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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[A case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with an adenocarcinoma component that dedifferentiated after chemotherapy].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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A 69-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer(well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil(5-FU)was initiated. After two courses of chemotherapy, the patient was judged to have achieved a clinical complete response. The patient then decided against undergoing surgery and opted instead to continue with the chemotherapy, receiving five courses in total. However, the esophageal cancer recurred, and subtotal esophagectomy was performed in January 2011. Squamous cell carcinoma with an adenocarcinoma component, which consisted of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma cells, was observed at the primary site. Metastasis of the cancer to the liver was detected 2 months after surgery. The subsequent administration of four courses of docetaxel to the patient did not result in any beneficial effects, and the patient developed carcinomatous pleurisy and died of this complication in November 2011. The patient survived for a total of 21 months after starting chemotherapy. In this case, the chemotherapy itself may have resulted in the dedifferentiation of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma to result in a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with an adenocarcinoma component.
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Zinc transporter SLC39A10/ZIP10 controls humoral immunity by modulating B-cell receptor signal strength.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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The humoral immune response, also called the antibody-mediated immune response, is one of the main adaptive immune systems. The essential micronutrient zinc (Zn) is known to modulate adaptive immune responses, and dysregulated Zn homeostasis leads to immunodeficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this Zn-mediated modulation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Zn transporter SLC39A10/ZIP10 plays an important role in B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal transduction. Zip10-deficiency in mature B cells attenuated both T-cell-dependent and -independent immune responses in vivo. The Zip10-deficient mature B cells proliferated poorly in response to BCR cross-linking, as a result of dysregulated BCR signaling. The perturbed signaling was found to be triggered by a reduction in CD45R phosphatase activity and consequent hyperactivation of LYN, an essential protein kinase in BCR signaling. Our data suggest that ZIP10 functions as a positive regulator of CD45R to modulate the BCR signal strength, thereby setting a threshold for BCR signaling in humoral immune responses.
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ANGPTL4 regulates the metastatic potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Lymph node metastasis is a major factor for poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the molecular mechanisms of lymph node metastasis are unclear. We determined that angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) mRNA and protein expression were increased in OSCC cells established from the primary site in metastatic cases. In addition, ANGPTL4 expression in biopsy specimens was correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Therefore, our initial findings suggest that OSCC cells expressing ANGPTL4 may possess metastatic ability. Furthermore, cell culture supernatants from OSCC cells that metastasized to the lymph node contain ANGPTL4 and promote invasive ability. These findings suggest that secreted ANGPTL4 may affect the invasive ability of OSCC. Moreover, the rates of positive ANGPTL4 expression at the primary site were significantly higher in the lymph node metastasis group. These results demonstrate that ANGPTL4 contributes to OSCC metastasis by stimulating cell invasion. Therefore, ANGPTL4 is a potential therapeutic target for preventing cancer metastasis.
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Potential role of hematopoietic pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor-interacting protein in oral carcinogenesis.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Hematopoietic pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor-interacting protein (HPIP) is a corepressor of pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX) 1 and is known to play a role in hematopoiesis. Recently, HPIP was demonstrated to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma growth. Moreover, it has been revealed that homeobox and PBX proteins, the expression of which is regulated by HPIP, play key roles in cancer of various organs, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Nevertheless, there has not been any study regarding the role of HPIP in OSCC. This study investigated the expression of HPIP in normal oral mucosa, epithelial precursor lesion (OEPL), and OSCC, and the functional roles of HPIP in OSCC cells and normal keratinocytes.
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The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.
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An observational study of giant cell interstitial pneumonia and lung fibrosis in hard metal lung disease.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Hard metal lung disease has various pathological patterns including giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Although the UIP pattern is considered the prominent feature in advanced disease, it is unknown whether GIP finally progresses to the UIP pattern.
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Traditional Japanese medicine daikenchuto improves functional constipation in poststroke patients.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 ± 11.6 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional therapy for constipation, and patients in the DKT group received 15?g/day of DKT for 4 weeks. Constipation scoring system (CSS) points and the gas volume score (GVS) (the measure of the intestinal gas volume calculated from plain abdominal radiographs) were recorded before and after a 4-week observation period. The total score on the CSS improved significantly in the DKT group compared to the control (P < 0.01). In addition, scores for some CSS subcategories (frequency of bowel movements, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and need for enema/disimpaction) significantly improved in the DKT group (P < 0.01, P = 0.049, and P = 0.03, resp.). The GVS was also significantly reduced in the DKT group compared to the control (P = 0.03). DKT in addition to conventional therapy is effective in treating functional constipation in poststroke patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial and was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (no. UMIN000007393).
