms of low mouse oocyte developmental competence after mycotoxin treatment in an epigenetic modification perspective. Mycotoxin-contaminated maize (DON at 3,875 ?g/kg, ZEA at 1,897 ?g/kg, and AF at 806 ?g/kg) was included in diets at three different doses (mass percentage: 0, 15, and 30%) and fed to mice for 4 weeks. The fluorescence intensity analysis showed that the general DNA methylation levels increased in oocytes from high dose mycotoxin-fed mice. Mouse oocyte histone methylation was also altered. H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 level increased in oocytes from mycotoxin-fed mice, whereas H3K27me3 and H4K20me2 level decreased in oocytes from mycotoxin-fed mice. Thus, our results indicate that naturally occurring mycotoxins have effects on epigenetic modifications in mouse oocytes, which may be one of the reasons for reduced oocyte developmental competence.
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Proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib interacts synergistically with histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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In the present study, we investigated the interactions between proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) and histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells. Coexposure of cells to minimally lethal concentrations of CFZ with very low concentration of vorinostat resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects and enhanced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, accompanied with the sharply increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), the striking decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the increased release of cytochrome c, the enhanced activation of caspase-9 and -3, and the cleavage of PARP. The combined treatment of Jurkat cells pre-treated with ROS scavengers N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly blocked the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that ROS generation was a former event of the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, NAC also resulted in a marked reduction in apoptotic cells, indicating a critical role for increased ROS generation by combined treatment. In addition, combined treatment arrested the cell cycle in G2-M phase. These results imply that CFZ interacted synergistically with vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, which raised the possibility that the combination of carfilzomib with vorinostat may represent a novel strategy in treating T-cell Leukemia.
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Finding chemical drugs for genetic diseases.
Drug Discov. Today
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Chemical drugs provide alternative treatments for genetic diseases in addition to gene therapy. Inherited diseases arising from gain-of-function (GOF) or loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of certain genes can be ameliorated by the antagonists and/or agonists of the target genes. However, a premise for this chemical therapeutic strategy is that the GOF/LOF mutations in drug targets have a negligible influence on drug-target binding. Here, we analyze the disease-causing mutations [derived from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)] in successful drug targets. We found that >70% of the mutations are located far from the drug-binding sites (>12?), and most of the other mutations are unlikely to have adverse effects on drug binding, supporting the chemical strategy for combating genetic diseases.
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Activation of the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells by a chemical carcinogen.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Embryonic/germ cell traits are common in malignant tumors and are thought to be involved in malignant tumor behaviors. The reasons why tumors show strong embryonic/germline traits (displaced germ cells or gametogenic programming reactivation) are controversial. Here, we show that a chemical carcinogen, 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MCA), can trigger the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells (hBMDCs). 3-MCA promoted the generation of germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs that had undergone malignant transformation, whereas similar results were not observed in the parallel hBMDC culture at the same time point. The malignant transformed hBMDCs spontaneously and more efficiently generated into germ cell-like cells even at the single-cell level. The germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs were similar to natural germ cells in many aspects, including morphology, gene expression, proliferation, migration, further development, and teratocarcinoma formation. Therefore, our results demonstrate that a chemical carcinogen can reactivate the germline phenotypes of human somatic tissue-derived cells, which might provide a novel idea to tumor biology and therapy.
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Zearalenone exposure affects mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Zearalenone (ZEN) is a metabolite of Fusarium and is a common contaminant of grains and foodstuffs. ZEN acts as a xenoestrogen and is considered to be cytotoxic, tissue toxic, and genotoxic, which causes abortions and stillbirths in humans and animals. Since estrogens affect oocyte maturation during meiosis, in this study we investigated the effects of ZEN on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation. Our results showed that ZEN-treated oocyte maturation rates were decreased, which might be due to the disrupted cytoskeletons: (1) ZEN treatment resulted in significantly more oocytes with abnormal spindle morphologies; (2) actin filament expression and distribution were also disrupted after ZEN treatment, which was confirmed by the aberrant distribution of actin regulatory proteins. In addition, cortical granule-free domains (CGFDs) were disrupted after ZEN treatment, which indicated that ZEN may affect mouse oocyte fertilization capability. ZEN reduced mouse granulosa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by MTT assay and TUNEL apoptosis analysis, which may be another cause for the decreased oocyte maturation. Thus, our results demonstrated that exposure to zearalenone affected oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation in mouse. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
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Voltage-driven reversible insertion into and leaving from a lipid bilayer: tuning transmembrane transport of artificial channels.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Three new artificial transmembrane channel molecules have been designed and synthesized by attaching positively charged Arg-incorporated tripeptide chains to pillar[5]arene. Fluorescent and patch-clamp experiments revealed that voltage can drive the molecules to insert into and leave from a lipid bilayer and thus switch on and off the transport of K(+) ions. One of the molecules was found to display antimicrobial activity toward Bacillus subtilis with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 10??M which is comparable to that of natural channel-forming peptide alamethicin.
