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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reticular three-dimensional 3d-4f frameworks constructed through substituted imidazole-dicarboxylate: syntheses, luminescence and magnetic properties study.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A family of heteronuclear metal organic frameworks (MOFs) using lanthanide and transition metal ion based on a rigid ligand of substituted imidazoledicarboxylic acid, namely, {[Ln2Zn2 (?3-Hmimda)2 (?3-mimda)2·4H2O]n·mn H2O}, Ln = Nd, m = 2 (), Ln = Ho, m = 3 (), Ln = Er, m = 2 (), Ln = Yb, m = 3 (), [Tb2Co2(?3-Hmimda)2 (?3-mimda)2·4H2O]n·2nH2O} () and [Dy2Co2 (?3-Hmimda)2 (?3-mimda)2·4H2O]n·nH2O} (), (H3mimda = 1H-2-methyl-4,5-imidazole-dicarboxylic acid), have been developed and characterized. All the complexes (except for a little disparity for ) are isostructural, and all crystallize in the monoclinic system. They possess an extended reticular-like porous structure constructed from corrugated 2D layers. Direct current (dc) magnetic susceptibility measurements for indicated depopulation of the Stark components at low temperature and/or possible weak anti-ferromagnetic interactions within hetero-nuclear MOFs. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility studies reveal that the Dy(iii)-Co(ii) complex exhibits both possible ferromagnetic couplings and frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals, behaviour of single-ion magnet nature. Fluorescence properties of series complexes both in near-infrared (NIR) and visible regions have been comparatively studied.
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[Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Lung Cancer Patients ?with EGFR Mutations in Exons 19 and 21].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Studies on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways and the therapeutic effects of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have recently proven that targeted therapy has a major role in the treatment of lung cancer. However, the therapeutic effects of EGFR-TKIs on lung cancers with different EGFR mutation subtypes remain unclear. And if there is a significant difference in the effects of EGFR-TKIs, the mechanisms for the difference remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21 of lung cancer patients and to compare the outcomes of these patients.
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Size- and Composition-Dependent Radio Frequency Magnetic Permeability of Iron Oxide Nanocrystals.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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We investigate the size- and composition-dependent ac magnetic permeability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals for radio frequency (RF) applications. The nanocrystals are obtained through high-temperature decomposition synthesis, and their stoichiometry is determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Two sets of oxides are studied: (a) as-synthesized magnetite-rich and (b) aged maghemite nanocrystals. All nanocrystalline samples are confirmed to be in the superparamagnetic state at room temperature by SQUID magnetometry. Through the one-turn inductor method, the ac magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline oxides are characterized. In magnetite-rich iron oxide nanocrystals, size-dependent magnetic permeability is not observed, while maghemite iron oxide nanocrystals show clear size dependence. The inductance, resistance, and quality factor of hand-wound inductors with a superparamagnetic composite core are measured. The superparamagnetic nanocrystals are successfully embedded into hand-wound inductors to function as inductor cores.
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Microglial and macrophage polarization-new prospects for brain repair.
Nat Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The traditional view of the adult brain as a static organ has changed in the past three decades, with the emergence of evidence that it remains plastic and has some regenerative capacity after injury. In the injured brain, microglia and macrophages clear cellular debris and orchestrate neuronal restorative processes. However, activation of these cells can also hinder CNS repair and expand tissue damage. Polarization of macrophage populations toward different phenotypes at different stages of injury might account for this dual role. This Perspectives article highlights the specific roles of polarized microglial and macrophage populations in CNS repair after acute injury, and argues that therapeutic approaches targeting cerebral inflammation should shift from broad suppression of microglia and macrophages towards subtle adjustment of the balance between their phenotypes. Breakthroughs in the identification of regulatory molecules that control these phenotypic shifts could ultimately accelerate research towards curing brain disorders.
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All-Solid-State Lithium Organic Battery with Composite Polymer Electrolyte and Pillar[5]quinone Cathode.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ?2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g(-1) with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity.
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Mechanistic investigation of ion migration in Na3V2(PO4)2F3 hybrid-ion batteries.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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The ion-migration mechanism of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 is investigated in Na3V2(PO4)2F3-Li hybrid-ion batteries for the first time through a combined computational and experimental study. There are two Na sites namely Na(1) and Na(2) in Na3V2(PO4)2F3, and the Na ions at Na(2) sites with 0.5 occupation likely extract earlier to form Na2V2(PO4)2F3. The structural reorganisation is suggested to make a stable configuration of the remaining ions at the centre of Na(1) sites. After the extraction of the second Na ion, the last ion prefers to change occupation from 1 to 0.5 to occupy two Na(2) sites. The insertion of predominant Li ions also should undergo structural reorganization when the first Li ion inserts into the centre of Na(1) site theoretically forming NaLiV2(PO4)2F3, and the second ion inserts into two Na(2) sites to form NaLi2V2(PO4)2F3. More than a 0.3 Li ion insertion would take place in the applied voltage range by increasing the number of sites occupied rather than occupy the vacancy in triangular prismatic sites. An improved solution-based carbothermal reduction methodology makes Na3V2(PO4)2F3 exhibit excellent C-rate and cycling performances, of which the Li-inserted voltage is evaluated by first principles calculations.
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[Application of three dimensional model in treatment of superolateral dislocation of mandibular condyle].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To assess the application of three-dimensional jaw model in treatment of superolateral dislocation of condyle. METHODS?Nine patients with superolateral dislocation of condyle and symphyseal fractures were admitted in hospital from June 2008 to June 2013. Spiral CT scan on maxilla and mandible was performed?and three-dimensional jaw model was constructed with rapid prototyping technology. According to conditions of condylar superolateral dislocation model?the operation scheme was designed. The symphyseal fracture line was made and fracture was reduced on three-dimensional jaw model. Individualized prefabricated reconstructive titanium plate was made on symphyseal fracture model. Symphyseal fracture was replaced with individualized prefabricated mandibular reconstruction titanium plate according to occlusal relationship. At the same time?reduction of condylar superolateral dislocation was accomplished. RESULTS?Operations were successfully completed in 9 cases under guidance of three dimensional jaw model surgery. Operative incision was primarily healed?and occlusal relationship was restored. Postoperative CT scan showed that the locations of condyle in 9 cases were completely restored. Patients were followed-up for 6-28 months with a median of 18 months. The maximum of mouth opening was 3.1- 4.2 cm with a medians of 3.3 cm?and the occlusal relationship of all patients was normal after surgery. CONCLUSION? Three-dimensional jaw model can show complete status of condylar superolateral dislocation and symphyseal fracture. The model can accurately shape symphyseal reconstructive titanium plate and restore condylar superolateral dislocation during reductive surgery.
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Days to heading 7, a major quantitative locus determining photoperiod sensitivity and regional adaptation in rice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Success of modern agriculture relies heavily on breeding of crops with maximal regional adaptability and yield potentials. A major limiting factor for crop cultivation is their flowering time, which is strongly regulated by day length (photoperiod) and temperature. Here we report identification and characterization of Days to heading 7 (DTH7), a major genetic locus underlying photoperiod sensitivity and grain yield in rice. Map-based cloning reveals that DTH7 encodes a pseudo-response regulator protein and its expression is regulated by photoperiod. We show that in long days DTH7 acts downstream of the photoreceptor phytochrome B to repress the expression of Ehd1, an up-regulator of the "florigen" genes (Hd3a and RFT1), leading to delayed flowering. Further, we find that haplotype combinations of DTH7 with Grain number, plant height, and heading date 7 (Ghd7) and DTH8 correlate well with the heading date and grain yield of rice under different photoperiod conditions. Our data provide not only a macroscopic view of the genetic control of photoperiod sensitivity in rice but also a foundation for breeding of rice cultivars better adapted to the target environments using rational design.