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Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder using the traditional Japanese herbal medicine saikokeishikankyoto: a randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial in survivors of the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ? 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients.
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The traditional kampo medicine tokishakuyakusan increases ocular blood flow in healthy subjects.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of kampo medical formulas on ocular blood flow (OBF). A crossover protocol was used to randomly administer five grams of yokukansan, tokishakuyakusan (TSS), keishibukuryogan, or hachimijiogan to 13 healthy blinded subjects (mean age: 37.3 ± 12.3 years). The mean blur rate, a quantitative OBF index obtained with laser speckle flowgraphy, was measured at the optic nerve head before and 30 minutes after administration. Blood pressure (BP) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were also recorded. No significant changes were observed in mean BP or IOP after the administration of any of the kampo medical formulas. There was a significant increase in OBF 30 minutes after administration of TSS (100% to 103.6 ± 6.9%, P < 0.01). Next, TSS was administered to 19 healthy subjects (mean age: 32.0 ± 11.0 years) and OBF was measured before and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after administration. Plain water was used as a control. OBF increased significantly after TSS administration compared to control (P < 0.01) and also increased from 30 to 60 minutes after administration compared to baseline (P < 0.05). These results suggest that TSS can increase OBF without affecting BP or IOP in healthy subjects.
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PBDE: structure-activity studies for the inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The helicase portion of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is considered one of the most validated targets for developing direct acting antiviral agents. We isolated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) 1 from a marine sponge as an NS3 helicase inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of PBDE (1) on the essential activities of NS3 protein such as RNA helicase, ATPase, and RNA binding activities. The structure-activity relationship analysis of PBDE (1) against the HCV ATPase revealed that the biphenyl ring, bromine, and phenolic hydroxyl group on the benzene backbone might be a basic scaffold for the inhibitory potency.
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New diagnostic strategy for sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation: a prospective single-center observational study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Inflammation and coagulation are closely interrelated pathophysiologic processes in the pathogenesis of sepsis. However, the diagnostic criteria of sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are different. This study aimed to define a biomarker panel to predict sepsis-induced DIC in emergency department patients.
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Allelic Imbalance at an 8q24 Oncogenic SNP is Involved in Activating MYC in Human Colorectal Cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The rs6983267 at 8q24.21 has been established as a significant cancer-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The risk allele showed similarity to the binding site of transcription factor TCF4/LEF1 that activates transcription of MYC. However, little is known about the role of this SNP in increasing MYC activity in colorectal cancers (CRCs).
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Identification and biochemical characterization of halisulfate 3 and suvanine as novel inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase from a marine sponge.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important etiological agent that is responsible for the development of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase is a possible target for novel drug development due to its essential role in viral replication. In this study, we identified halisulfate 3 (hal3) and suvanine as novel NS3 helicase inhibitors, with IC50 values of 4 and 3 µM, respectively, from a marine sponge by screening extracts of marine organisms. Both hal3 and suvanine inhibited the ATPase, RNA binding, and serine protease activities of NS3 helicase with IC50 values of 8, 8, and 14 µM, and 7, 3, and 34 µM, respectively. However, the dengue virus (DENV) NS3 helicase, which shares a catalytic core (consisting mainly of ATPase and RNA binding sites) with HCV NS3 helicase, was not inhibited by hal3 and suvanine, even at concentrations of 100 µM. Therefore, we conclude that hal3 and suvanine specifically inhibit HCV NS3 helicase via an interaction with an allosteric site in NS3 rather than binding to the catalytic core. This led to the inhibition of all NS3 activities, presumably by inducing conformational changes.
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Gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma occurring 50 years after a gastroenterostomy with braun anastomosis.
Case Rep Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with gastric cancer. Fifty years previously, he had undergone gastroenterostomy with a Braun enteroenterostomy. At present, a distal gastrectomy and small intestinal partial resection were performed. Intraoperatively, the tumor was localized to the previous stomal site. HE staining showed that the tumor comprised two elements: a tubular adenocarcinoma on the gastric side and a neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) on the jejunal side. The final pathologic diagnosis was mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma based on an immunohistochemical analysis of endocrine markers and an elevated Ki-67 labeling index. The risk of later cancer development cancer recurrence near the gastrojejunostomy site is well known. Potentially, chronic enterogastric bile reflux may irritate the gastric mucosa and act as a promoter. Gastric NEC has a strong malignant potential. We suspect that, in the present case, the constant exposure to secondary bile may have induced a gastric mucosal adenocarcinoma, which finally differentiated into a NEC.