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[Pathological and immunological changes of renal transplant rejection: report of 56 cases].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To investigate the pathological and immunological changes of renal grafts in recipients experiencing graft rejection.
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Analysis of the transcriptome and immune function of monocytes during IFN?-based therapy in chronic HCV revealed induction of TLR7 responsiveness.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Although in vitro studies have been performed to dissect the mechanism of action of IFN?, detailed in vivo studies on the long-term effects of IFN? on monocytes have not been performed. Here we examined peripheral blood from 14 chronic HCV patients at baseline and 12 weeks after start of IFN?-based therapy. Monocytes were phenotyped by flow-cytometry and their function evaluated upon TLR stimulation and assessed by multiplex cytokine assays. During therapy of HCV patients, monocytes displayed a hyperactive state as evidenced by increased TLR-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, as well as enhanced CD69 and CD83 mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, monocytes from 8 patients at baseline and 12 weeks after start of IFN?-based therapy were transcriptomically profiled by high throughput RNA-sequencing. Detailed RNA-seq analysis of monocytes showed significant ISG mRNA induction during therapy. Importantly, IFN?-based therapy activated TLR7 signaling pathways, as demonstrated by up-regulated expression of TLR7, MyD88, and IRF7 mRNA, whereas other TLR family members as well as CD1c, CLEC4C, and CLEC9A were not induced. The induction of TLR7 responsiveness of monocytes by IFN? in vivo in HCV patients is relevant for the development of TLR7 agonists that are currently under development as a promising immunotherapeutic compounds to treat chronic viral hepatitis.
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Higher LRRFIP1 expression in glioblastoma multiforme is associated with better response to teniposide, a type II topoisomerase inhibitor.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Previous studies from this laboratory indicated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) contributes to chemoresistance of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells to teniposide, a type II topoisomerase inhibitor. We also showed that LRRFIP1 is a target of miR-21. In this study, we found that higher baseline LRRFIP1 expression in human GBM tissue (n=60) is associated with better prognosis upon later treatment with teniposide. Experiments in cultured U373MG cells showed enhanced toxicity of teniposide against U373MG cells transfected with a vector that resulted in LRRFIP1 overexpression (vs. cells transfected with control vector). Experiments in nude mice demonstrated better response of LRRFIP1 overexpressing xenografts to teniposide. These findings indicate that high baseline LRRFIP1 expression in GBM is associated with better response to teniposide, and encourage exploring LRRFIP1 as a target for GBM treatment.
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The effect of flow velocity on the distribution and composition of extracellular polymeric substances in biofilms and the detachment mechanism of biofilms.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Flume experiments were conducted to investigate the distribution and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms and the detachment mechanism of biofilms grown under different flow velocity conditions. The results of biofilm growth kinetics showed that the growth trends were coincident with the logistic growth model. The growth kinetics parameters reached their maximum under intermediate velocity (IV) condition. Biofilms exhibited different profiles of EPS composition and distribution, depending on the flow conditions in which the biofilms were grown. The amounts of total polysaccharide and total protein in the thin biofilm (high velocity condition 2 - HV2) were both generally greater than those in the thick biofilm (IV). As compared to the heterogeneous distribution of EPS in the thick biofilms (IV), the EPS in the thin biofilms (HV2) exhibited more homogeneous distribution, and the bound EPS in the thin biofilms (HV2) were much greater than those in the thick biofilms (IV). From the detachment tests, an inverse relationship was observed between the proportion of detached biomass and the value of flow velocity during growth. Biofilms grown under higher velocities showed stronger cohesion than those grown under lower velocities. Therefore, water velocity during biofilm growth conditioned the distribution and composition of EPS, as well as its detachment characteristics under higher shear stress.
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Inhibitory effects of ZnO nanoparticles on aerobic wastewater biofilms from oxygen concentration profiles determined by microelectrodes.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The presence of ZnO NPs in waste streams can negatively affect the efficiency of biological nutrient removal from wastewater. However, details of the toxic effects of ZnO NPs on microbial activities of wastewater biofilms have not yet been reported. In this study, the temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on the O2 respiration activities of aerobic wastewater biofilms were investigated using an O2 microelectrode. The resulting time-course microelectrode measurements demonstrated that ZnO NPs inhibited O2 respiration within 2h. The spatial distributions of net specific O2 respiration were determined in biofilms with and without treatment of 5 or 50mg/L ZnO NPs. The results showed that 50mg/L of nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in the outer layer (?200?m) of the biofilms, and bacteria present in the deeper parts of the biofilms became even more active. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto the biofilm, but these NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of the biofilms. It was found that the inhibition of O2 respiration induced by higher concentrations of ZnO NPs (50mg/L) was mainly due to the release of zinc ions by dissolution of the ZnO NPs.