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Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) in Critically Ill Patients in China.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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In March 2013, human infection with a novel avian-origin reassortment influenza A (H7N9) virus was identified in China. A total of 26 cases were confirmed and treated in Jiangsu. All the patients had findings consistent with pneumonia and were admitted to an ICU, which pose a threat to human health. We aimed to provide the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of the critically ill patients with H7N9 viral infection.
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Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Representative Broiler Feedlots Environments: Identification of Indicator ARGs and Correlations with Environmental Variables.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that may pose a threat to public health. Broiler feedlots may represent an important source of ARGs in the environment. However, the prevalence and dissemination mechanisms of various types of ARGs in the environment of broiler feedlots have not previously been identified. We examined the occurrence, abundance and variation of ARGs conferring resistance to chloramphenicols, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in the environments of two representative types of broiler feedlots (free range and indoor) by quantitative PCR, and assessed their dissemination mechanisms. The results showed the prevalence of various types of ARGs in the environmental samples of the broiler feedlots including manure/litter, soil, sediment, and water samples, with the first report of five chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, floR, fexA, cfr, and fexB) in broiler feedlots. Overall, chloramphenicol resistance genes and sulfonamides sul genes were more abundant than tetracyclines tet genes. The ARG abundances in the samples from indoor boiler feedlots were generally different to the free range feedlots, suggesting the importance of feeding operations in ARG dissemination. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic element genes (int1 and int2), and between the different classes of ARGs themselves, revealing the roles of horizontal gene transfer and coselection for ARG dissemination in the environment. Further regression analysis revealed that fexA, sul1 and tetW could be reliable indicator genes to surrogate anthropogenic sources of ARGs in boiler feedlots (correlations of fexA, sul1 and tetW to all ARGs: R = 0.95, 0.96 and 0.86, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, significant correlations were also identified between indicator ARGs and their corresponding antibiotics. In addition, some ARGs were significantly correlated with typical metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, and As with fexA, fexB, cfr, sul1, tetW, tetO, tetS: R = 0.52-0.71) and some environmental parameters (e.g., TOC, TN, TP, NH3-N with fexA, fexB, cfr, sul1, tetW, tetO, tetQ, tetS: R = 0.53-0.87) (p < 0.01). Further redundancy analysis demonstrated that the distribution and transportation of ARGs from the boiler feedlots to the receiving environments were correlated with environmental variables. The findings highlight the contribution of some chemicals such as antibiotics and metals to the development of ARGs in broiler feedlots environments; and the observed ARG dissemination mechanism in the broiler feedlots facilitates the development of effective mitigation measures.
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Sensitive impedimetric biosensor based on duplex-like DNA scaffolds and ordered mesoporous carbon nitride for silver(i) ion detection.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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This study demonstrates a new, unlabeled immobilized DNA-based biosensor with ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) for the detection of Ag(+) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) as the redox couple. The unlabeled immobilized DNA initially formed the hairpin-like structure through hybridization with the probe, and then changed to duplex-like structure upon interaction with Ag(+) in solution to form a C-Ag(+)-C complex at electrode surface. As a result, the interfacial charge-transfer resistance of the electrode towards the [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) redox couple was changed. Thus, a declined charge transfer resistance (Rct) was obtained, corresponding to Ag(+) concentration. MCN provide an excellent platform for DNA immobilization and faster electron transfer. Impedance data were analyzed with the help of Randles equivalent circuit. The lower detection limit of the biosensor for Ag(+) is 5 × 10(-11) M with good specificity. All results showed that this novel approach provides a reliable method for Ag(+) detection with sensitivity and specificity, potentially useful for practical applications. Moreover, other DNA detection methods for more heavy metals may be obtained from this idea and applied in the environmental field.
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[Chromosomal translocation involving USP6 gene in nodular fasciitis].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To investigate the frequency of USP6 gene rearrangement in nodular fasciitis (NF) and to evaluate its clinical application.
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[Optimization of fermentation conditions of molluscicidal endophyte LL3026 from Buddleia lindleyana].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To optimize the fermentation conditions of molluscicidal endophyte LL3026 from Buddleia lindleyana.
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[Primary pulmonary lymphoma: a case report].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) is an extranodally original disorder, which is involving the lung parenchyma and (or) bronchial with clonal lymph cell abnormal proliferation. PPL is very rare in clinics, accounting for only 0.5%-1% of primary lung tumors, and can easily be misdiagnosed or missed due to the nonspecifically clinical features and imaging findings. Although the treatment of this disease has controversial, surgery and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy are used for most patients in present. This review will report a rare case of primary pulmonary lymphoma, and discuss its diagnosis and treatment.
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[Influence of thoracoscopic surgery on inflammatory reaction of the body ? for early peripheral lung cancer patients].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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It has been proven that video assited thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) achieved the same survival rates compared with traditional open chest operation in the treatment of early stage of lung cancer. but it is unclear if there is any difference of body inflammatory reaction between the two operation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes of inflammatory state of thoracoscopic radical lobectomy in early peripheral lung cancer patients.
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Association of Indoxyl Sulfate with Heart Failure among Patients on Hemodialysis.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Indoxyl sulfate, a protein-bound uremic toxin, may be associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with CKD. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between indoxyl sulfate and heart failure in patients on hemodialysis.
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[Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced scavenger receptor A1 upregulation in macrophages].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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The present study was to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was involved in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced scavenger receptor A1 (SR-A1) upregulation in macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with 20 mmol/L of 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) for 30 min and then treated with ox-LDL (50 mg/L) for 12 h or stimulated with 2 mg/L tunicamycin (TM) or 2 ?mol/L thapsigagin (TG) for 4 h. In addition, RAW264.7 cells were incubated with 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L TM for 4 h or treated with 2 mg/L TM for 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively. The intracellular total cholesterol (TC) content was measured using a tissue/cell total cholesterol assay kit. The protein and mRNA expressions of SR-A1 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were analyzed by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Dil-ox-LDL uptake was detected using a microplate reader. The results showed that ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in macrophages was attenuated by PBA, an ERS inhibitor. Ox-LDL caused significant SR-A1 upregulation with concomitant activation of ERS as assessed by upregulation of GRP78, whereas PBA significantly inhibited the ox-LDL-induced SR-A1 upregulation (P < 0.05) and slightly decreased GRP78 expression by 39.3% (P = 0.057). TM, an ERS inducer, upregulated SR-A1 protein expression and ox-LDL uptake in dose- and time-dependent manner, but had no significant effect on SR-A1 mRNA level. However, the TM- or TG-induced SR-A1 upregulation and ox-LDL uptake were significantly mitigated by PBA. These data indicate that ERS plays a critical role in ox-LDL-induced SR-A1 upregulation, which in turn enhances the foam cell formation by uptaking more ox-LDL.
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The forward and backward transport processes in the AOT/hexane reversed micellar extraction of soybean protein.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Soybean protein was taken as a model protein to investigate two aspects of the protein extraction by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles: (1) the forward protein extraction from the solid state, and the effect of pH, AOT concentration, alcohol and water content (W0) on the transfer efficiency; (2) the back-transfer, the capability of the protein to be recovered from the micellar solution. The experimental results led to the conclusion that the highest forward extraction efficiency of soybean protein was reached at AOT concentration 180 mmol?l(-1), aqueous pH 7.0, KCl concentration 0.05 mol?l(-1), 0.5 % (v/v) alcohol, W0 18. Under these conditions, the forward extraction efficiency of soybean protein achieved 70.1 %. It was noted that the percentage of protein back extraction depended on the salt concentration and pH value. Around 92 % of protein recovery was obtained after back extraction.
