JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Design of conformal lens by drilling holes materials using quasi-conformal transformation optics.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, based on quasi-conformal transformation optics, a 3D conformal lens made of isotropic and non-resonant metamaterial is designed, which can make a cylindrical conformal array behave similarly to a uniform linear array. After discussion and simplification in the two-dimensional model, we realize the proposed lens by utilizing drilling-hole material in the three-dimensional structure. The ring-like shape and forward-only radiation make it possible to equip the lens on a cylindrical device.
Related JoVE Video
Preparation of egg yolk antibodies against BoNT/B and their passive protection in mouse models.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Botulism in human is a devastating intoxication caused mainly by type A, B, and E botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The most effective treatment of botulism is injection of BoNT antiserum in the first 24 h. In this study, a recombinant C-terminal heavy chain of BoNT/B (BHc) was successfully expressed in E. coli. The soluble BHc was used as an antigen to immunize laying hens for yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) production. The purified IgY against BHc subunit, preincubated with the BoNT/B, was predominantly involved in the neutralization of BoNT/B toxicity. Furthermore, both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the IgY could protect mice from death caused by injection of toxin at a lethal dose. Our results therefore suggest that anti-BHc IgY directed to the Hc domain is effectively involved in the neutralization of BoNT/B toxin and may be considered as preventive and therapeutic intervention in the case of botulism.
Related JoVE Video
Fresnel diffraction of fractal grating and self-imaging effect.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Based on the self-similarity property of fractal, two types of fractal gratings are produced according to the production and addition operations of multiple periodic gratings. Fresnel diffractions of fractal grating are analyzed theoretically, and the general mathematic expressions of the diffraction intensity distributions of fractal grating are deduced. The gray-scale patterns of the 2D diffraction distributions of fractal grating are provided through numerical calculations. The diffraction patterns take on the periodicity along the longitude and transverse directions. The 1D diffraction distribution at some certain distances shows the same structure as the fractal grating. This indicates that the self-image of fractal grating is really formed in the Fresnel diffraction region. The experimental measurement of the diffraction intensity distribution of fractal grating with different fractal dimensions and different fractal levels is performed, and the self-images of fractal grating are obtained successfully in experiments. The conclusions of this paper are helpful for the development of the application of fractal grating.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and cardiac fibrosis: pathophysiological pathways, molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic opportunities.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiac fibrosis is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction and may contribute to the increased incidence of heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death in obese subjects. This review discusses the evidence linking obesity and myocardial fibrosis in animal models and human patients, focusing on the fundamental pathophysiological alterations that may trigger fibrogenic signaling, the cellular effectors of fibrosis, and the molecular signals that may regulate the fibrotic response. Obesity is associated with a wide range of pathophysiological alterations (such as pressure and volume overload, metabolic dysregulation, neurohumoral activation, and systemic inflammation); their relative role in mediating cardiac fibrosis is poorly defined. Activation of fibroblasts likely plays a major role in obesity-associated fibrosis; however, inflammatory cells, cardiomyocytes, and vascular cells may also contribute to fibrogenic signaling. Several molecular processes have been implicated in regulation of the fibrotic response in obesity. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, induction of transforming growth factor ?, oxidative stress, advanced glycation end-products, endothelin 1, Rho-kinase signaling, leptin-mediated actions, and upregulation of matricellular proteins (such as thrombospondin 1) may play a role in the development of fibrosis in models of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Moreover, experimental evidence suggests that obesity and insulin resistance profoundly affect the fibrotic and remodeling response after cardiac injury. Understanding the pathways implicated in obesity-associated fibrosis may lead to the development of novel therapies to prevent heart failure and attenuate postinfarction cardiac remodeling in patients with obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Capillary-driven surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based microfluidic chip for abrin detection.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herein, we firstly demonstrate the design and the proof-of-concept use of a capillary-driven surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based microfluidic chip for abrin detection. The micropillar array substrate was etched and coated with a gold film by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) process to integrate into a lateral flow test strip. The detection of abrin solutions of various concentrations was performed by the as-prepared microfluidic chip. It was shown that the correlation between the abrin concentration and SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 0.1 ng/mL to 1 ?g/mL with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL. Our microfluidic chip design enhanced the operability of SERS-based immunodiagnostic techniques, significantly reducing the complication and cost of preparation as compared to previous SERS-based works. Meanwhile, this design proved the superiority to conventional lateral flow test strips in respect of both sensitivity and quantitation and showed great potential in the diagnosis and treatment for abrin poisoning as well as on-site screening of abrin-spiked materials.