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Ubiquitin-specific protease 2a stabilizes MDM4 and facilitates the p53-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in glioblastoma.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The mouse double minute 4 (MDM4) oncoprotein may inhibit tumorigenesis by regulating the apoptotic mediator p53. Ubiquitin-specific protease 2a (USP2a) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that protects MDM4 against degradation, so USP2-MDM4 interaction may be a key determinant of the malignant potential of human cancers. MDM4 and USP2a, as well as the MDM4-USP2a complex, were more highly expressed in glioblastoma multiforme tissue samples from patients with good prognosis compared with patients with poor prognosis. Analysis of the prognostic parameters indicated that MDM4 expression was positively correlated with an increased likelihood for survival. Compared with the poor prognosis patients, mitochondria from good prognosis glioma patients contained higher levels of both MDM4 and the proapoptotic protein p53Ser46(P). In U87MG glioma cell line, the overexpression of MDM4 enhanced ultraviolet (UV)-induced cytochrome c release and apoptosis. In contrast, MDM4 knockdown decreased mitochondrial p53Ser46(P) levels and rescued cells from UV-induced apoptosis. The expression of MDM4 and USP2a were positively correlated with each other. MDM4-USP2a complexes were found only in the cytoplasmic fraction, whereas the mitochondrial fraction contained MDM4-p53Ser46(P) and MDM4-Bcl-2 complexes. Overexpression of USP2a increased p53 and p53Ser46(P) levels in the mitochondria, whereas simultaneous MDM4 knockdown completely reversed this effect. UV-induced apoptosis was reduced by USP2a knockdown but restored by the simultaneous overexpression of MDM4. This apoptotic response was reduced by knockdown of p53 but not p21. Our results suggest that USP2a binds to and stabilizes MDM4; thus in turn, it enhances the mitochondrial localization of p53 and promotes apoptosis in glioma cells.
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MiR-34a regulates apoptosis in liver cells by targeting the KLF4 gene.
Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation or targeting messenger RNA (mRNA) for degradation in a posttranscriptional fashion. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of miR-34a-5p reduces the mRNA and protein levels of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). We also demonstrate that miR-34a targets the 3'-untranslated mRNA region of KLF4 and show that overexpression of miR-34a induces a significant level of apoptosis in BNL CL.2 cells exposed to doxorubicin or 10 Gy X-ray. Our data suggest that the effects of miR-34a on apoptosis occur due to the downregulation of KLF4.
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A phase II trial of Xeloda and oxaliplatin (XELOX) neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery for advanced gastric cancer patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph node (PAN) involvement is regarded as advanced disease, and only chemotherapy is recommended from the guidelines. In unresectable cases, neoadjuvant chemotherapy could prolong survival if conversion to resectability could be achieved.
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Expression and clinical significance of BIRC6 in human epithelial ovarian cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Baculoviral IAP repeat containing 6 (BIRC6), an unusually large member of the IAP family, may play an important role in oncogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the value of BIRC6 in predicting tumor recurrence after curative resection in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. In this study, the differences of BIRC6 expression in four paired EOC and normal tissue were performed by Western blot, and expression of BIRC6 protein was analyzed in 100 clinicopathologically characterized EOC cases from those who underwent curative resection between 2003 and 2011 by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests were used to assess the prognostic significance. It was found that BIRC6 expression was higher in the carcinoma tissue than in normal control tissue at protein level by Western blot. There was a significant difference of BIRC6 expression in patients categorized according to tumor differentiation (p?=?0.016). Univariate analyses and multivariate analyses revealed that BIRC6 was an independent significant predictor for overall survival and disease-free survival. A prognostic significance of BIRC6 was also found by Kaplan-Meier method. The expression of BIRC6 in the cytoplasm is associated with EOC differentiation and may be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of EOC patients after curative resection.
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Early versus deferred treatment for smoldering multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whether patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) needed to receive early interventional treatment remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of early treatment over deferred treatment for patients with SMM.
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[Inhibiting effect of CaMKIIN up-regulation on leukemia cells growth and its mechanism].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To investigate the inhibitory effects of CaMKIIN on acute myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60 to explore a novel therapeutic target of leukemia.
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[Distribution of matrix-bound phosphine in surface sediments of Jinpu Bay].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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This work investigated the distribution of matrix-bound phosphine in surface sediments of Jinpu Bay and associated environmental factors in summer, using the gas chromatography combined with a pulsed flame detector (GC-PFPD). It showed that phosphine ubiquitously presented in the sediments of Jinpu Bay. Contents of matrix-bound phosphine varied between 62. 58 and 190. 81 ng.kg-1, with the average value of 114.42 ng.kg-1. In addition, the spatial distribution of matrix-bound phosphine indicated that matrix-bound phosphine in inshore sediments had relatively higher contents than those in offshore sediments. Statistical analysis showed that matrix-bound phosphine significantly related to organic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase activity ( R = 0. 882, P = 0. 01; R = 0. 819, P =0. 023). However, there were no correlations between matrix-bound phosphine and organic nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus and sediment grain sizes. These results implied that accumulation and distribution of matrix-bound phosphined were mainly affected by the decomposition of organic phosphorus by microorganisms.