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Highly efficient removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution using polyaniline/sepiolite nanofibers.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Polyaniline/sepiolite (PANI/sepiolite) nanofibers were prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization in the presence of sepiolite. The effect of aniline/sepiolite weight ratio on the nanostructure of PANI/sepiolite composites was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of Cr(VI) onto the PANI/sepiolite nanofibers was highly dependent on pH values. The pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isothermal models can well describe the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of the PANI/sepiolite nanofibers for Cr(VI) was up to 206.6 mg/g at 25 °C and increased with the increase in temperature. Desorption experiments indicated that PANI/sepiolite can be regenerated and reused for two consecutive cycles with no loss of its removal efficiency. PANI/sepiolite nanofibers can be used as a highly efficient and economically viable adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal due to their excellent adsorption characteristics.
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Refinement of particle detection by the hybrid method in digital in-line holography.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Digital in-line holography provides simultaneous particle size and three-dimensional position measurements. In general, the measurement accuracy varies locally, and tends to decrease where particles are closely spaced, due to noise resulting from diffraction by adjacent particles. Aggravating the situation is the identification of transversely adjoining particles as a single particle, which introduces significant errors in both size and position measurements. Here, we develop a refinement procedure that distinguishes such erroneous particles from accurately detected ones and further separates individual particles. Effectiveness of the refinement is characterized using simulations, experimental holograms of calibration fields, and a few practical applications to liquid breakup. Significant improvements in the accuracy of the measured particle sizes, positions, and displacements confirm the usefulness of the proposed method.
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Ameliorative effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G on zearalenone toxicosis in pre-pubertal female gilts.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) on the growing performance, genital organs, serum hormones and histopathological changes of pre-pubertal female gilts, and to evaluate the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G in alleviating ZEA toxicosis in gilts. Eighteen pre-pubertal female gilts were randomly allocated to three treatments with one replicate per treatment. The gilts were fed following three diets for 24 days: the Control group was given a basic diet with normal corn; Treatment 1 (T1) was prepared by substituting corn naturally contaminated with ZEA for all normal corn in the basic diet (with a final concentrations of 238.57 ?g kg(-1) of ZEA); and Treatment 2 (T2) was prepared by mixing the T1 diet with 2 kg T(-1) of fermented-dried culture of ANSB01G. The results showed that the presence of ZEA in diets significantly increased the vulva size and reproductive organ weight of the T1 gilts as compared with the Control group, and the addition of ANSB01G to diet naturally contaminated with ZEA obviously ameliorated these symptoms, as was observed in the T2 group. The presence of low doses of ZEA in the T1 diet had no significant effect on the level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteotrophic hormone (LH) or serum oestradiol (E2) in the serum of gilts, but the prolactin (PRL) level in group T1 increased significantly. The gilts of the T1 group exhibited conspicuous cell enlargement and fatty degeneration of the corpus uteri, swelling, inflammation and lymphocyte infiltration of liver cells as compared with the Control group. The presence of ANSB01G can alleviate these hyperoestrogenic effects caused by ZEA, maintaining the body of gilt in a normal and healthy status. It is suggested that reproductive organs of gilts are seriously affected even if they are fed a low dose of ZEA in less time, and the addition of B. subtilis ANSB01G can effectively alleviate ZEA toxicosis in gilts.
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Novel NTRK1 Frameshift Mutation in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain With Anhidrosis.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It has been reported that the defect in the NTRK1 gene encoding tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) can cause congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the product of NGFB, mediates biological effects by binding to and activating tropomyosin-related kinase A. In addition, necdin (encoded by NDN) is also essential in nerve growth factor-tropomyosin-related kinase A pathway. We performed mutation analysis in NTRK1, NGFB, and NDN genes in a Chinese Han 17-year-old female patient with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis and her healthy family members. As a result, the patient was found to have a novel insertion in exon 7 (c.727insT) of NTRK1, which causes premature termination, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2192206 G>A) in NDN. Our findings imply that the genetic variations of the nerve growth factor-tropomyosin-related kinase A pathway play an important role in congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.
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Dissolved organic carbon and relationship with bacterioplankton community composition in 3 lake regions of Lake Taihu, China.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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To clarify the relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bacterioplankton community composition (BCC), a 1-year survey (June 2009 - May 2010) was conducted in 3 regions of Lake Taihu (Meiliang Bay, Lake Center, and Eastern Taihu), China. Polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the composition and heterogeneity of the bacterioplankton community. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to explore the relationships between DOC concentration and BCC. We found a significant negative correlation between DOC concentration and bacterioplankton community diversity (as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index (H')). The results show that spatial variation in the bacterioplankton population was stronger than the seasonal variation and that DOC concentration influences BCC in Lake Taihu. DOC concentration, followed by macrophyte biomass, water turbidity, and phytoplankton biomass were the most influential factors that account for BCC changes in Lake Taihu. More detailed studies on the relationship between DOC concentration and BCC should focus on differences in DOC concentrations and quality among these lake regions. DOC had a significant impact on BCC in Meiliang Bay. The relationship between DOC and BCC in the 2 other regions studied (Lake Center and Eastern Taihu) was weaker. The results of this study add to our understanding of the BCC in eutrophic lakes, especially regarding the role of the microbial loop in lake ecosystems.
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Discovery of a Potent and Selective BCL-XL Inhibitor with in Vivo Activity.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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A-1155463, a highly potent and selective BCL-XL inhibitor, was discovered through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fragment screening and structure-based design. This compound is substantially more potent against BCL-XL-dependent cell lines relative to our recently reported inhibitor, WEHI-539, while possessing none of its inherent pharmaceutical liabilities. A-1155463 caused a mechanism-based and reversible thrombocytopenia in mice and inhibited H146 small cell lung cancer xenograft tumor growth in vivo following multiple doses. A-1155463 thus represents an excellent tool molecule for studying BCL-XL biology as well as a productive lead structure for further optimization.
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Investigation of the Sodium Ion Pathway and Cathode Behavior in Na3V2(PO4)2F3 Combined via a First Principles Calculation.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The electrochemical properties of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 cathode utilized in the sodium ion battery are investigated, and the ion migration mechanisms are proposed as combined via the first principles calculations. Two different Na sites, namely, the Na(1) and Na(2) sites, could cause two sodium ions of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 to be extracted or inserted by a two-step electrochemical process accompanied by structural reorganization that could be responsible for the redox reaction of V(3+/4+). Because the calculated average voltage (Vavg) of the second charging plateau is 4.04 V for the optimized system but 4.38 V for the unoptimized one, the reorganization of the cathode system can make a stable configuration and lower the extraction energy. Three designed pathways for sodium ions along the x, y, z directions in Na3V2(PO4)2F3, known as a 3D ions transport tunnel, have activation energies (Ea) of 0.449, 0.2, and 0.323 eV, respectively, by using DFT calculations, demonstrating the different feasibilities of the migration directions.
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Unprecedented Access to Strong and Ductile Poly(lactic acid) by Introducing In Situ Nanofibrillar Poly(butylene succinate) for Green Packaging.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The notion of toughening poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by adding flexible biopolymers has generated enormous interest but has yielded few desirable advances, mainly blocked by the sacrifice of strength and stiffness due to uncontrollable phase morphology and poor interfacial interactions. Here the phase control methodology, that is, intense extrusion compounding followed by "slit die extrusion-hot stretching-quenching" technique, was proposed to construct well-aligned, stiff poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) nanofibrils in the PLA matrix for the first time. We show that generating nanosized discrete droplets of PBS phase during extrusion compounding is key to enable the development of in situ nanofibrillar PBS assisted by the shearing/stretching field. The size of PBS nanofibrils strongly dependent on the PBS content, showing an increased average diameter from 83 to 116 and 236 nm for the composites containing 10, 20, and 40 wt % nanofibrils, respectively. More importantly, hybrid shish-kebab superstructure anchoring ordered PLA kebabs were induced by the PBS nanofibrils serving as the central shish, conferring the creation of tenacious interfacial crystalline ligaments. The exceptional combination of strength, modulus, and ductility for the composites loaded 40 wt % PBS nanofibrils were demonstrated, outperforming pure PLA with the increments of 31, 51, and 72% in strength, modulus, and elongation at break (56.4 MPa, 1702 MPa, and 92.4%), respectively. The high strength, modulus, and ductility are unprecedented for PLA and are in great potential need for packaging applications.