Related JoVE Video
A recombinant chimeric protein containing B chains of ricin and abrin is an effective vaccine candidate.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both ricin toxin (RT) and abrin toxin (AT) are 2 important toxin agents as potantial bioweapons. A dual subunit vaccine against RT and AT exposure is a promising option for developing prophylactic vaccination. In this study, we constructed a dual vaccine with RT B chain and AT B chain named RTB-ATB. The RTB-ATB chimeric protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the purified protein was used to evaluate the immune response by a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. The main effects included dose of RTB-ATB, route of immunization injection, immunization time interval, and dose of native toxins challenge. For 2 × LD(50) challenge of RT or AT, 100% of the RTB-ATB immunized mice survived and regained or exceeded their initial weights within 10 days. For 4 × LD(50) challenge, different routes of immunization injection caused significant difference (P < 0.05), intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of immunogen protected mice better than the subcutaneous (s.c.) administration. In conclusion, when administered i.p. to mice with 25 ?g per mouse and immunization time interval ? in the absence of adjuvant, the chimeric protein elicited a stronger immune response and protected the animals from a dose of native toxins which was 4 times higher than their LD(50) in unvaccinated mice. Besides, the RTB-ATB chimeric protein could induce specific neutralizing antibodies against these 2 toxins. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of RTB-ATB dual subunit vaccine against the exposure to deadly RT and AT.
Related JoVE Video
Double-strand adeno-associated virus-mediated exendin-4 expression in salivary glands is efficient in a diabetic rat model.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Exendin-4 (Ex-4) is an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor, approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Several strategies have been tried to develop stable and efficacious Ex-4 expression systems. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether double-stranded adeno-associated virus (dsAAV)-mediated in vivo expression of exendin-4 in salivary glands (SG), improves pathology in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM).
Related JoVE Video
Hemoglobin in normal range, the lower the better?-Evidence from a study from Chinese community-dwelling participants.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the association between hemoglobin (Hb) levels and cardiovascular risk factors in a large community-dwelling cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Near-field interference of slit doublet.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We study the physical mechanism of near-field interference of slit doublet and explore the distinctive phenomena in near-field interference of slit doublet. The average electric field and average energy-flow density are chosen to describe the near-field distribution rules of the electromagnetic field. The numerical calculations for near-field interference of slit doublet under different illumination conditions are performed according to the finite-difference time-domain method, and the distinctive characteristics of the near-field interference of slit doublet are provided. They include the polarization dependence, the distortion of fringes, and the bifurcation of the fringes. These characteristics are completely different from those of the far-field interference. With the aid of the interference of two slits and of slit and groove, the physical mechanism of polarization dependence of near-field interference is investigated. The fringe distortion of the electric field and the fringe bifurcation of the energy-flow density reflect the amplitude and phase variations of the electromagnetic field. The influences of the slit parameters and the base material on the near-field interference of slit doublet are also discussed. These results may provide us with new insights into the underlying physics of interaction between complex nanostructures and electromagnetic waves.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of metformin on the expression of SIRT1 and UCP2 in rat liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of metformin on the expression of SIRT1 and UCP2 in rat liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and discuss the pathogenesis of T2DM with NAFLD, and the treatment with and possible mechanism of metformin.
Related JoVE Video
Refractory hypertension with massive proteinuria may be reversed in renal artery stenosis patients with low proteinuria selectivity index after stenting.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
No available prognostic factor was identified for atherosclerotic renovascular stenosis (ARAS) patient who undergo the percutaneous revascularization therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Talbot effect of quasi-periodic grating.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Theoretic and experimental studies of the Talbot effect of quasi-periodic gratings are performed in this paper. The diffractions of periodic and quasi-periodic square aperture arrays in Fresnel fields are analyzed according to the scalar diffraction theory. The expressions of the diffraction intensities of two types of quasi-periodic gratings are deduced. Talbot images of the quasi-periodic gratings are predicted to appear at multiple certain distances. The quasi-periodic square aperture arrays are produced with the aid of a liquid crystal light modulator, and the self-images of the quasi-periodic gratings are measured successfully in the experiment. This study indicates that even a structure in short-range disorder may take on the self-imaging effect in a Fresnel field.