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[Cloning and expressing of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases I gene fragment and preparation of monoclonal antibodies against the recombinant protein].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To prepare the monoclonal antibody (mAb) against tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases I (TIMP-I) fusion protein.
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[Effect of 0.1 Gy X-ray irradiation on gene expression profiles in normal human lymphoblastoid cells].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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To investigate the effect of 0.1 Gy X-ray irradiation on the gene expression profiles in normal human lymphoblastoid cells using gene microarray and to explore the possible mechanism of the biological effect of low-dose irradiation.
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[Establishment of a purificatory method for alpha-fetoprotein variant by affinity adsorption].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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To establish a purificatory method of alpha-fetoprotein variant (AFP-L3) based on microspincolumn with lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA).
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GP73 is a potential marker for evaluating AIDS progression and antiretroviral therapy efficacy.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Golgi protein-73 (GP73) is upregulated in cancers and viral infections; however, its role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains undetermined. GP73 was evaluated as a biomarker of HIV progression and AIDS treatment efficacy. Forty-eight HIV patients (? 350 CD4 + T cells/?L) undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART group) and 18 HIV patients expected to undergo HAART within 9 months (>350 CD4 + T cells/?L) (control group) were enrolled in a prospective, single center, cohort study from May 2009 to Jun 2012. Blood aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (HAART group) or 3 month intervals (control group). Serum HIV RNA level (viral load) was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) GP73 concentration were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay kit and western blot, respectively. Significant positive and negative correlations in baseline serum GP73 concentration and HIV viral load (r = 0.39, P < 0.001) and CD4 + T cell count (r = -0.501, P < 0.001) were observed, respectively. In receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, area under the curve (AUC) was 0.79 (95 % CI 0.66-0.92). The sensitivity and specificity of GP73 for correct identification of patients with ?350 CD4 + T cells/?L were 76.09 and 75.0 %, respectively, with an ROC-derived cut-off of 100.6 ng/mL. For HIV patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, GP73 may be a potential biomarker treatment efficacy useful in AIDS management.
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Oocyte quality in mice is affected by a mycotoxin-contaminated diet.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and aflatoxin (AF), are commonly found in many food commodities and may impair the growth and reproductive efficiency of animals and humans. We investigated the effects of a mycotoxin-contaminated diet on mouse oocyte quality. Maize contaminated with DON (3.875 mg/kg), ZEN (1,897 ?g/kg), and AF (806 ?g/kg) was incorporated into a mouse diet at three different levels (0, 15, and 30% w/w). After 4 weeks, ovarian and germinal vesicle oocyte indices decreased in mycotoxin-fed mice. Oocytes from these mice exhibited low developmental competence with reduced germinal vesicle breakdown and polar body extrusion rates. Embryo developmental competence also showed a similar pattern, and the majority of embryos could not develop to the morula stage. Actin expression was also reduced in both the oocyte cortex and cytoplasm, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the actin nucleation factors profilin-1 and mDia1. Moreover, a large percentage of oocytes derived from mice that were fed a mycotoxin-contaminated diet exhibited aberrant spindle morphology, a loss of the cortical granule-free domain, and abnormal mitochondrial distributions, which further supported the decreased oocyte quality. Thus, our results demonstrate that mycotoxins are toxic to the mouse reproductive system by affecting oocyte quality. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Mangiferin mitigates diabetic cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of mangiferin on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The DCM model was induced by a high-fat diet and a low dose of streptozotocin. We evaluated the characteristics of DCM by serial echocardiography, electron microscopy, histopathologic analysis of cardiomyocyte fibrosis area, and Western blot analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression. Rats with DCM showed severe left ventricular dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. Mangiferin mitigated DCM and prevented the accumulation of myocardial collagen. These anatomic findings were accompanied by significant improvements in cardiac function. Based on these results, we conclude that mangiferin has a therapeutic effect on DCM and improves cardiac function.
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[Genotype, environment and their interactions of major bioactive components in 2-year licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) population].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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This study aimed at analyzing the effect of genotype (G), environment (E) and their interactions (G x E) on the major bioactive components of 2-year licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) population, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the licorice breeding with high content of bioactive components and quality improvement.