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[Investigation of production status in major wolfberry producing areas of China and some suggestions].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To investigate the production status and the safety influence factors of wolfberry in China. We investigated the detailed factors which affect the quality safe of wolfberry in the periods of July-August 2013 and July-September 2009. The factors include fertilizing patterns, the used pesticide and preliminary process wolfberry. The factors were discussed according to the results of investigation, and suggestions were proposed for the management and production departments of wolfberry.
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A Gain-of-Function Mutation in Tnni2 Impeded Bone Development through Increasing Hif3a Expression in DA2B Mice.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Distal arthrogryposis type 2B (DA2B) is an important genetic disorder in humans. However, the mechanisms governing this disease are not clearly understood. In this study, we generated knock-in mice carrying a DA2B mutation (K175del) in troponin I type 2 (skeletal, fast) (TNNI2), which encodes a fast-twitch skeletal muscle protein. Tnni2K175del mice (referred to as DA2B mice) showed typical DA2B phenotypes, including limb abnormality and small body size. However, the current knowledge concerning TNNI2 could not explain the small body phenotype of DA2B mice. We found that Tnni2 was expressed in the osteoblasts and chondrocytes of long bone growth plates. Expression profile analysis using radii and ulnae demonstrated that Hif3a expression was significantly increased in the Tnni2K175del mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that both wild-type and mutant tnni2 protein can bind to the Hif3a promoter using mouse primary osteoblasts. Moreover, we showed that the mutant tnni2 protein had a higher capacity to transactivate Hif3a than the wild-type protein. The increased amount of hif3a resulted in impairment of angiogenesis, delay in endochondral ossification, and decrease in chondrocyte differentiation and osteoblast proliferation, suggesting that hif3a counteracted hif1a-induced Vegf expression in DA2B mice. Together, our data indicated that Tnni2K175del mutation led to abnormally increased hif3a and decreased vegf in bone, which explain, at least in part, the small body size of Tnni2K175del mice. Furthermore, our findings revealed a new function of tnni2 in the regulation of bone development, and the study of gain-of-function mutation in Tnni2 in transgenic mice opens a new avenue to understand the pathological mechanism of human DA2B disorder.
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[Determination of six chlorogenic acids in lonicerae flos extract by quantitative analysis multi-components with single marker].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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This study is to determine six chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid) by quantitative analysis of multi-components with a single marker (QAMS). Chlorogeinc acid was used as internal reference to calculate the relative correction factors (RCF) of five compounds. Then the ruggedness of relative correction factors was tested on different instruments and columns. Meanwhile, a total of 4 batches of Lonicerae Flos and 20 batches of Lonicerae Flos extract with five different processing procedures were analyzed by external standard method (ESM) and QAMS, respectively. The ruggedness of relative correction factors was good. And the analytical results calculated by ESM and QAMS showed no difference. The quantitative method established was suitable for the quality evaluation of Lonicerae Flos extract.
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[Molecular identification of Manis pentadactyla using DNA barcoding].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The COI gene as DNA barcode was used to identify the Manis pentadactyla and its adulterants in order to provide a scientific basis for the molecular identification of M. pentadactyla. Genomic DNA was extracted from experimental samples using the DNA extraction kit. The COI genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced bi-directionally. Obtained sequences were assembled using the CodonCode Aligner. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed by MEGA 6.0. The results indicated that COI sequences were successfully amplified and NJ trees results indicated that M. pentadactyla and its adulterants can be easily identification. Therefore, the COI gene is an efficient barcode for identification of M. pentadactyla and its adulterants,which will provide a new technique for the market supervision.
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[Identification of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans and its adulterants using DNA barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In this study, the COI barcode was used to identify the Scolopendra medicinal materials and its adulterants in order to provide a new method for the identification of Scolopendra. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence alignment and NJ tree construction was carried out by MEGA6.0 software. The results showed that the COI sequences can be obtained from all experimental samples. The average inter-specific K2P distance of Scolopendra was 0.222 and the minimum inter-specific distance was 0.190. All the Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans medicinal samples clustered into a clade in the NJ tree and can be distinguished from its adulterants. In a conclusion, COI can be used to correctly identify Scolopendra medicinal materials, and it will be a potential DNA barcode for identifying other animal medicinal materials.
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[Identification of Placenta hominis and its adulterants using COI barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In order to provide a new method for the identification of Placenta hominis, the COI barcode has been employed to identify the P. hominis medicinal materials and its adulterants. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. NJ tree was constructed by MEGA6.0 software. COI sequences can be successfully obtained from all experimental samples. The intra-specific variation and inter-specific divergence were calculated. The average intra-specific K2P distance of P. hominis was 0.001 and the maximum intra-specific distance was 0.008. The cluster dendrogram constructed can be seen that the same genus is together, and distinguished from its adulterants. It is concluded that P. hominis and its adulterants can be correctly identified by DNA barcoding method.
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[DNA barcoding identification between arisaematis rhizoma and its adulterants based on ITS2 sequences].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Fifty-eight samples belonging to 7 species of Arisaematis Rhizoma and its adulterants were collected. The ITS2 locus was employed as a DNA barcode and amplified, sequenced and assembled for all of the collected samples. Then, ITS2 sequences have been annotated using HMM-based method. The intra- and inter-specific variations were calculated and NJ tree was constructed using MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that inter-specific K2P distances were significantly larger than intra-specific distances for all of the three origin species of Arisaematis Rhizoma. Furthermore, three origin species, Arisaema amurense, A. erubescens and A. heterophyllum, can be respectively formed to be a single branch with high bootstrap values. It is concluded that ITS2 can be used to correctly identify Arisaematis Rhizoma from its adulterants and the application of ITS2 in the identification of traditional Chinese medicine has an important prospective.
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Zero thermal expansion and ferromagnetism in cubic Sc(1-x)M(x)F3 (M = Ga, Fe) over a wide temperature range.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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The rare physical property of zero thermal expansion (ZTE) is intriguing because neither expansion nor contraction occurs with temperature fluctuations. Most ZTE, however, occurs below room temperature. It is a great challenge to achieve isotropic ZTE at high temperatures. Here we report the unconventional isotropic ZTE in the cubic (Sc1-xMx)F3 (M = Ga, Fe) over a wide temperature range (linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), ?l = 2.34 × 10(-7) K(-1), 300-900 K). Such a broad temperature range with a considerably negligible CTE has rarely been documented. The present ZTE property has been designed using the introduction of local distortions in the macroscopic cubic lattice by heterogeneous cation substitution for the Sc site. Even though the macroscopic crystallographic structure of (Sc0.85Ga0.05Fe0.1)F3 adheres to the cubic system (Pm3?m) according to the results of X-ray diffraction, the local structure exhibits a slight rhombohedral distortion. This is confirmed by pair distribution function analysis of synchrotron radiation X-ray total scattering. This local distortion may weaken the contribution from the transverse thermal vibration of fluorine atoms to negative thermal expansion, and thus may presumably be responsible for the ZTE. In addition, the present ZTE compounds of (Sc1-xMx)F3 can be functionalized to exhibit high-Tc ferromagnetism and a narrow-gap semiconductor feature. The present study shows the possibility of obtaining ZTE materials with multifunctionality in future work.
