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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular and epidemiological study of human parechovirus infections in Taiwan, 2007-2012.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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As routine diagnostic assays for human parechoviruses (HPeVs) have not been included in the enteroviruses surveillance network in Taiwan, HPeVs may be the actual pathogens of hundreds of untypeable enteroviruses-suspected isolates.
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Antibody-dependent SARS coronavirus infection is mediated by antibodies against spike proteins.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) still carries the potential for reemergence, therefore efforts are being made to create a vaccine as a prophylactic strategy for control and prevention. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a mechanism through which dengue viruses, feline coronaviruses, and HIV viruses take advantage of anti-viral humoral immune responses to infect host target cells. Here we describe our observations of SARS-CoV using ADE to enhance the infectivity of a HL-CZ human promonocyte cell line. Quantitative-PCR and immunofluorescence staining results indicate that SARS-CoV is capable of replication in HL-CZ cells, and of displaying virus-induced cytopathic effects and increased levels of TNF-?, IL-4 and IL-6 two days post-infection. According to flow cytometry data, the HL-CZ cells also expressed angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2, a SARS-CoV receptor) and higher levels of the Fc?RII receptor. We found that higher concentrations of anti-sera against SARS-CoV neutralized SARS-CoV infection, while highly diluted anti-sera significantly increased SARS-CoV infection and induced higher levels of apoptosis. Results from infectivity assays indicate that SARS-CoV ADE is primarily mediated by diluted antibodies against envelope spike proteins rather than nucleocapsid proteins. We also generated monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins and observed that most of them promoted SARS-CoV infection. Combined, our results suggest that antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins may trigger ADE effects. The data raise new questions regarding a potential SARS-CoV vaccine, while shedding light on mechanisms involved in SARS pathogenesis.
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Sialic acid rescues repurified lipopolysaccharide-induced acute renal failure via inhibiting TLR4/PKC/gp91-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis signaling.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1?/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1?-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-? (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFN?, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling.
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Changes in HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in Taiwan following introduction of a harm reduction program: a study of two cohorts.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Harm reduction strategies for combating HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWID) have been implemented in several countries. However, large-scale studies using sensitive measurements of HIV incidence and intervention exposures in defined cohorts are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the association between harm reduction programs and HIV incidence among PWID.
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Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: current status and future concepts.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is highly associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma. Although alternative therapies, including phytomedicines and probiotics, have been used to improve eradication, current treatment still relies on a combination of antimicrobial agents, such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin, and antisecretory agents, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). A standard triple therapy consisting of a PPI and two antibiotics (clarithromycin and amoxicillin/metronidazole) is widely used as the first-line regimen for treatment of infection, but the increased resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and metronidazole has significantly reduced the eradication rate using this therapy and bismuth-containing therapy or 10-d sequential therapy has therefore been proposed to replace standard triple therapy. Alternatively, levofloxacin-based triple therapy can be used as rescue therapy for H. pylori infection after failure of first-line therapy. The increase in resistance to antibiotics, including levofloxacin, may limit the applicability of such regimens. However, since resistance of H. pylori to amoxicillin is generally low, an optimized high dose dual therapy consisting of a PPI and amoxicillin can be an effective first-line or rescue therapy. In addition, the concomitant use of alternative medicine has the potential to provide additive or synergistic effects against H. pylori infection, though its efficacy needs to be verified in clinical studies.
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Application of serologic assays for diagnosing acute hepatitis E in national surveillance of a nonendemic area.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Variant performance of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) hepatitis E virus (HEV) assays may impact the diagnosis. The present study aimed to evaluate four different IgM/IgG assays for HEV infection for application in national surveillance in nonendemic areas. Sera from 300 patients that were stored in the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) of Taiwan for suspected acute HEV infection from 2004 to 2008, and 18 serum samples from acute cases of HEV infection in Taipei Veteran General Hospital were evaluated. Performances of EIAgen HEV IgG/M (Adaltis, Bologna, Italy), recomWell HEV IgG/M (Mikrogen, Neuried, Germany), MP HEV IgG/M (MP Biomedicals, Singapore), and in-house kits, HEVLPs (HEV virus-like particles) IgG/M were compared. Positive results of serum RNA detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were defined as the definite diagnosis. There were five genotype 1, one genotype 3, and nine genotype 4 HEV samples. The four different IgM/IgG assays had excellent performance in terms of negative predictive value (98.4-100%) and varying performance in relation to sensitivity (66.7-93.3%) and specificity (62.9-95.6%). RecomWell IgM had the best overall performance. In addition, the combination of anti-HEV IgM ELISA with anti-HEV IgG or another anti-HEV IgM ELISA provided better screening performance, especially the recomWell IgM and HEVLPs IgM combination (area under the receiver operating curve: 0.94; sensitivity: 100%, specificity 88.1%). In conclusion, anti-HEV IgM ELISA is a good screening test for the national surveillance of acute HEV infection in nonendemic areas and not limited by inconsistent performances of sensitivity and specificity among different assays.