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Clinical review: Efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters in external ventricular drainage - a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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To assess the efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters in preventing catheter-related infections during external ventricular drainage (EVD), we performed a meta-analysis and systematic review. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized prospective studies (NPSs) related to antimicrobial-impregnated EVD catheters were included. The primary outcome was the rate of cerebrospinal fluid infection (CFI). The secondary outcomes included the rate of time-dependent CFI and catheter bacterial colonization. We further performed subgroup analysis, meta-regression analysis, and microbial spectrum analysis. Four RCTs and four NPSs were included. The overall rate of CFIs was 3.6% in the antimicrobial-impregnated catheter group and 13.7% in the standard catheter group. The pooled data demonstrated that antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were superior to standard catheters in lowering the rate of CFIs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12 to 0.52, P <0.05). In survival analysis, the 20-day infection rate was significantly reduced with the use of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters (hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.95, P <0.05). Furthermore, a significantly decreased rate of catheter bacterial colonization was noticed for antimicrobial-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.64, P <0.05). In subgroup analyses, although significant results remained for RCTs and NPSs, a subgroup difference was revealed (P <0.05). Compared with standard catheters, a significantly lower rate of CFIs was noticed for clindamycin/rifampin-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.73, P <0.05) and for minocycline/rifampin-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.21, P <0.05). However, no statistical significance was found when compared with silver-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.69, P = 0.18). In microbial spectrum analysis, antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were shown to have a lower rate of Gram-positive bacterial infection, particularly the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. In conclusion, the use of antimicrobial-impregnated EVD catheters could be beneficial for the prevention of CFI and catheter bacterial colonization. Although antibiotic-coated catheters seem to be effective, no sufficient evidence supports the efficacy of silver-impregnated catheters.
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Frequency, characterization, and prognostic analysis of PIK3CA gene mutations in Chinese esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2013
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PIK3CA gene mutations are found in numerous cancers but correlate differently with prognosis. Although the frequency of PIK3CA gene mutation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been previously studied, a prognostic analysis has not been reported. Ninety-six surgically resected ESCC tissues were collected from Chinese patients and DNA was extracted. Gene mutations in PIK3CA (exons 9 and 20), EGFR (exons 18, 19, 20 and 21), KRAS (exons 2 and 3), and BRAF (exons 11 and 15) were screened using mutant-enriched liquid chip technology. PIK3CA gene mutations were identified in 12 of 96 ESCC cases (12.5%). No mutations were identified in EGFR, KRAS or BRAF genes in this study. Correlations between clinicopathological features and PIK3CA mutation status were analyzed and finally, patient survival information was used to determine the prognostic significance of PIK3CA mutation. Interestingly, the frequency of PIK3CA mutation was higher in female ESCC patients (31.3%, 5/16) than in males (8.8%, 7/80), and higher in patients with non-lymph node metastasis (19.6%, 10/51, P = .013) than in patients with lymph node metastasis (4.4%, 2/45, P = .025). Furthermore, patients with PIK3CA-mutated tumors showed a trend towards favorable overall survival (P = .085) but not disease-free survival (P = .238), suggesting that PIK3CA gene status may be a favorable predictive marker in ESCC patients.
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Treatment of Cytomegalovirus infection after renal transplantation: experience from a single center in China.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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We compared the efficacy and safety of 2 different treatments of CMV infection, including asymptomatic CMV replication and CMV disease.
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Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the Yangtze Estuary.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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The Yangtze Estuary is heavily influenced by coast-continent geochemical processes and anthropogenic activity; thus, the source and distribution of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the estuary are strongly impacted by these processes. Here, a series of samples were collected from across the Yangtze Estuary to investigate the source and spatial dynamics of CDOM and its components throughout the system. Three indices (a(355), spectral slope, and fluorescence) were then calculated and interpreted. The results indicated that the distribution of CDOM was dominated by allochthonous input, conservative mixing, and phase transfer. The contribution of biogenic CDOM to total CDOM increased with salinity, and three individual CDOM components were identified upon fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis of the water samples: C1, corresponding to humic substance-like CDOM, C2, corresponding to tryptophan-like CDOM, and C3, corresponding to tyrosine-like CDOM. C1 primarily originated from a terrestrial source, C2 had widespread origins, none of which played a dominant role, and C3 mainly originated from allochthonous input in the medium salinity area. Unexpectedly, no marine humic-like component was found in the surface water of the Yangtze Estuary, possibly because turbidity decreased the depth of sunlight penetration, limiting production of this component.
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Germline traits of human hepatoblastoma cells associated with growth and metastasis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Genes that are specific to germline and embryonic development can be activated in many tumors. Here, we show that germline traits that are present in human hepatoblastoma cells might be associated with the malignant behaviors of these tumor cells. In culture, single human hepatoblastoma cells differentiated into germ cell-like cells, which further developed into oocyte-like cells and formed parthenogenetic blastocyst-like structures. The germ cell-like cells and their embryonic derivatives from hepatoblastoma cells may favorably give rise to xenograft tumors with embryonal/germline traits and intrahepatic metastasis. These findings suggest that germline potential can be spontaneously activated in human hepatoblastoma cells and it might be important for tumor formation and metastasis.