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Sirtuin 1 ablation in endothelial cells is associated with impaired angiogenesis and diastolic dysfunction.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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The discordant myocardial growth and angiogenesis can explain left ventricular hypertrophy progresses toward heart failure with aging. Sirtuin-1 expression declines with age, therefore we explored the role played by angiogenesis and Sirtuin 1 in the development of cardiomyopathy. We compared the cardiac function of 10-15 weeks old (wo), 30-40 wo and 61-70 wo endothelial Sirtuin-1-deleted (Sirt1(endo-/-)) mice and their corresponding knockout controls (Sirt1(Flox/Flox)). After 30-40 weeks, Sirt1(endo-/-) animals exhibited diastolic dysfunction (DD), decreased mRNA expression of Serca2a in the left ventricle (LV) and decreased capillary density compared to the control animals despite a similar VEGFa mRNA expression. However the LV fibrosis and the HIF1? expression were not different. The creation of a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) provoked a more severe DD and LV fibrosis in the Sirt1(endo-/-) compared to control TAC animals. Although the VEGFa mRNA expression was not different and the protein expression of HIF1a was higher in the Sirt1(endo-/-) TAC, the capillary density remained reduced. In cultured endothelial cells administration of Sirtuin-1 inhibitor decreased mRNA expression of VEGF receptors FLT 1 and FLK 1. The ex-vivo capillary sprouting from aortic explants showed the impaired angiogenic response to VEGF in the Sirt1(endo-/-) mice. In conclusion, data demonstrates a) defect in angiogenesis preceding development of DD; b) dispensability of endothelial sirtuin-1 under unstressed conditions and during normal aging; and c) impaired angiogenic adaptation and aggravated DD in Sirt1(endo-/-) mice challenged with LV overload.
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Classification of normal and cancerous lung tissues by electrical impendence tomography.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Biological tissue impedance spectroscopy can provide rich physiological and pathological information by measuring the variation of the complex impedance of biological tissues under various frequencies of driven current. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) technique can measure the impedance spectroscopy of biological tissue in medical field. Before application, a key problem must be solved on how to generally distinguish normal tissues from the cancerous in terms of measurable EIT data. In this paper, the impedance spectroscopy characteristics of human lung tissue are studied. On the basis of the measured data of 109 lung cancer patients, Cole-Cole Circle radius (CCCR) and the complex modulus are extracted. In terms of the two characteristics, 71.6% and 66.4% samples of cancerous and normal tissues can be correctly classified, respectively. Furthermore, two characteristics of the measured EIT data of each patient consist of a two-dimensional vector and all such vectors comprise a set of vectors. When classifying the vector set, the rate of correctly partitioning normal and cancerous tissues can be raised to 78.2%. The main factors to affect the classification results on normal and cancerous tissues are generally analyzed. The proposed method will play an important role in further working out an efficient and feasible diagnostic method for potential lung cancer patients, and provide theoretical basis and reference data for electrical impedance tomography technology in monitoring pulmonary function.
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Gene silencing of NLRP3 protects against the sepsis-induced hyper -bileacidemia in a rat model.
Clin. Exp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The role of NOD-like receptor family (NLRP3) has been confirmed in various inflammatory diseases. The association between NLRP3 and hyper-bileacidemia during the sepsis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether NLRP3 silencing protects against the sepsis-induced hyper-bileacidemia.
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Nanostructured Mn-based oxides for electrochemical energy storage and conversion.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Batteries and supercapacitors as electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices are continuously serving for human life. The electrochemical performance of batteries and supercapacitors depends in large part on the active materials in electrodes. As an important family, Mn-based oxides have shown versatile applications in primary batteries, secondary batteries, metal-air batteries, and pseudocapacitors due to their high activity, high abundance, low price, and environmental friendliness. In order to meet future market demand, it is essential and urgent to make further improvements in energy and power densities of Mn-based electrode materials with the consideration of multiple electron reaction and low molecular weight of the active materials. Meanwhile, nanomaterials are favourable to achieve high performance by means of shortening the ionic diffusion length and providing large surface areas for electrode reactions. This article reviews the recent efforts made to apply nanostructured Mn-based oxides for batteries and pseudocapacitors. The influence of structure, morphology, and composition on electrochemical performance has been systematically summarized. Compared to bulk materials and notable metal catalysts, nanostructured Mn-based oxides can promote the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring at the solid-liquid or the solid-liquid-gas interface. In particular, nanostructured Mn-based oxides such as one-dimensional MnO2 nanostructures, MnO2-conductive matrix nanocomposites, concentration-gradient structured layered Li-rich Mn-based oxides, porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 nanorods, core-shell structured LiMnSiO4@C nanocomposites, spinel-type Co-Mn-O nanoparticles, and perovskite-type CaMnO3 with micro-nano structures all display superior electrochemical performance. This review should shed light on the sustainable development of advanced batteries and pseudocapacitors with nanostructured Mn-based oxides.
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CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells: a human CD8 T-suppressor subpopulation with alloantigen specificity induced by soluble HLA-A2 dimer in vitro.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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CD8(+) suppressor T cells (Ts) have been demonstrated to provide protection of allograft from rejection. We previously reported that soluble peptide/HLA-A2 dimer shows peptide-specific inhibitory effects on alloresponse in a coculture of peptide-pulsed T2 cells with HLA-A2 negative lymphocytes in vitro. Here, we found a subset of CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells was induced in the dimer-treated coculture. Importantly, this population showed hyporesponsiveness to the alloantigen restimulation as well as alloantigen-specific suppression on alloreactive T cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent fashion. The suppressive mechanisms of CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells involved an elevated expression of membrane-bound TGF-?1, but not Foxp3, CTLA-4 or IL-10. Furthermore, an overrepresention of CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells was observed in the patients after allogeneic platelet transfusion, and positively correlated with the elevated concentrations of plasma HLA class I antigens. Our findings demonstrated that soluble HLA-A2 dimer could efficiently induce the tolerant CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells with alloantigen-specific suppression on alloreactive T cells. This study might provide a new strategy for preparation of donor-specific Ts and represent an attractive alternative for induction of allograft tolerance.
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[The inhibited effect of matrine on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and the expression of apoptosis related gene Caspase in vitro].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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To evaluate the inhibited effect of matrine on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and the expression of apoptosis-related gene Caspase-3 mRNA, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 protein. And to explore the inhibiting effect of matrine on the apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells.
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Cobalt sulfide nanosheet/graphene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites as flexible electrodes for hydrogen evolution.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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Flexible three-dimensional (3D) nanoarchitectures have received tremendous interest recently because of their potential applications in wearable electronics, roll-up displays, and other devices. The design and fabrication of a flexible and robust electrode based on cobalt sulfide/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (CoS2 /RGO-CNT) nanocomposites are reported. An efficient hydrothermal process combined with vacuum filtration was used to synthesize such composite architecture, which was then embedded in a porous CNT network. This conductive and robust film is evaluated as electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The synergistic effect of CoS2 , graphene, and CNTs leads to unique CoS2 /RGO-CNT nanoarchitectures, the HER activity of which is among the highest for non-noble metal electrocatalysts, showing 10?mA?cm(-2) current density at about 142?mV overpotentials and a high electrochemical stability.
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Facile fabrication and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of few-layer MoS? coupled BiOBr microspheres.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Novel sphere-like MoS2/BiOBr composites were prepared by a facile ethylene glycol (EG)-assisted solvothermal process in the presence of the ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C16mim]Br). A nanostructured heterojunction, with few-layer MoS2 deposited on the surface of BiOBr microspheres, was constructed. During the synthetic process, the ionic liquid acted as a reactant, a template and a dispersing agent at the same time, leading to the formation of few-layer MoS2 dispersed on the surface of BiOBr microspheres. The MoS2/BiOBr composites exhibited much higher visible light photocatalytic activity towards rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation than pure BiOBr. 3 wt% MoS2/BiOBr possessed the optimal photocatalytic activity, which was approximately 2.5 times as high as that of pure BiOBr. Through multiple characterization techniques, the relationship between the specific structure and the admirable photocatalytic activity of the MoS2/BiOBr microspheres was investigated. The critical role of the few-layer MoS2 in the MoS2/BiOBr microspheres was explored. A photocatalytic mechanism for the MoS2/BiOBr composites was also proposed.