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Two new compounds from an Indonesian sponge Dysidea sp.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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On our joint bioprospecting research on Indonesian marine invertebrates, we found moderate cytotoxicity on an extract of the sponge Dysidea sp. collected at Biak, West Papua. Separation of the extract provided two new compounds, biaketide (1) and debromoantazirine (2), along with four known molecules 3-6. The new structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with those reported. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against NBT-T2 cells with IC50 values of 8.3 and 4.7 ?g ml(- 1), respectively.
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Heart rate variability and hemodynamic change in the superior mesenteric artery by acupuncture stimulation of lower limb points: a randomized crossover trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Objective. We investigated the relationship between superior mesenteric artery blood flow volume (SMA BFV) and autonomic nerve activity in acupuncture stimulation of lower limb points through heart rate variability (HRV) evaluations. Methods. Twenty-six healthy volunteers underwent crossover applications of bilateral manual acupuncture stimulation at ST36 or LR3 or no stimulation. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, SMA BFV, and HRV at rest and 30?min after the intervention were analyzed. Results. SMA BFV showed a significant increase after ST36 stimulation (0% to 14.1% ± 23.4%, P = 0.007); very low frequency (VLF), high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF), and LF/HF were significantly greater than those at rest (0% to 479.4% ± 1185.6%, P = 0.045; 0% to 78.9% ± 197.6%, P = 0.048; 0% to 123.9% ± 217.1%, P = 0.006; 0% to 71.5% ± 171.1%, P = 0.039). Changes in HF and LF also differed significantly from those resulting from LR3 stimulation (HF: 78.9% ± 197.6% versus -18.2% ± 35.8%, P = 0.015; LF: 123.9% ± 217.1% versus 10.6% ± 70.6%, P = 0.013). Conclusion. Increased vagus nerve activity after ST36 stimulation resulted in increased SMA BFV. This partly explains the mechanism of acupuncture-induced BFV changes.
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Bladder pain relief by HMGB1 neutralization and soluble thrombomodulin in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), one of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), plays roles in not only inflammation but also processing of somatic pain. Given that no evidence for roles of HMGB1 in visceral pain signaling is available, we asked if HMGB1 participates in bladder pain accompanying cystitis caused by cyclophosphamide in mice, using the anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM) that sequesters HMGB1 and promotes its degradation by thrombin. Cyclophosphamide, administered i.p., caused bladder pain-like nociceptive behavior and referred hyperalgesia accompanying cystitis symptoms including increased bladder weight, an indicator of edema, in mice. The cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pain and referred hyperalgesia, but not increased bladder weight, were prevented by i.p. preadministration of the anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody or rhsTM. HMGB1, given i.p., facilitated the bladder pain and referred hyperalgesia caused by a subeffective dose of cyclophosphamide, an effect blocked by rhsTM. In the cyclophosphamide-treated mice, HMGB1 levels greatly decreased in the bladder tissue, particularly in the urothelial cells, but did not change in the plasma. Low molecular weight heparin, known to inhibit the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but not lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an inhibitor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), blocked the cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pain and referred hyperalgesia. Thus, our data indicate involvement of HMGB1 in the cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pain signaling, but not cystitis itself, and suggest that targeting HMGB1 with rhsTM or blocking RAGE might serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of bladder pain.
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Hippuristanol reduces the viability of primary effusion lymphoma cells both in vitro and in vivo.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) caused by Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (also known as human herpesvirus-8) shows serious lymphomatous effusion in body cavities. PEL is difficult to treat and there is no standard treatment strategy. Hippuristanol is extracted from Okinawan coral Isis hippuris, and inhibits translational initiation by blocking eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, binding to mRNA. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting translation initiation as an anticancer therapy. Here, we show that treatment of PEL cell lines with hippuristanol resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and induced caspases activation and apoptosis. Hippuristanol also reduced the expression of cyclin D2, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 and prosurvival XIAP and Mcl-1 proteins. Activation of activator protein-1, signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 3 and Akt pathways plays a critical role in the survival and growth of PEL cells. Hippuristanol suppressed the activities of these three pathways by inhibiting the expression of JunB, JunD, c-Fos, signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 3 and Akt proteins. In a xenograft mouse model that showed ascites and diffused organ invasion of PEL cells, treatment with hippuristanol significantly inhibited the growth and invasion of PEL cells compared with untreated mice. The results of the in vitro and in vivo experiments underline the potential usefulness of hippuristanol in the treatment of PEL.