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Characterization of antibiotic-resistance genes in antibiotic resistance Escherichia coli isolates from a lake.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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The spread of antibiotic-resistance bacteria and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) has been of concern worldwide. In this study, 114 Escherichia coli isolates were isolated from surface water samples of a lake to identify their susceptibility to antibiotics, including tetracycline (TC), gentamicin (GN), ampicillin (AMP), streptomycin (ST), oxytetracycline (OC), levofloxacin (LEV), nalidixic acid (NA), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SFT). Isolates showing resistance to TC, GN, AMP, ST, OC, LEV, NA, and SFT occurred in 50, 76, 68, 71, 55, 32, 82, and 85 % of the total isolates, respectively. Thirty-seven different resistance patterns were identified, and the most abundant resistance profile (28 of 104) was TC/GN/AMP/ST/OC/LEV/NA/SFT. The occurrence of 29 ARGs were detected in their corresponding resistance clones, and 88 % of TC-resistance, 94 % of SFT-resistance, 90 % of AMP-resistance, 78 % of ST-resistance, and 72 % of quinolone-resistance clones can be described by their corresponding ARGs. It should be noted that most of these antibiotic-resistance clones harbored at least two corresponding ARGs, indicating that high frequencies of combined ARGs occurred in these isolates. In addition, 9 new types of DNA sequence of qnr(B) gene were obtained and were clustered into the same group as showed by phylogenetic trees analysis. These results suggest that the development of antibiotic resistance can be ascribed to the high frequency in the recombination of ARGs through horizontal gene transfer.
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Laboratory features throughout the disease course of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Influenza has emerged every year but a complete profile of laboratory indices throughout the disease course remains unknown.
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Quorum sensing modulates transcription of cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Vibrio parahaemolyticus AphA and OpaR are the two master regulators of quorum sensing (QS) that are abundantly produced and operate at low cell density (LCD) and high cell density (HCD), respectively, with an outcome of reciprocally gradient production of these two proteins with transition between LCD and HCD. The cpsQ-mfpABC gene cluster is transcribed as two operons cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC in V. parahaemolyticus. MfpABC is a putative membrane fusion transporter that contributes to biofilm development. CpsQ is a c-di-GMP-binding regulator that activates the expression of capsular polysaccharide genes and mfpABC and, thus, induces biofilm development. As shown in this study, OpaR and AphA bind to the promoter region of mfpABC to enhance and repress its transcription, respectively. In contrast, the positive and negative regulation of cpsQ-mfpABC by AphA and OpaR, respectively, achieves probably through acting of AphA or OpaR on additional unknown regulator(s) of cpsQ-mfpABC. The transcriptional levels of cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC enhance gradually with transition from LCD to HCD due to the above reciprocal regulatory action of OpaR and AphA. Data presented here present a novel paradigm of combined action of the two master QS regulators in controlling expression of the QS regulon members.
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Unraveling the allosteric inhibition mechanism of PTP1B by free energy calculation based on umbrella sampling.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a promising target for the treatment of obesity and type II diabetes. Allosteric inhibitors can stabilize an active conformation of PTP1B by hindering the conformational transition of the WPD loop of PTP1B from the open to the closed state. Here, the umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to compute the reaction path of the conformational transition of PTP1B, and the snapshots extracted from the MD trajectory were clustered into 58 conformational groups based on the key conformational parameter. Then, the impact of the conformational change of the WPD loop on the interactions between the allosteric site of PTP1B and an allosteric inhibitor BB3 was explored by using the MM/GBSA binding free energy calculations and free energy decomposition analysis. The simulation results show that the binding free energy of BB3 increases gradually from the open to the closed conformation of the WPD loop, providing the molecular mechanism of allosteric inhibition. Correlation analysis of the different energy terms indicates that the allosteric inhibitor with more negative van der Waals contribution cannot only exhibit stronger binding affinity but also hinder the swing of the WPD loop more effectively. Besides, it is found that the energy contribution of Lys292 in the ?7 helix undergoes significant change, which reveals that Lys292 is not only the key residue for ligand binding but also plays an important role in hindering the conformational change of the WPD loop.
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Protective effect of ginkgolide B on high altitude cerebral edema of rats.
High Alt. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Ginkgolide B (GB) is one of the ginkgolides isolated from leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GB has a protective effect on high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) of rats. HACE was induced by hypobaric hypoxia exposure for 24 hours in an animal decompression chamber with the chamber pressure of 267 mmHg to simulate an altitude of 8000 m. Before the exposure, three doses (3, 6, and 12 mg·kg(-1)) of GB were given intraperitoneally (ip) daily for 3 days. Effects of GB on brain water content (BWC), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), concentration of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), expression of active caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were measured. In GB pretreatment groups (6 and 12 mg·kg(-1), but not 3 mg·kg(-1)), BWC, the concentration of MDA, the expression of active caspase-3 and PARP were reduced significantly, while the activity of SOD and concentration of GSH were significantly increased. In conclusion, these results indicate that GB has a protective effect on cerebral edema caused by high altitude in rats. The protective effect of GB might be attributed to its antioxidant properties and suppression of the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.