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Activation of avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor and inter-species sensitivity variations by polychlorinated diphenylsulfides.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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It was hypothesized that polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) can potentially interact with an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and thereby cause adverse effects in wildlife like birds. A recently developed avian AHR1-luciferase report gene (LRG) assay was used to assess the interaction between avian AHR1 and 18 PCDPSs and to compare the interspecies sensitivity among chicken, ring-necked pheasant, and Japanese quail by PCDPSs. Most of the tested PCDPSs could activate the AHR1-mediated pathways in avian species, and the relative potency (ReP) of the PCDPSs increased with the increasing number of substituted Cl atoms. The rank orders of PCDPSs potency were generally similar among birds, although the ReP varied. In addition, not all the sensitivity rank orders of avian AHR1 constructs for PCDPSs were consistent with that of TCDD. ReP values of PCDPSs suggested that some PCDPSs like 2,3,3',4,5,6-hexa-CDPS and 2,2',3,3',4,5,6-hepta-CDPS are higher than the avian WHO-TEFs of OctaCDD, OctaCDF, and most of the coplanar PCBs. Our results report for the first time the activation of an AHR1-mediated molecular toxicological mechanism by PCDPSs, and provide the ranking of ReP and relative sensitivity values of different congeners, which could guide the further toxicity test of this group of potential high priority environmental pollutants.
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Diagnostic Performance of Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Staging Liver Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive tool for staging liver fibrosis. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual participant data collected from published studies to assess the diagnostic accuracy of MRE and for staging liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD).
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Edge-enriched graphene quantum dots for enhanced photo-luminescence and supercapacitance.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with their edge-bound nanometer-size present distinctive properties owing to quantum confinement and edge effects. We report a facile ultrasonic approach with chemical activation using KOH to prepare activated GQDs or aGQDs enriched with both free and bound edges. Compared to GQDs, the aGQDs we synthesized had enhanced BET surface area by a factor of about six, the photoluminescence intensity by about four and half times and electro-capacitance by a factor of about two. Unlike their non-activated counterparts, the aGQDs having enhanced edge states emit enhanced intense blue luminescence and exhibit electrochemical double layer capacitance greater than that of graphene, activated or not. Apart from their use as part of electrodes in a supercapacitor, the superior luminescence of aGQDs holds potential for use in biomedical imaging and related optoelectronic applications.
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Rare earths exposure and male infertility: the injury mechanism study of rare earths on male mice and human sperm.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The weight; testis/body coefficient; levels of LDH, SDH, SODH, G-6PD, and testosterone; cell cycle; and cell apoptosis of the male mice were influenced after being treated with 200 mg/[kg/day] of rare earths suspension for 3 weeks. The "Raman fingerprints" of the human sperm DNA exposed to 0.040 mg/ml CeCl3 were very different from those of the untreated; the Raman bands at 789 cm(-1) (backbone phosphodiester), PO4 backbone at 1,094 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,221 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,485 cm(-1), and amide II at 1,612 cm(-1), of which intensities and shifts were changed, might be the diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets. The injury mechanism might be that the rare earths influence the oxidative stress and blood testosterone barrier, tangle the big biomolecule concurrently, which might cause the testicular cells and vascular system disorder and/or dysfunction, and at the same time change the physical and chemical properties of the sperm directly.
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Facile synthesis of highly efficient one-dimensional plasmonic photocatalysts through Ag@Cu?O core-shell heteronanowires.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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A novel class of one-dimensional (1D) plasmonic Ag@Cu2O core-shell heteronanowires have been synthesized at room temperature for photocatalysis application. The morphology, size, crystal structure and composition of the products were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, and UV-vis instruments. It was found the reaction time and the amount of Ag nanowires play crucial roles in the formation of well-defined 1D Ag@Cu2O core-shell heteronanowires. The resultant 1D Ag@Cu2O NWs exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity toward degradation of organic contaminants than Ag@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles or pure Cu2O nanospheres under solar light irradiation. The drastic enhancement in photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance and the electron sink effect of the Ag NW cores, and the unique 1D core-shell nanostructure.
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Value of Red Cell Distribution Width for Assessing Disease Activity in Crohn's Disease.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Correlation between red cell distribution width (RDW) and chronic inflammation was observed, although studies focused on value of RDW for assessing disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD) are limited.
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Cavopulmonary assist for the failing fontan circulation: impact of ventricular function on mechanical support strategy.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Mechanical circulatory support-either ventricular assist device (VAD, left-sided systemic support) or cavopulmonary assist device (CPAD, right-sided support)-has been suggested as treatment for Fontan failure. The selection of left- versus right-sided support for failing Fontan has not been previously defined. Computer simulation and mock circulation models of pediatric Fontan patients (15-25 kg) with diastolic, systolic, and combined systolic and diastolic dysfunction were developed. The global circulatory response to assisted Fontan flow using VAD (HeartWare HVAD, Miami Lakes, FL) support, CPAD (Viscous Impeller Pump, Indianapolis, IN) support, and combined VAD and CPAD support was evaluated. Cavopulmonary assist improves failing Fontan circulation during diastolic dysfunction but preserved systolic function. In the presence of systolic dysfunction and elevated ventricular end-diastolic pressure (VEDP), VAD support augments cardiac output and diminishes VEDP, while increased preload with cavopulmonary assist may worsen circulatory status. Fontan circulation can be stabilized to biventricular values with modest cavopulmonary assist during diastolic dysfunction. Systemic VAD support may be preferable to maintain systemic output during systolic dysfunction. Both systemic and cavopulmonary support may provide best outcome during combined systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These findings may be useful to guide clinical cavopulmonary assist strategies in failing Fontan circulations.
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Relationship between the hemodynamic changes on multi-Td pulsed arterial spin labeling images and the degrees of cerebral artery stenosis.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To explore the relationship between the hemodynamic changes on multi-Td (delay time) pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) images and the degrees of cerebral artery stenosis, and to evaluate the value of multi-Td PASL in detecting the signal changes in cerebral arteries with stenosis.
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Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis using ultrasound-based shear wave measurement and comparison to magnetic resonance elastography.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has excellent performance in detecting liver fibrosis and is becoming an alternative to liver biopsy in clinical practice. Ultrasound techniques based on measuring the propagation speed of the shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force also have shown promising results for liver fibrosis staging. The objective of this study was to compare ultrasound-based shear wave measurement to MRE.
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Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXR? function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR?) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXR? were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXR? were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXR? were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXR? were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week-old or 5-month-old with atRA had no effect on the prevention of tumorigenesis or cure of developed nodules in liver. These events imply that the depletion of 9cRA and atRA and the inhibition of RXR? function in hepatic tumors involve more complex mechanisms besides the activation of RAS/ERK pathway.
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[2-Bromoethylamine protects vascular endothelium by inhibiting SSAO activity in diabetic rats].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of aortic semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in diabetic rats and examine the effect of 2-bromoethylamine (2-BEA) on SSAO activity and vascular endothelium in diabetic rats. SSAO was prepared from rat aorta. For assessment of the inhibitory effect, the enzymes were preincubated in the presence of different concentrations of 2-BEA before the addition of benzylamine in vitro. Type 1 diabetic rat model was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), diabetic model group (DM), 2-BEA 5 mg/kg group, 2-BEA 20 mg/kg group (n = 10 in each group). 2-BEA was administered daily via intraperitoneal injection for 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks, blood sample was collected from the abdominal aorta. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) was determined by nitrate reductase method. Plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Aorta SSAO was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The aorta was prepared to observe morphological changes and ultramicroscopic structures. The results were as follows: Compared with NC group, aortic SSAO activity and the plasma ET-1 were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and plasma NO was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in DM group. 2-BEA decreased plasma ET-1 and elevated plasma NO by inhibiting aortic SSAO activity in diabetic rats (P < 0.01), and 2-BEA 20 mg/kg group was more significant than 2-BEA 5 mg/kg group (P < 0.05). Endothelial injury of 2-BEA group rats was less serious than DM group. These results suggest that 2-BEA protect aortic endothelium by inhibiting aortic SSAO activity.