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Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices.
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Preventive effect of irbesartan on bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.
Respir Investig
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a specific form of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia that is limited to the lung. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? ligands have anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. We investigated the effects of irbesartan-an ARB with PPAR ? activity-on the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.
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Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin prevents peripheral HMGB1-dependent hyperalgesia in rats.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is actively or passively released during inflammation. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM), a medicine for treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), sequesters HMGB1 and promotes its degradation. Given evidence for involvement of HMGB1 in pain signaling, we determined if peripheral HMGB1 causes hyperalgesia, and then asked if rhsTM modulates the HMGB1-dependent hyperalgesia.
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Cholesterol sulfate as a potential inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Abstract Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase is a promising target for developing new therapeutics. In this study, we identified cholesterol sulfate (CS) as a novel NS3 helicase inhibitor (IC(50)?=?1.7?±?0.2?µM with a Hill coefficient of 3.9) by screening the extracts from marine organisms. The lack of the sulfate group, sterol structure or alkyl side chain of CS diminished the inhibition, suggesting that an anion binding and hydrophobic region in NS3 may be a target site of CS. It was further found that CS partly inhibits NS3-RNA binding activity, but exerted no or less inhibition against ATPase and serine protease activities. Moreover, we demonstrated that CS probably does not bind to RNA. Our findings suggest that CS may inhibit NS3 helicase not by abolishing the other NS3 activities but by inducing conformational changes via interaction with possible allosteric sites of NS3.
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Psammaplin A inhibits hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of hepatitis C, a chronic infectious disease that can lead to development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The NS3 nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/helicase has an essential role in HCV replication, and is therefore an attractive target for direct-acting antiviral strategies. In this study, we employed high-throughput screening using a photo-induced electron transfer (PET) system to identify an inhibitor of NS3 helicase from marine organism extracts. We successfully identified psammaplin A as a novel NS3 inhibitor. The dose-response relationship clearly demonstrates the inhibition of NS3 RNA helicase and ATPase activities by psammaplin A, with IC?? values of 17 and 32 ?M, respectively. Psammaplin A has no influence on the apparent Km value (0.4 mM) of NS3 ATPase activity, and acts as a non-competitive inhibitor. Additionally, it inhibits the binding of NS3 to single-stranded RNA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, psammaplin A shows an inhibitory effect on viral replication, with EC?? values of 6.1 and 6.3 ?M in subgenomic replicon cells derived from genotypes 1b and 2a, respectively. We postulate that psammaplin A is a potential anti-viral agent through the inhibition of ATPase, RNA binding and helicase activities of NS3.
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Halioxepine, a new meroditerpene from an Indonesian sponge Haliclona sp.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Chemical investigations on a sponge Haliclona sp. found a meroditerpene 1 having a new carbon skeleton. By analyzing spectroscopic data, the structure was elucidated to comprise a substituted hydroquinone, a tetrahydrooxepine, and a cyclohexene, and these components were united with C1 and C2 units. Compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity against NBT-T2 cells with IC50 4.8 µg/ml and also antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 3.2 µg/ml.
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Two new cytotoxic candidaspongiolides from an indonesian sponge.
ISRN Pharm
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Marine sponges have been recognized as potentially rich sources of various bioactive molecules. In our continuing search for new secondary metabolites from Indonesian marine invertebrates, we collected a sponge, whose extract showed cytotoxicity against cultured cells at 0.1??g/mL. Purification of the extract yielded two new macrolides 2 and 3 along with known candidaspongiolide (1). The structures for compounds 2 and 3 were elucidated by spectral analysis ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC) and by comparison of their NMR data with those of 1. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited a little more potent cytotoxicity (IC(50) 4.7 and 19?ng/mL) than that (IC(50) 37?ng/mL) of candidaspongiolide (1) against NBT-T2 cells.
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Four new polyoxygenated gorgosterols from the gorgonian Isis hippuris.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Four new polyoxygenated steroids (1-4) together with four known ones (5-8) have been isolated from the gorgonian Isis hippuris. The structures of the new compounds have been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical conversion. All of the new steroids showed moderate cytotoxicity against cultured NBT-T2 cells.