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Genomewide DNA methylation analysis identifies novel methylated genes in non-small-cell lung carcinomas.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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DNA methylation is part of the epigenetic regulatory mechanism present in all normal cells. It is tissue-specific and stably maintained throughout development, but often abnormally changed in cancer. Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most deadly type of cancer, involving different tumor subtypes. This heterogeneity is a challenge for correct diagnosis and patient treatment. The stability and specificity make of DNA methylation a very suitable marker for epigenetic phenotyping of tumors.
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Characterization of cancer stem-like cells in the side population cells of human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many kinds of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells, including several gastric cancer cell lines. This study is aimed to identify the cancer stem-like cells in the SP of gastric cancer cell line MKN-45.
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[Efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherpy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer, and to analyze the relevant factors of recurrent death of gastric cancer after adjuvant chemotherapy.
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Mycotoxin-containing diet causes oxidative stress in the mouse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Mycotoxins which mainly consist of Aflatoxin (AF), Zearalenone (ZEN) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) are commonly found in many food commodities. Although each component has been shown to cause liver toxicity and oxidative stress in several species, there is no evidence regarding the effect of naturally contained multiple mycotoxins on tissue toxicity and oxidative stress in vivo. In the present study, mycotoxins-contaminated maize (AF 597 µg/kg, ZEN 729 µg/kg, DON 3.1 mg/kg maize) was incorporated into the diet at three different doses (0, 5 and 20%) to feed the mice, and blood and tissue samples were collected to examine the oxidative stress related indexes. The results showed that the indexes of liver, kidney and spleen were all increased and the liver and kidney morphologies changed in the mycotoxin-treated mice. Also, the treatment resulted in the elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the serum and liver, indicating the presence of the oxidative stress. Moreover, the decrease of catalase (CAT) activity in the serum, liver and kidney as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver and kidney tissue further confirmed the occurrence of oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data indicate that the naturally contained mycotoxins are toxic in vivo and able to induce the oxidant stress in the mouse.
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Up-regulation of USP2a and FASN in gliomas correlates strongly with glioma grade.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Gliomas are the most common neoplasms in the central nervous system. The lack of efficacy of glioma therapies necessitates in-depth studies of glioma pathology, especially of the underlying molecular mechanisms that transform normal glial cells into tumor cells. Here we report that a deubiquitinating enzyme, ubiquitin-specific protease 2a (USP2a), and its substrate, fatty acid synthase (FASN), are over-expressed in glioma tissue. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression and cellular distribution of USP2a and FASN in human glioma tissues. The expression patterns of USP2a and FASN correlated with the pathologic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of USP2a and its substrate FASN were higher in high-grade (World Health Organization [WHO] grades III and IV) glioma tissues than in low-grade (WHO grades I and II) glioma tissues. Western blot analysis indicated that the average optical densitometry ratio of USP2a and its substrate FASN in high-grade gliomas was higher than in low-grade gliomas. Moreover, statistical analysis of grade-classified glioma samples showed that the level of USP2a and FASN expression increased with the elevation of the WHO grade of glioma. USP2a protein expression was detected in the nucleus of glioma tissues and an increase in expression was significantly associated with the elevation of the WHO grade of glioma by immunohistochemistry. These findings expand our understanding of the molecular profiling of glioma and could shed light on new diagnostic criteria for gliomas.
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Serum GP73, a marker for evaluating progression in patients with chronic HBV infections.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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This study was designed to investigate the role of serum GP73 for diagnosing significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Two populations were enrollment. All subjects were patients with chronic HBV infections. First population included 761 patients, who received liver stiffness measurement; the second population included 633 patients, who undertaken liver biopsy, in which 472 patients with nearly normal ALT. All patients received serum GP73 test. The effect of GP73 recombinant protein to HepG2 cells and LX2 cells were observed in vitro. Results showed that serum GP73 concentration is correlated with liver stiffness (r?=?0.601). The area under ROC curve is 0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of GP73 for significant fibrosis (?F2) diagnosis were 62.81%, 80.05% respectively (cut off: 76.6 ng/ml). Serum GP73 concentration was significantly correlated with the grading of fibrosis (r?=?0.32, and 0.35, in 633 and 472 patients, respectively.) GP73 had a striking performance for diagnosing S2 in patients with chronic HBV infections. In 472 patients with nearly normal ALT, the sensitivity and specificity of GP73 for S2 diagnosis were 62.5% and 80.0% respectively, where the cut-off was set at 82 ng/ml. GP73 recombinant protein may prompt LX2 cells proliferation at the concentration 10-100 ng/ml. The present results indicated that GP73 may be a marker for diagnosing significant fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infections, and may be a new contributor to fibrogensis.
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Nutritional support for patients sustaining traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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In traumatic brain injury (TBI), the appropriate timing and route of feeding, and the efficacy of immune-enhancing formulae have not been well established. We performed this meta-analysis aiming to compare the effects of different nutritional support modalities on clinical outcomes of TBI patients.