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[Dysregulation of HGF/c-Met signal pathway and their targeting drugs in lung cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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C-MET is a coding product of proto oncogene c-MET, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. The abnormal expression of c-Met gene is correlated with the tumorigenesis and development of lung cancer. Once the tyrosine kinase is activated by the interaction between the HGF ligand and the TK receptor, and the activated kinase will promote the cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of different tumors, as well as lung cancer. The targeted therapy to HGF/c-Met signal pathway is a new highlight in the treatments of lung cancer. In this review, we will discuss the dysregulation of HGF/c-Met signal pathway in lung cancer and the new progress for the targeted drugs to this pathway.
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Nonstoichiometric perovskite CaMnO(3-?) for oxygen electrocatalysis with high activity.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Perovskite oxides offer efficient and cheap electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction reactions and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR/OER) in diverse oxygen-based electrochemical technologies. In this study, we report a facile strategy to enhance the electrocatalytic activity of CaMnO3 by introducing oxygen defects. The nonstoichiometric CaMnO(3-?) (0 < ? ? 0.5) was prepared through thermal reduction of pristine perovskite microspheres and nanoparticles, which were synthesized from thermal-decomposition of carbonate precursors and the Pechini route, respectively. The as-prepared samples were analyzed by chemical titration, structural refinement, thermogravimetric analysis, and energy spectrometry. In 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution, the nonstoichiometric CaMnO(3-?) with ? near 0.25 and an average Mn valence close to 3.5 exhibited the highest ORR activity (36.7 A g(-1) at 0.70 V vs RHE, with onset potential of 0.96 V), which is comparable to that of benchmark Pt/C. Density functional theory (DFT) studies and electrical conductivity measurement revealed that the enhanced ORR kinetics is due to facilitated oxygen activation and improved electrical properties. Besides high activity, the nonstoichiometric perovskite oxides showed respectable catalytic stability. Furthermore, the moderate oxygen-defective CaMnO(3-?) (? ? 0.25) favored the OER because of the improved electrical conductivity. This study makes nonstoichiometric CaMnO(3-?) a promising active, inexpensive bifunctional catalytic material for reversible ORR and OER.
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Curcumin attenuates cardiac fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats through PPAR-? activation.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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To investigate the effects of curcumin (Cur) on cardiac fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and the mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effect of Cur in rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in vitro.
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Identification of linear B-cell epitopes within Tarp of Chlamydia trachomatis.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted pathogens. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. Chlamydial translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp) can induce cellular and humoral immune responses in murine models and has been regarded as a potential vaccine candidate. In this report, the amino acid sequence of Tarp was analyzed using computer-assisted techniques to scan B-cell epitopes, and six possible linear B-cell epitopes peptides (aa80-95, aa107-123, aa152-170, aa171-186, aa239-253 and aa497-513) with high predicted antigenicity and high conservation were investigated. Sera from mice immunized with these potential immunodominant peptides was analyzed by ELISA, which showed that epitope 152-170 elicited serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and epitope 171-186 elicited both serum IgG and mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A response. The response of immune sera of epitope 171-186 to endogenous Tarp antigen obtained from the Hela229 cells infected with C. trachomatis was confirmed by Western blot and indirect fluorescence assay. In addition, binding of the antibodies against epitope 171-186 to endogenous Tarp was further confirmed by competitive ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the putative epitope (aa171-186) was an immunodominant B-cell epitope of Tarp. If proven protective and safe, this epitope, in combination with other well-documented epitopes, might be included into a candidate epitope-based vaccine against C. trachomatis. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Designing of a "cheap to run" fermentation platform for an enhanced production of single cell oil from Yarrowia lipolytica DSM3286 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In this study, the culture medium components screening and filtering were undertaken in order to set up efficient and cost effective minimal culture media for lipid production from Yarrowia lipolytica DSM3286. The basal minimal culture medium (S2) designed yielded lipid content up to 35% of the microbial dry cell weight. A set of fermentation strategies based on this minimal medium was developed and the lipid content was raised to 51%. The scale-up under different fermentation conditions based on S2 medium led to a maximum lipid content of 65%. The produced microbial oils displayed interesting properties to be used as a feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. The minimal media and operable cultivation strategies devised in this study, in association with the works done so far by other authors, could enable fast, massive, viable and more economical production of single cell oils and smooth biodiesel manufacture.
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MoS2 Nanoflowers with Expanded Interlayers as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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MoS2 nanoflowers with expanded interlayer spacing of the (002) plane were synthesized and used as high-performance anode in Na-ion batteries. By controlling the cut-off voltage to the range of 0.4-3?V, an intercalation mechanism rather than a conversion reaction is taking place. The MoS2 nanoflower electrode shows high discharge capacities of 350?mAh?g(-1) at 0.05?A?g(-1) , 300?mAh?g(-1) at 1?A?g(-1) , and 195?mAh?g(-1) at 10?A?g(-1) . An initial capacity increase with cycling is caused by peeling off MoS2 layers, which produces more active sites for Na(+) storage. The stripping of MoS2 layers occurring in charge/discharge cycling contributes to the enhanced kinetics and low energy barrier for the intercalation of Na(+) ions. The electrochemical reaction is mainly controlled by the capacitive process, which facilitates the high-rate capability. Therefore, MoS2 nanoflowers with expanded interlayers hold promise for rechargeable Na-ion batteries.
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Effect of triptolide on the regulation of ATP?binding cassette transporter A1 expression in lipopolysaccharide?induced acute lung injury of rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of triptolide on ATP?binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200?250 g were randomly divided into six groups: Normal (N, n=5), Control (C, n=5), LPS (L, n=5), Triptolide 25 µg (TP1, n=5), Triptolide 50 µg (TP2, n=5) and Triptolide 100 µg (TP3, n=5). The N group was not administered anything; the C group was administered 5 ml/kg normal saline intravenously and 7.5 ml/kg 1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally; the L group was administered 5 mg/kg 0.1% LPS and 1% DMSO; and the TP1, TP2 and TP3 groups were separately injected with 0.1% LPS and 25, 50 or 100 µg/kg triptolide, respectively. All groups had the same liquid?injection volume. Arterial blood gases, tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and ABCA1 expression and general pathology were examined following the treatments. It was found that increasing the triptolide dose in the TP1?3 groups resulted in an increase in the expression of ABCA1 mRNA and protein. As compared with the L group, the ABCA1 expression showed a significant increase in TP2 and TP3 groups (P<0.05). In addition, the expression level of TNF?? was significantly increased in the L and TP1 groups, as compared with that in the N or C groups (P<0.05). Conversely, a marked decrease in TNF?? expression was detected in the TP2 and TP3 groups, as compared with the L or TP1 groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study found that triptolide could promote the expression of ABCA1 mRNA and protein and inhibit other inflammatory factors during LPS?induced ALI in rats. Regulating the expression of ABCA1 may be one of the protective mechanisms of triptolide. Furthermore, triptolide?induced increases in ABCA1 expression occurred in a dose?dependent manner between 25 and 100 µg/kg.
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Palladium(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling of 1,1-diboronates with vinyl bromides and 1,1-dibromoalkenes.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 1,1-diboronates with vinyl bromides and dibromoalkenes were found to afford 1,4-dienes and allenes, respectively. These reactions utilize the high reactivities of both 1,1-diboronates and allylboron intermediates generated in the initial coupling.
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Effects of inversion time on inversion recovery prepared ultrashort echo time (IR-UTE) imaging of bound and pore water in cortical bone.