Related JoVE Video
Novel platinum complexes as efficient G-quadruplex DNA binders and telomerase inhibitors.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three 4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f]-1,10-phenanthrolin-2-yl)phenol derivatives-based platinum (II) complexes have been synthesized, and their G-quadruplex DNAs-binding interactions, telomerase inhibition, antiproliferative activity, and cell cycle arrest were studied. Three complexes show the preference for stabilizing h-telo, c-kit2, and c-myc G-quadruplexes in the presence of 10-fold excess of duplex DNA and the higher binding affinities to G-quadruplexes than to duplex. The complexes 1 and 3 present a high stabilization potential (?Tm) for h-telo G-quadruplex and thus give a significant inhibition of telomerase activity at 2?M concentration, whereas the complex 2 displays higher antiproliferative activity against HeLa and HepG2 cancer cells by MTT assay with IC50 values of about 10(-5)M. The complexes 2 and 3 arrest both cells in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, whereas the complex 1 arrests the cell cycle in the S phase for HeLa cells and the G0/G1 phase for HepG2 cells.
Related JoVE Video
The angiographic and clinical outcomes after coronary stenting in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is regarded as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). But the influence of MetS on morbidity and mortality after stent implantation in CAD patients remains unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases in myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The literature provides no clear answer as to whether matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) polymorphisms increases risk of myocardial infarction (MI).
Related JoVE Video
Detection of sugar accumulation and expression levels of correlative key enzymes in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) at low temperatures.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carbohydrate accumulation is common in frost-resistant plants, and many enzymes participate in this process. The sugar content and expression levels of metabolic enzymes related to sugar biosynthesis in response to drops in temperature were measured in two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) with different cold tolerances. The results indicate that the two cultivars examined, Dongnongdongmai 1 and Jimai 22, accumulated high levels of carbohydrate before November 4 (above 0°C), and that accumulation decreased as temperatures fell. However, this decrease was more modest in Dongnongdongmai 1, which had a higher sugar content. Sucrose and fructose were the main soluble sugars, indicating an important role in freezing tolerance. Gene expression studies revealed that expression of the genes encoding chloroplastic enzymes was significantly upregulated in the tillering nodes. Expression upregulation of TaSS and TaTPT may be helpful for sugar accumulation before November 4.
Related JoVE Video
Spectroscopic study on the binding of porphyrins to (G(4)T(4)G(4))4 parallel G-quadruplex.
Biophys. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The binding mode and stoichiometry of the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 to G-quadruplex structure are still controversial to date, mainly due to the intricate polymorphism of G-rich sequences in the different conditions of solution. Here in the presence of the molecular crowding agent PEG, the binding interaction of TMPyP4 and another porphyrin derivative TPrPyP4 with four-stranded parallel (G(4)T(4)G(4))4 G-quadruplex was studied systematically using circular dichroism, visible absorption titration, and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. The results show that each (G(4)T(4)G(4))4 molecule is able to bind four TMPyP4 or TPrPyP4 molecules. Two types of independent and nonequivalent binding sites with the higher and lower binding affinity are confirmed, and the stronger and weaker binding constants are 2.74 x 10(8) and 8.21 x 10(5)M(-1) for (G(4)T(4)G(4))4-TMPyP4, 2.05 x 10(8) and 1.05 x 10(6)M(-1) for (G(4)T(4)G(4))4-TPrPyP4, respectively. The two porphyrin molecules stack on the two ends of G-quadruplex with the higher binding affinity, another two porphyrins bind weakly to the two external grooves.
Related JoVE Video
Unfavorable prognostic value of human PEDF decreased in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a differential proteomics approach.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is the most likely precursor of prostate cancer, but the frequency and timing of epigenetic changes found in prostate carcinogenesis has not been extensively documented.
Related JoVE Video
Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five days of integrative body-mind training (IBMT) improves attention and self-regulation in comparison with the same amount of relaxation training. This paper explores the underlying mechanisms of this finding. We measured the physiological and brain changes at rest before, during, and after 5 days of IBMT and relaxation training. During and after training, the IBMT group showed significantly better physiological reactions in heart rate, respiratory amplitude and rate, and skin conductance response (SCR) than the relaxation control. Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and after training. Imaging data demonstrated stronger subgenual and adjacent ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity in the IBMT group. Frontal midline ACC theta was correlated with high-frequency HRV, suggesting control by the ACC over parasympathetic activity. These results indicate that after 5 days of training, the IBMT group shows better regulation of the ANS by a ventral midfrontal brain system than does the relaxation group. This changed state probably reflects training in the coordination of body and mind given in the IBMT but not in the control group. These results could be useful in the design of further specific interventions.
Related JoVE Video
[Study of the pragmatic of saliva test cassette to detect the Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the link of Helicobacter pylori salive test cassette (HPS) and 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) on detecting Helicobacter pylori infection of stomach, and the sensitivity as well as specificity should be determined.