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An acetylenic alkaloid from the calcareous sponge Leucetta sp.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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A new acetylenic alkaloid was isolated from the sponge Leucetta sp. The structure was established by analyzing spectroscopic data. The alkaloid showed cytotoxicity IC?? 2.5 ?g/mL against NBT-T2 cells.
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Effects of hippuristanol, an inhibitor of eIF4A, on adult T-cell leukemia.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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We evaluated the anti-adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) effects of hippuristanol, an eukaryotic translation initiation inhibitor from the coral Isis hippuris. Hippuristanol inhibited proliferation of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines and ATL cells, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It induced cell cycle arrest during G? phase by reducing the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, CDK4 and CDK6, and induced apoptosis by reducing the expression of Bcl-x(L), c-IAP2, XIAP and c-FLIP. The induced apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Hippuristanol also suppressed IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and depleted IKKalpha, IKKgamma, JunB and JunD, resulting in inactivation of NF-kappaB and AP-1. It also suppressed carbonic anhydrase type II expression. In addition to its in vitro effects, hippuristanol suppressed tumor growth in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency harboring tumors induced by inoculation of HTLV-1-infected T cells. These preclinical data suggest that hippuristanol could be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for patients with ATL.
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Real-time monitoring of RNA helicase activity using fluorescence resonance energy transfer in vitro.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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We have developed a continuous fluorescence assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the monitoring of RNA helicase activity in vitro. The assay is tested using the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 helicase as a model. We prepared a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrate with a 5 fluorophore-labeled strand hybridized to a 3 quencher-labeled strand. When the dsRNA is unwound by helicase, the fluorescence of the fluorophore is emitted following the separation of the strands. Unlike in conventional gel-based assays, this new assay eliminates the complex and time-consuming steps, and can be used to simply measure the real-time kinetics in a single helicase reaction. Our results demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 488 and BHQ1 are an effective fluorophore-quencher pair, and this assay is suitable for the quantitative measurement of the RNA helicase activity of HCV NS3. Moreover, we found that several extracts of marine organisms exhibited different inhibitory effects on the RNA and DNA helicase activities of HCV NS3. We propose that this assay will be useful for monitoring the detailed kinetics of RNA unwinding mechanisms and screening RNA helicase inhibitors at high throughput.
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A new antimicrobial fatty acid from the calcareous sponge Paragrantia cf. waguensis.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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A new acetylenic fatty acid, 1, has been isolated from the title sponge. The structure of the molecule was elucidated to contain an enyne and a thiophene by spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed a weak cytotoxic effect against NBT-T2 rat bladder epithelial cells (IC(50) > 20 microg/ml), and antimicrobial activity with minimal-inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 64 and 128 microg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively.
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A new polyunsaturated brominated fatty acid from a Haliclona sponge.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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A new polyunsaturated brominated fatty acid possessing acetylenic bonds 1 was isolated from the Indonesian sponge Haliclona sp. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by analyzing its spectral data. It showed moderate cytotoxicity against cultured cells.
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Deoxymanoalides from the nudibranch Chromodoris willani.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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Two sesterterpenes, deoxymanoalide (1) and deoxysecomanoalide (2), were isolated from the nudibranch Chromodoris willani collected in Okinawa and their structures determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical conversions. The mollusk feeds on a sponge containing manoalide (3) and secomanoalide (4) and is likely to biotransform them into 1 and 2. Both 1 and 2 showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and inhibited snake venom phospholipase A2 at 0.2 to 0.5 microM.
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[A case of non-small cell lung carcinoma dying of acute respiratory failure due to aerogenous metastasis].
Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, because of exacerbation of backache and erythema. At the time of admission the chest X-ray film showed infiltrative shadows in the left middle and lower lung fields. Our investigation revealed primary mucinous type bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in the left lung (cT4N2M1 Stage IV). Radiotherapy (C7-Th2, L3-L5. Total 30 Gy/10 fr) was administered to relieve his pain. After radiotherapy, he developed respiratory failure, fever, and infiltrative shadow in his chest X-ray. Antibiotic therapy improved his symptoms, laboratory findings and radiological abnormal findings. We suspected complication with nosocomial infection. However the ground-glass appearance appeared in the right lung a few days later. Although antibiotics and steroids were administered, he died of respiratory failure in 6 days. Necropsy findings revealed bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in the right lung suggesting aerogenous metastasis. Considering these facts together, we diagnosed non-small cell lung carcinoma dying of acute respiratory failure due to aerogenous metastasis.