NMR Biomed
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Water is present in cortical bone in different binding states. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of inversion time (TI) on the signal from bound and pore water in cortical bone using an adiabatic inversion recovery prepared ultrashort echo time (IR-UTE) sequence on a clinical 3?T scanner. In total ten bovine midshaft samples and four human tibial midshaft samples were harvested for this study. Each cortical sample was imaged with the UTE and IR-UTE sequences with a TR of 300?ms and a series of TI values ranging from 10 to 240?ms. Five healthy volunteers were also imaged with the same sequence. Single- and bi-component models were utilized to calculate the T2 * and relative fractions of short and long T2 * components. Bi-component behavior of the signal from cortical bone was seen with the IR-UTE sequence, except with a TI of around 80?ms, where the short T2 * component alone were seen and a mono-exponential decay pattern was observed. In vivo imaging with the IR-UTE sequence provided high contrast-to-noise images with direct visualization of bound water and reduced signal from long T2 muscle and fat. Our preliminary results demonstrate that selective nulling of the pore water component can be achieved with the IR-UTE sequence with an appropriate TI, allowing selective imaging of the bound water component in cortical bone in vivo using clinical MR scanners. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Oxygen Bubble-Templated Hierarchical Porous ?-MnO2 as a Superior Catalyst for Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries.
Small
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Nickel foam-supported ?-MnO2 is synthesized through an oxygen-bubble template-assisted electrodeposition route and is applied as a new cathode catalyst for Li-O2 batteries. Owing to the 3D macro/micro/nano (multiscale) porous architecture, the prepared electrode exhibits low overpotential, high rate capability, and superior cycling durability.
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Binding interaction between sorafenib and calf thymus DNA: Spectroscopic methodology, viscosity measurement and molecular docking.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The binding interaction of sorafenib with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was studied using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), viscosity measurement and molecular docking methods. The experimental results revealed that there was obvious binding interaction between sorafenib and ct-DNA. The binding constant (Kb) of sorafenib with ct-DNA was 5.6×10(3)M(-1) at 298K. The enthalpy and entropy changes (?H(0) and ?S(0)) in the binding process of sorafenib with ct-DNA were -27.66KJmol(-1) and -21.02Jmol(-1)K(-1), respectively, indicating that the main binding interaction forces were van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding. The docking results suggested that sorafenib preferred to bind on the minor groove of A-T rich DNA and the binding site of sorafenib was 4 base pairs long. The conformation change of sorafenib in the sorafenib-DNA complex was obviously observed and the change was close relation with the structure of DNA, implying that the flexibility of sorafenib molecule played an important role in the formation of the stable sorafenib-ct-DNA complex.
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Expression of bkt and bch genes from Haematococcus pluvialis in transgenic Chlamydomonas.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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?-carotene ketolase and ?-carotene hydroxylase encoded by bkt and bch, respectively, are key enzymes required for astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcu pluvialis 34-1n. Two expression vectors containing cDNA sequences of bkt and bch were constructed and co-transformed into cell-wall-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-849. Transgenic algae were screened on TAP agar plates containing 10 ?g mL(-1) Zeomycin. PCR-Southern analysis showed that bkt and bch were integrated into the genomes of C. reinhardtii. Transcripts of bkt and bch were further confirmed by RT-PCR-Southern analysis. Compared with the wild type, transgenic algae produced 29.04% and 30.27% more carotenoids and xanthophylls, respectively. Moreover, the transgenic algae could accumulate 34% more astaxanthin than wild type. These results indicate that foreign bkt and bch genes were successfully translated into ?-carotene ketolase and ?-carotene hydroxylase, which were responsible for catalyzing the biosynthesis of astaxanthin in transgenic algae.
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Determination of culprit coronary artery branches using hemodynamic indices from angiographic images.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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A recently reported angiographic technique for hemodynamic indices based on first-pass distribution analysis (FPA) could potentially be helpful for determining the culprit artery responsible for myocardial ischemia. The purpose of this study was to determinate the culprit coronary arterial branches based on coronary flow reserve (CFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) using only angiographic images. The study was performed in 14 anesthetized swine. Microspheres were injected into coronary arterial branches to create microvascular disruption. Stenosis was also created by inserting plastic tubings in LAD and LCX arterial branches. Adenosine was used to produce maximum hyperemia. Angiographic CFR (CFRa), relative angiographic CFR (rCFRa), and angiographic FFR (FFRa) were calculated by FPA. The diagnostic abilities of CFRa, rCFRa, and FFRa were compared in three models: (1) epicardial stenosis model (S), (2) microcirculation disruption model (M), and (3) combined(S + M) model by using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The mean differences between FFRa and the pressure-derived FFR (FFRp) measurements were -0.01 ± 0.21 in S model (N = 37) and 0.01 ± 0.18 in M model (N = 53). From 225 measurements in S model, the AUCs for CFRa and FFRa were 0.720 and 0.918, respectively. From 262 measurements in M model and 238 measurements in (S + M) model, the AUCs for CFRa, rCFRa, FFRa were 0.744, 0.715, 0.959 and 0.806, 0.738, 0.995, respectively. The hemodynamic indices of the small branches (down to ~0.7 mm) could be measured using only angiographic image data. The application of FFRa could potentially provide a useful method to assess the severity of disease in coronary arterial branches.
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Antioxidative protective effect of icariin on the FeSO4/H 2O 2-damaged human sperm based on confocal raman micro-spectroscopy.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Oxidative stress is implicated in male infertility and significantly higher reactive oxygen species are detected in 25% of infertile males. Although different agents of various alternative medicines, including traditional Chinese medicine, have been tried with varying success, evidence remains limited on whether and how much herbs or supplements might help increase the anti-oxidant ability of the sperm. This study examined the anti-oxidative effects of icariin, a flavonoid isolated from Herba Epimedii, on the human sperm. We prepared the FeSO4/H2O2-damaged human sperms, which were co-cultured with icariin in vitro, and then observed the changes of the sperm by employing Raman micro-spectroscopy. The results showed that Raman mapping with a 514 nm excitation laser allowed clear differentiation of the nucleus, neck, and, in particular, the mitochondria-rich middle piece of a human sperm cell. The effect of icariin on different organelles of the sperm was quantified by localized spectral Raman signatures obtained within milli-seconds, and icariin could keep the "Raman fingerprint" of the human sperm the same as the control groups, suggesting that icariin could protect the human sperm from being damaged by FeSO4/H2O2. Icariin may serve as a tonifying and replenishing agent of herbal origin for enhancing reproductive functions.
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Thermosensitive liposomes with higher phase transition temperature for targeted drug delivery to tumor.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) in combination with local hyperthermia (HT) represent a promising tool for tumor specific drug delivery. The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of phase transition temperature (Tm) on the properties of TSL. High temperature triggered TSL (HTSL), low temperature triggered TSL (LTSL) and non-TSL (NTSL) were prepared and temperature sensitive release properties were extensively compared in different media. Mouse plasma was determined to have similar effect on the release profiles compared to human plasma, in which complete release were obtained at 38°C and 40°C for LTSL and HTSL, respectively. The temperature at which complete release achieved was found to be obviously lower than Tm. Brucine, an antitumor alkaloid, was encapsulated into different TSLs. After HT treatment, the viabilities of SMMC 7721 cells were determined to be 21.3±3.8% and 16.8±3.3% for 127?M brucine LTSL and HTSL, respectively. Treating the tumor-bearing mice with LTSL, HTSL and NTSL led to significantly increased brucine uptake in the heated tumor site compared to the brucine solution group by 2.30, 3.80 and 2.26-fold, respectively. The results of this study suggested that Tm of TSL should be increased to obtain improved drug delivery efficiency to tumor.
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Prevalence, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, and mortality among patients multi-infected with HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis virus.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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To investigate the prevalence, incidence of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs), and mortality during anti-TB treatment in patients multi-infected with HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and hepatitis virus (hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)).
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