An intracranial arachnoid cyst was detected in a 32-year-old, 44.6-kg, female chimpanzee at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed and the cognitive studies in which she participated were reviewed. MRI revealed that the cyst was present in the chimpanzees right occipital convexity, and was located in close proximity to the posterior horn of the right lateral ventricle without ventriculomegaly. CT confirmed the presence of the cyst and no apparent signs indicating previous skull fractures were found. The thickness of the mandible was asymmetrical, whereas the temporomandibular joints and dentition were symmetrical. She showed no abnormalities in various cognitive studies since she was 3 years old, except a different behavioural pattern during a recent study, indicating a possible visual field defect. Detailed cognitive studies, long-term observation of her physical condition and follow-up MRI will be continued.
In addition to behavioral evaluations, stress assessments are also important for measuring animal welfare. Assessments of long-term stress are particularly important given that prolonged stress can affect physical health and reproduction. The use of hair cortisol as a marker of long-term stress has been increasing, but there has not yet been any report on the use of such methods with chimpanzees. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish and validate a methodology for analyzing hair cortisol in captive chimpanzees. In the first experiment, hair was removed from the arms of nine chimpanzees living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS) and the regrown hair was sampled 3months later. Fecal samples were collected periodically during the hair-growth period. The results showed that hair cortisol level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Although the correlation between hair and fecal cortisol levels was not significant, the individual with the highest hair cortisol concentration also had the highest fecal cortisol concentration. These results suggest that hair cortisol may reflect long-term stress in chimpanzees. In the second experiment, we investigated the physiological factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations. We cut hair from the arms, sides, and backs of 25 chimpanzees living at the KS and the Primate Research Institute. The results revealed that cortisol varied based on source body part and hair whiteness. Therefore, we recommend that hair should always be collected from the same body part and that white hair should be avoided as much as possible.
In order to directly demonstrate the roles of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in non-human primates, in vivo depletion of the CD8(+) T cells by administration of a CD8-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) is one of the crucial techniques. Recently, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), which is classified as a New World monkey, has been shown useful as an experimental animal model for various human diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons disease and a number of infectious diseases. Here we show that an anti-marmoset CD8 mAb 6F10, which we have recently established, efficiently depletes the marmoset CD8(+) T lymphocytes in vivo, i.e., the administration of 6F10 induces drastic and specific reduction in the ratio of the CD8(+) T cell subset for at least three weeks or longer. Our finding will help understand the pivotal role of CD8(+) T cells in vivo in the control of human diseases.
We determined the magnitude of isotopic fractionation of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (as enrichment factors, ??(13)C and ??(15)N, respectively) between the tissues and diets of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) using a controlled feeding experiment, to provide basic data for reconstructing their feeding habits. The ??(13)C and ??(15)N values, respectively, were 0.9 ± 0.2 ‰ (mean ± standard deviation, SD) and 3.0 ± 0.3 ‰ for whole blood, 1.3 ± 0.2 ‰ and 4.3 ± 0.3 ‰ for plasma, and 0.8 ± 0.2 ‰ and 3.0 ± 0.2 ‰ for red blood cells. However, the ??(13)C and ??(15)N values for hair were 2.8 ± 0.3 ‰ and 3.4 ± 0.2 ‰, respectively. No difference was detected in the ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of hair sampled from different parts of the body. We investigated the effects of diet on ?(13)C in growing hair by alternating the diet of the macaques each month between two diets that differed markedly in ?(13)C. Hair regrown after shaving repeatedly recorded the ?(13)C of the diet consumed during the time of hair growth. On the other hand, hair naturally grown during the diet-change experiment did not show a clear pattern. One possible reason is that the hair had grown abnormally under unnatural indoor conditions and showed complicated isotope signatures. To reconstruct the long-term feeding history of Japanese macaques, we need to further clarify the relationships between the stable isotope signature of diet and various body tissues.