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Rabies virus dissemination in neural tissues of autopsy cases due to rabies imported into Japan from the Philippines: immunohistochemistry.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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Two Japanese men, 65 and 69 years old, developed rabies in Japan around 2-3 months after dog-bite exposure in the Philippines. Laboratory diagnosis of rabies was made following the detection of rabies virus genome on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from saliva, and on immunohistochemistry of a nuchal skin punch biopsy in one case. The patients died 9 and 19 days after clinical onset. At autopsy, no macroscopic changes in the CNS were observed. Histopathology indicated that eosinophilic and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, Negri bodies, were seen in neuronal cells of the CNS. Inflammatory cell reactions were scarce, and no apoptosis in the CNS was detected. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that rabies virus nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) were disseminated to all neural tissues and cells in the body with a similar pattern in both cases. Interestingly, there were no differences of localization between N and P antigen in the brain, but the N antigen was located at the peripheral nerve sheaths and the P antigen was localized in axons. These data indicate that rabies virus dissemination in all neural tissues causes disease development and death. Immunohistochemistry for rabies is a powerful tool to understand the pathogenesis of rabies.
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Total synthesis of (-)-zampanolide and questionable existence of (-)-dactylolide as the elusive biosynthetic precursor of (-)-zampanolide in an Okinawan sponge.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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A new and concise total synthesis of (-)-zampanolide, (-)-1, and (-)-dactylolide, (-)-2, is described. Synthetic highlights include (i) a mild Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction providing the seco acid, (ii) an unusual stepwise cross-coupling reaction of a 1,1-dibromodiene with inversion of olefin geometry, and (iii) specific O-Michael reaction conditions using catalytic LHMDS with TMEDA for the synthesis of functionalized 2,6-cis-tetrahydropyran. A marine sponge extract was analyzed for the presence of (-)-2 as the biosynthetic precursor of (-)-zampanolide.
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Physicochemical characters of a tyrosinase inhibitor produced by Streptomyces roseolilacinus NBRC 12815.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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We examined the biological activities present in Streptomyces strains preserved at the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation Biological Resource Center, and found a metabolite of Streptomyces roseolilacinus NBRC 12815 that showed a potent anti-tyrosinase activity. The compounds with anti-tyrosinase activity were purified by several chromatographic procedures. Final HPLC analysis revealed at least two anti-tyrosinase compounds with different retention times (12815A and B). The identification of two anti-tyrosinase compounds was performed with instrumental analysis and database search. The results obtained suggest that the active compounds are SF 2583A and B. Compound 12815A (IC(50) values; about 9 microM) showed more potent tyrosinase inhibition than compound 12815B (IC(50) values; about 1086 microM). The only structural difference between 12815A and B is the presence of an additional chloric atom. In addition, the activity of 12815A was markedly decreased under acidic conditions, resulting in irreversible inactivation. However, the inactivated 12815A still exhibited residual activity when exposed to detergent, Tween 80. These results suggest that the chlorine and the hydration water are very important in the exertion of anti-tyrosinase activity by 12815A.
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Construction of a high-density reference linkage map of tea (Camellia sinensis).
Breed. Sci.
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A few linkage maps of tea have been constructed using pseudo-testcross theory based on dominant marker systems. However, dominant markers are not suitable as landmark markers across a wide range of materials. Therefore, we developed co-dominant SSR markers from genomic DNA and ESTs and constructed a reference map using these co-dominant markers as landmarks. A population of 54 F(1) clones derived from reciprocal crosses between Sayamakaori and Kana-Ck17 was used for the linkage analysis. Maps of both parents were constructed from the F(1) population that was taken for BC(1) population. The order of most of the dominant markers in the parental maps was consistent. We constructed a core map by merging the linkage data for markers that detected polymorphisms in both parents. The core map contains 15 linkage groups, which corresponds to the basic chromosome number of tea. The total length of the core map is 1218 cM. Here, we present the reference map as a central core map sandwiched between the parental maps for each linkage group; the combined maps contain 441 SSRs, 7 CAPS, 2 STS and 674 RAPDs. This newly constructed linkage map can be used as a basic reference linkage map of tea.
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Inhibition of both protease and helicase activities of hepatitis C virus NS3 by an ethyl acetate extract of marine sponge Amphimedon sp.