Related JoVE Video
Role of mitochondria in programmed cell death mediated by arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids.
Mitochondrion
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids from cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 are important lipid mediators involved in numerous homeostatic and pathophysiological processes. Most eicosanoids act primarily on their respective cell surface G-protein coupled receptors to elicit downstream signaling in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Emerging evidence indicates that these hormones are also critical in apoptosis in a cell/tissue specific manner. In this review, we summarize the formation of eicosanoids and their roles as mediators in apoptosis, specifically on the roles of mitochondria in mediating these events and the signaling pathways involved. The biological relevance of eicosanoid-mediated apoptosis is also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Ginkgo biloba extract EGB761 protects against aging-associated diastolic dysfunction in cardiomyocytes of D-galactose-induced aging rat.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to make use of the artificially induced aging model cardiomyocytes to further investigate potential anti-aging-associated cellular diastolic dysfunction effects of EGB761 and explore underlying molecular mechanisms. Cultured rat primary cardiomyocytes were treated with either D-galactose or D-galactose combined with EGB761 for 48?h. After treatment, the percentage of cells positive for SA-?-gal, AGEs production, cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) activity, the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake, and relative protein levels were measured. Our results demonstrated that in vitro stimulation with D-galactose induced AGEs production. The addition of EGB761 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for SA-?-gal. Furthermore, decreased diastolic [Ca(2+)](i), curtailment of the time from the maximum concentration of Ca(2+) to the baseline level and increased reuptake of Ca(2+) stores in the SR were also observed. In addition, the level of p-Ser16-PLN protein as well as SERCA was markedly increased. The study indicated that EGb761 alleviates formation of AGEs products on SERCA2a in order to mitigate myocardial stiffness on one hand; on other hand, improve SERCA2a function through increase the amount of Ser16 sites PLN phosphorylation, which two hands finally led to ameliorate diastolic dysfunction of aging cardiomyocytes.
Related JoVE Video
[Hepatic SIRT1 and UCP2 expressions in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the expression of SIRT1 and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in the liver of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) and explore the possible pathogenesis of T2DM and NAFLD.
Related JoVE Video
Improvement of arterial stiffness by reducing oxidative stress damage in elderly hypertensive patients after 6 months of atorvastatin therapy.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atorvastatin is postulated to improve arterial stiffness in patients with diabetes mellitus or hypercholesterolemia; however, in elderly hypertensive patients, its effect on arterial stiffness and the possible mechanisms are unknown. A total of 73 elderly hypertensive patients were enrolled to receive atorvastatin for 6 months. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and circulating biomarkers were measured before and after the intervention. After 6 months of treatment, the patients experienced a 19.66% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.90±0.58 vs 2.33±0.56 mmol/L, P<.01) and a 10.63% reduction in baPWV (2100.89±513.21 vs 1877.56±432.06 cm/s, P=.01). In addition, a 21.79% reduction in circulating N-(epsilon)-carboxymethyl-lysine and a 20% reduction in Von Willebrand factor level were observed after treatment. Meanwhile, the activity of copper/zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) was increased by 26.64% (5.04±1.01 vs 6.87±1.83 U/L, P<.001). Correlation analysis demonstrated that the increase of Cu/Zn SOD activity was related to the reductions of arterial stiffness (r=-0.340, P=.003). Taken together, these findings suggest that atorvastatin can improve arterial stiffness possibly by reducing oxidative stress levels in elderly hypertensive patients.
Related JoVE Video
Colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic test strip for rapid detection of abrin in food samples.
J. Food Prot.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, we developed a convenient, rapid, and sensitive immunochromatographic (IC) test strip to detect abrin in assay buffer and spiked abrin in test food samples. The abrin IC test strip was based on a sandwich format consisting of a monoclonal antibody and a polyclonal antibody. The anti-abrin A chain monoclonal antibody from mice was immobilized on a porous nitrocellulose membrane as a capture antibody, while the anti-abrin polyclonal antibody from rabbits was conjugated to colloidal gold particles, serving as a detection antibody. Both visual observation and quantitative analysis indicated that the lower detection of the strip was about 3 ng/ml when abrin was directly spiked into milk, orange juice, and drinking water at a concentration of 3 to 60 ng/ml; the analytical recovery rate was 92.2 to 128%. With this method, abrin spiked into food could be detected in less than 10 min. Moreover, the IC test strip showed no cross-reaction with the closely related phytotoxin ricin. Therefore, our test strip is an ideal candidate for the development of a kit for rapid and quantitative detection of abrin in food samples.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.