A comparison of developmental patterns of white matter (WM) within the prefrontal region between humans and nonhuman primates is key to understanding human brain evolution. WM mediates complex cognitive processes and has reciprocal connections with posterior processing regions [1, 2]. Although the developmental pattern of prefrontal WM in macaques differs markedly from that in humans , this has not been explored in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that the prefrontal WM volume in chimpanzees was immature and had not reached the adult value during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rate of prefrontal WM volume increase during infancy was slower in chimpanzees than in humans. These results suggest that a less mature and more protracted elaboration of neuronal connections in the prefrontal portion of the developing brain existed in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, and that this served to enhance the impact of postnatal experiences on neuronal connectivity. Furthermore, the rapid development of the human prefrontal WM during infancy may help the development of complex social interactions, as well as the acquisition of experience-dependent knowledge and skills to shape neuronal connectivity.
Serological inspection of Simian T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 was conducted for a wild colony of Macaca fuscata, which was captured in the middle Honshu, Japan. The increase of positive rate after the juvenile stage with the positive rate reaching 100% (or 35/35) in youngster and adult stages, was observed. This finding suggests that, in contrast with human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1, horizontal transmission play an important role in increasing prevalence of STLV-1 with age among M. fuscata.
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.
Developmental prolongation is thought to contribute to the remarkable brain enlargement observed in modern humans (Homo sapiens). However, the developmental trajectories of cerebral tissues have not been explored in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), even though they are our closest living relatives. To address this lack of information, the development of cerebral tissues was tracked in growing chimpanzees during infancy and the juvenile stage, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and compared with that of humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Overall, cerebral development in chimpanzees demonstrated less maturity and a more protracted course during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rapid increase in cerebral total volume and proportional dynamic change in the cerebral tissue in humans during early infancy, when white matter volume increases dramatically, did not occur in chimpanzees. A dynamic reorganization of cerebral tissues of the brain during early infancy, driven mainly by enhancement of neuronal connectivity, is likely to have emerged in the human lineage after the split between humans and chimpanzees and to have promoted the increase in brain volume in humans. Our findings may lead to powerful insights into the ontogenetic mechanism underlying human brain enlargement.
An outbreak of hepatitis E virus occurred in an outdoor monkey breeding facility in Japan during 2004-2006. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this virus was genotype 3. This virus was experimentally transmitted to a cynomolgus monkey. Precautions should be taken by facility personnel who work with monkeys to prevent infection.
We have recently isolated a rhesus macaque cytotoxic T cell line, 2N5.1, that specifically recognizes an N-myristoylated 5-mer peptide (C(14)-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ile-Ser [C14nef5]) derived from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Nef protein. Such C14nef5-specific T cells expand in the circulation of SIV-infected monkeys, underscoring the capacity of T cells to recognize viral lipopeptides; however, the molecular basis for the lipopeptide antigen presentation remains to be elucidated. Here, functional studies indicated that the putative antigen-presenting molecule for 2N5.1 was likely to have two separate antigen-binding sites, one for interaction with a C(14)-saturated acyl chain and the other for anchorage of the C-terminal serine residue. Mutants with alanine substitutions for the second glycine residue and the fourth isoleucine residue were not recognized by 2N5.1 but interfered with the presentation of C14nef5 to 2N5.1, indicating that these structural analogues retained the ability to interact with the antigen-presenting molecules. In contrast to the highly specific recognition of C14nef5 by 2N5.1, an additional cytotoxic T cell line, SN45, established independently from a C14nef5-stimulated T cell culture, showed superb reactivity to both C14nef5 and an N-myristoylated Nef 4-mer peptide, and therefore, the C-terminal serine residue was dispensable for the recognition of lipopeptides by the SN45 T cells. Furthermore, the mutants with alanine substitutions were indeed recognized by the SN45 T cells. Given that N-myristoylation of the Nef protein occurs in the conserved motifs and is critical for viral pathogenesis, these observations predict that the lipopeptide-specific T cell response is difficult for viruses to avoid by simply introducing amino acid mutations.
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