PLoS ONE
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Combination therapy with ribavirin, interferon, and viral protease inhibitors could be expected to elicit a high level of sustained virologic response in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, several severe side effects of this combination therapy have been encountered in clinical trials. In order to develop more effective and safer anti-HCV compounds, we employed the replicon systems derived from several strains of HCV to screen 84 extracts from 54 organisms that were gathered from the sea surrounding Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The ethyl acetate-soluble extract that was prepared from marine sponge Amphimedon sp. showed the highest inhibitory effect on viral replication, with EC?? values of 1.5 and 24.9 µg/ml in sub-genomic replicon cell lines derived from genotypes 1b and 2a, respectively. But the extract had no effect on interferon-inducing signaling or cytotoxicity. Treatment with the extract inhibited virus production by 30% relative to the control in the JFH1-Huh7 cell culture system. The in vitro enzymological assays revealed that treatment with the extract suppressed both helicase and protease activities of NS3 with IC?? values of 18.9 and 10.9 µg/ml, respectively. Treatment with the extract of Amphimedon sp. inhibited RNA-binding ability but not ATPase activity. These results suggest that the novel compound(s) included in Amphimedon sp. can target the protease and helicase activities of HCV NS3.
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Expressed sequence tags from organ-specific cDNA libraries of tea (Camellia sinensis) and polymorphisms and transferability of EST-SSRs across Camellia species.
Breed. Sci.
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Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world and the tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, is an important crop in many countries. To increase the amount of genomic information available for C. sinensis, we constructed seven cDNA libraries from various organs and used these to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 17,458 ESTs were generated and assembled into 5,262 unigenes. About 50% of the unigenes were assigned annotations by Gene Ontology. Some were homologous to genes involved in important biological processes, such as nitrogen assimilation, aluminum response, and biosynthesis of caffeine and catechins. Digital northern analysis showed that 67 unigenes were expressed differentially among the seven organs. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif searches among the unigenes identified 1,835 unigenes (34.9%) harboring SSR motifs of more than six repeat units. A subset of 100 EST-SSR primer sets was tested for amplification and polymorphism in 16 tea accessions. Seventy-one primer sets successfully amplified EST-SSRs and 70 EST-SSR loci were polymorphic. Furthermore, these 70 EST-SSR markers were transferable to 14 other Camellia species. The ESTs and EST-SSR markers will enhance the study of important traits and the molecular genetics of tea plants and other Camellia species.
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Anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of roasted coffee bean volatile compounds.
Neurosci. Lett.
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To clarify the relationship between the volatile compounds present in roasted coffee beans and psychological stress, we investigated the stress-reducing potential of coffee volatiles in mice using a variety of behavioral pharmacology methods. In the elevated plus-maze test, exposure to coffee volatiles increased the time spent in and the number of entries into the open arms without increasing spontaneous locomotor activity. Pentobarbital-induced sleep time was prolonged by volatile exposure. No significant effects were detected in the open-field or forced-swim tests. These results suggest that coffee volatiles lower the arousal level and exert anti-anxiety-like, stress-reducing effects in mice.
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Transplantation of side population cells restores the function of damaged exocrine glands through clusterin.
Stem Cells
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Stem cell-based therapy has been proposed as a promising strategy for regenerating tissues lost through incurable diseases. Side population (SP) cells have been identified as putative stem cells in various organs. To examine therapeutic potential of SP cells in hypofunction of exocrine glands, SP cells isolated from mouse exocrine glands, namely, lacrimal and salivary glands, were transplanted into mice with irradiation-induced hypofunction of the respective glands. The secretions from both glands in the recipient mice were restored within 2 months of transplantation, although the transplanted cells were only sparsely distributed and produced no outgrowths. Consistent with this, most SP cells were shown to be CD31-positive endothelial-like cells. In addition, we clarified that endothelial cell-derived clusterin, a secretory protein, was an essential factor for SP cell-mediated recovery of the hypofunctioning glands because SP cells isolated from salivary glands of clusterin-deficient mice had no therapeutic potential, whereas lentiviral transduction of clusterin restored the hypofunction. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that clusterin had an ability to directly inhibit oxidative stress and oxidative stress-induced cell damage. Thus, endothelial cell-derived clusterin possibly inhibit oxidative stress-induced hypofunction of these glands.
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Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication and viral helicase by ethyl acetate extract of the marine feather star Alloeocomatella polycladia.