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Genome-wide analysis shows that Ldb1 controls essential hematopoietic genes/pathways in mouse early development and reveals novel players in hematopoiesis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The first site exhibiting hematopoietic activity in mammalian development is the yolk-sac blood island, which originates from the hemangioblast. Here we performed differentiation assays, as well as genome-wide molecular and functional studies in blast colony-forming cells to gain insight into the function of the essential Ldb1 factor in early primitive hematopoietic development. We show that the previously reported lack of yolk-sac hematopoiesis and vascular development in Ldb1(-/-) mouse result from a decreased number of hemangioblasts and a block in their ability to differentiate into erythroid and endothelial progenitor cells. Transcriptome analysis and correlation with the genome-wide binding pattern of Ldb1 in hemangioblasts revealed a number of direct-target genes and pathways misregulated in the absence of Ldb1. The regulation of essential developmental factors by Ldb1 defines it as an upstream transcriptional regulator of hematopoietic/endothelial development. We show the complex interplay that exists between transcription factors and signaling pathways during the very early stages of hematopoietic/endothelial development and the specific signaling occurring in hemangioblasts in contrast to more advanced hematopoietic developmental stages. Finally, by revealing novel genes and pathways not previously associated with early development, our study provides novel candidate targets to manipulate the differentiation of hematopoietic and/or endothelial cells.
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Chiral selective transmembrane transport of amino acids through artificial channels.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Peptide-appended pillar[n]arene (n = 5, 6) derivatives have been synthesized. (1)H NMR and IR studies revealed that the molecules adopt a tubular conformation in solution and lipid bilayer membranes. Kinetic measurements using the fluorescent labeling method with lipid vesicles revealed that these molecules can efficiently mediate the transport of amino acids across lipid membranes at a very low channel-to-lipid ratio (EC(50) = 0.002 mol %). In several cases, chiral selectivity for amino acid enantiomers was achieved, which is one of the key functions of natural amino acid channels.
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Glomus tumor in the stomach: computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound findings.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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A 57-year-old man presented with intermittent dull abdominal pain after a period of 1 year. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed. Except for the endoscopy, the work-up for possible medical causes remained inconclusive. An open-abdomen, partial surgical excision of the stomach was performed after the unsuccessful endoscopic resection. The pathology report revealed a glomus tumor of the stomach. Importantly, glomus tumors of the stomach are rare and are almost always benign. Therefore, the most important current role of imaging associated with the diagnostic approach and therapeutic plan for a glomus tumor is to differentiate it from other gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs). We report this case with representative radiologic findings, including CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) reports, and also correlate them with clinical and pathologic presentations that can help in the early detection and differentiation of gastric SMTs from other SMTs. As such, the purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of relevant CT and EUS features. Alternative treatments should be considered carefully according to the imaging results.
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Investigation on the application of titania nanorod arrays to the determination of chemical oxygen demand.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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In the present paper, the TiO2 nanorod arrays electrode was developed as a sensor for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) based on a photoelectrochemical degradation principle. Effects of common parameters, such as applied potential, light intensity and pH on its analytical performance were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the nanorod arrays electrode was successfully applied in the COD determination for both synthetic and real samples. In the COD determination, the proposed method can achieve a practical detection limit of 18.3mgL(-1) and a linear range of 20-280mgL(-1). Furthermore, the results obtained by the proposed method were well correlated with those obtained using the conventional (i.e., dichromate) COD determination method. The main advantages of this COD determination method were its simplicity, long term stability and environmental friendly (corrosive and toxic reagents not consumed). This work would open a new application area (COD determination) of the TiO2 nanorod arrays.
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Endoscopic transmaxillary transMüllers muscle approach for decompression of superior orbital fissure: A cadaveric study with illustrative case.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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BACKGROUND: In an effort to avoid the damage and inconvenience associated with transcranial approaches, we developed an endoscopic transmaxillary transMüllers muscle approach for decompression of the superior orbital fissure (SOF). METHODS: The endoscopic transmaxillary transMüllers muscle route was performed in ten cadaveric heads. We measured important anatomic landmarks, and angles radiographically. This approach was initially attempted in one patient with traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome (tSOFS). RESULTS: A maxillary antrostomy was carried out with a buccal sulcus incision. The sinus ostium and the course of infraorbital nerve were used as endoscopic anatomic landmarks. Then the inferior orbital fissure was drilled out, followed by separating the Müllers muscle. The periorbita were peeled off from the lateral wall, followed by the endoscope going along the periorbital space, until the lateral aspect of the SOF could be visualized. Decompression was successfully performed in all specimens. The initial clinical application justified this approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and satisfactory recovery. CONCLUSION: This approach offers sufficient endoscopic visualization and reliable decompression of SOF. It avoids the need for brain retraction, temporalis muscle manipulation, or any external incision, and appears to be able to deliver satisfying aesthetic results as well as favourable functional recovery.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.