Mar Drugs
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, leading to the development of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We prepared extracts from 61 marine organisms and screened them by an in vitro fluorescence assay targeting the viral helicase (NS3), which plays an important role in HCV replication, to identify effective candidates for anti-HCV agents. An ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the feather star Alloeocomatella polycladia exhibited the strongest inhibition of NS3 helicase activity, with an IC(50) of 11.7 µg/mL. The extract of A. polycladia inhibited interaction between NS3 and RNA but not ATPase of NS3. Furthermore, the replication of the replicons derived from three HCV strains of genotype 1b in cultured cells was suppressed by the extract with an EC(50) value of 23 to 44 µg/mL, which is similar to the IC(50) value of the NS3 helicase assay. The extract did not induce interferon or inhibit cell growth. These results suggest that the unknown compound(s) included in A. polycladia can inhibit HCV replication by suppressing the helicase activity of HCV NS3. This study may present a new approach toward the development of a novel therapy for chronic hepatitis C.
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Inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase by manoalide.
J. Nat. Prod.
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The hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes one of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases in the world, hepatitis C, which ultimately develops into liver cancer through cirrhosis. The NS3 protein of HCV possesses nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) and RNA helicase activities. As both activities are essential for viral replication, NS3 is proposed as an ideal target for antiviral drug development. In this study, we identified manoalide (1) from marine sponge extracts as an RNA helicase inhibitor using a high-throughput screening photoinduced electron transfer (PET) system that we previously developed. Compound 1 inhibits the RNA helicase and ATPase activities of NS3 in a dose-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 15 and 70 ?M, respectively. Biochemical kinetic analysis demonstrated that 1 does not affect the apparent K(m) value (0.31 mM) of NS3 ATPase activity, suggesting that 1 acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor. The binding of NS3 to single-stranded RNA was inhibited by 1. Manoalide (1) also has the ability to inhibit the ATPase activity of human DHX36/RHAU, a putative RNA helicase. Taken together, we conclude that 1 inhibits the ATPase, RNA binding, and helicase activities of NS3 by targeting the helicase core domain conserved in both HCV NS3 and DHX36/RHAU.
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Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the Western and coastal areas of Kenya: an infrastructure for epidemiologic studies in Africa.
J Epidemiol
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The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is a longitudinal data collection process that systematically and continuously monitors population dynamics for a specified population in a geographically defined area that lacks an effective system for registering demographic information and vital events.
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Antibiotics production by an actinomycete isolated from the termite gut.
J. Basic Microbiol.
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As well as the search for new antibiotics, a new resource or strains for the known antibiotics is also important. Microbial symbionts in the gut of termites could be regarded as one of the feasible resource for such purpose. In this study, antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were screened from symbionts of the termite gut. 16SrRNA sequence analysis for the 10 isolates revealed that they belong to actinomycetes such as Streptomyces sp., Kitasatospora sp., and Mycobacterium sp. A culture broth from one of the isolate, namely strain CA1, belonging to the genera Streptomyces exhibited antagonistic activity against actinomycetes (Micrococcus spp.), gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.), and yeast (Candida spp.). The structures of 2 compounds isolated from the culture broth of the strain CA1 were identified as those of actinomycin X2 and its analog, D. This study is the first to report that some symbionts of the termite gut are antibiotic-producing actinomycetes, and suggest that the termite gut is a feasible resource for bioprospecting.
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Soft coral Sarcophyton (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) species diversity and chemotypes.
PLoS ONE
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Research on the soft coral genus Sarcophyton extends over a wide range of fields, including marine natural products and the isolation of a number of cembranoid diterpenes. However, it is still unknown how soft corals produce this diverse array of metabolites, and the relationship between soft coral diversity and cembranoid diterpene production is not clear. In order to understand this relationship, we examined Sarcophyton specimens from Okinawa, Japan, by utilizing three methods: morphological examination of sclerites, chemotype identification, and phylogenetic examination of both Sarcophyton (utilizing mitochondrial protein-coding genes MutS homolog: msh1) and their endosymbiotic Symbiodinium spp. (utilizing nuclear internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA: ITS- rDNA). Chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clades, and sclerites of Sarcophyton trocheliophorum specimens formed a clear and distinct group, but the relationships between chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clade types and sclerites of the most common species, Sarcophyton glaucum, was not clear. S. glaucum was divided into four clades. A characteristic chemotype was observed within one phylogenetic clade of S. glaucum. Identities of symbiotic algae Symbiodinium spp. had no apparent relation to chemotypes of Sarcophyton spp. This study demonstrates that the complex results observed for S. glaucum are due to the incomplete and complex taxonomy of this species group. Our novel method of identification should help contribute to classification and taxonomic reassessment of this diverse soft coral genus.
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