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Deep-sea water containing selenium provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Deep-sea water (DSW), which is rich in micronutrients and minerals and with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, may be developed as marine drugs to provide intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers. We determined several characteristics in the modified DSW. We explored duodenal pressure, oxygenation, microvascular blood flow, and changes in pH and oxidative redox potential (ORP) values within the stomach and duodenum in response to tap water (TW, hardness: 2.48 ppm), DSW600 (hardness: 600 ppm), and DSW1200 (hardness: 1200 ppm) in Wistar rats and analyzed oxidative stress and apoptosis gene expressions by cDNA and RNA microarrays in the duodenal epithelium. We compared the effects of drinking DSW, MgCl2, and selenium water on duodenal ulcers using pathologic scoring, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting. Our results showed DSW has a higher pH value, lower ORP value, higher scavenging H2O2 and HOCl activity, higher Mg2+ concentrations, and micronutrients selenium compared with TW samples. Water infusion significantly increased intestinal pressure, O2 levels, and microvascular blood flow in DSW and TW groups. Microarray showed DSW600, DSW1200, selenium water upregulated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic genes and downregulated pro-apoptotic gene expression compared with the TW group. Drinking DSW600, DSW1200, and selenium water but not Mg2+ water significantly enhanced Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1 expression. Bax/Bcl-2/caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase signaling was activated during the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. DSW drinking reduced ulcer area as well as apoptotic signaling in acetic acid-induced duodenal ulcers. DSW, which contains selenium, provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1.
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Risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although human toxoplasmosis is a notifiable disease in Taiwan since 2007, little is known about its risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan. We conducted a nationwide population-based case-control study. Cases of acute human toxoplasmosis notified to the Taiwan Centers for Diseases Control (Taipei, Taiwan) during 2008-2013 were compared with controls that were randomly selected from healthy T. gondii-seronegative blood donors who participated in a nationwide T. gondii seroepidemiologic study during 2009-2010. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender and residency at an 1:8 ratio. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information regarding risk factors. A total of 30 laboratory-confirmed acute T. gondii disease cases and 224 controls were enrolled. The most common clinical manifestation of the cases was flu-like symptoms (n = 20), followed by central nervous system disease (n = 4), ocular diseases (n = 3), abortion (n = 2), and congenital infection (n = 1). Multivariate conditional logistic regression showed that raw clam consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?= 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]?= 1.4-9.9) and having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1-7.9) were two independent risk factors for acute T. gondii disease. We conclude that raw shellfish consumption and domestic cat exposure were risk factors for acquiring acute T. gondii diseases in Taiwan. This finding may guide future research and control policies.
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Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics.
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Bedside immunochromatographic test for enterovirus 71 infection in children.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes frequent outbreaks worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific area. Its quick spread is a critical challenge for public health and timely preventive measures and clinical management therefore rely on early detection. There is a need for a rapid, easy-to-use, and reliable method for detecting EV71 infections.
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Combined cholecystectomy in gastric cancer surgery.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Many studies have described the risk factors of gallstone formation in gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy, but few studies focus on the management of asymptomatic gallstones. Our goal is to examine the rationale of simultaneous cholecystectomy during gastric cancer surgery, and influence of surgical mortality, morbidity and overall survival after combined cholecystectomy and gastrectomy.
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Polymorphism of ?-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1:c.118A>G) Might Not Protect against or Enhance Morphine-Induced Nausea or Vomiting.
Pain Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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A cohort, double blind, and randomized study was conducted to investigate the effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism of the ?-opioid receptor at nucleotide position 118 (OPRM1:c.118A>G) on the association with the most common side effects (nausea or vomiting) induced by intravenous patient control analgesia (IVPCA) with morphine, including incidence and severity analysis. A total of 129 Taiwanese women undergoing gynecology surgery received IVPCA with pure morphine for postoperative pain relief. Blood samples were collected and sequenced with high resolution melting analysis to detect three different genotypes of OPRM1 (AA, AG, and GG). All candidates 24?h postoperatively will be interviewed to record the clinical phenotype with subjective complaints and objective observations. The genotyping after laboratory analysis showed that 56 women (43.4%) were AA, 57 (44.2%) were AG, and 16 (12.4%) were GG. The distribution of genotype did not violate Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test. There was no significant difference neither between the severity and incidence of IVPCA morphine-induced side effects and genotype nor between the association between morphine consumption versus genotype. However, there was significant difference of the relation between morphine consumption and the severity and incidence of IVPCA morphine-induced nausea and vomiting. The genetic analysis for the severity and incidence of IVPCA morphine-induced nausea or vomiting showed no association between phenotype and genotype. It might imply that OPRM1:c.118A>G does not protect against IVPCA morphine-induced nausea or vomiting.
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VCP phosphorylation-dependent interaction partners prevent apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Previous studies have demonstrated that valosin-containing protein (VCP) is associated with H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. By identifying the interactome of VCP overexpressed in AGS cells using a subtractive proteomics approach, we aimed to characterize the cellular responses mediated by VCP and its functional roles in H. pylori-associated gastric cancer. VCP immunoprecipitations followed by proteomic analysis identified 288 putative interacting proteins, 18 VCP-binding proteins belonged to the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. H. pylori infection increased the interaction between Akt and VCP, Akt-dependent phosphorylation of VCP, levels of ubiquitinated proteins, and aggresome formation in AGS cells. Furthermore, phosphorylated VCP co-localized with the aggresome, bound ubiquitinated proteins, and increased the degradation of cellular regulators to protect H. pylori-infected AGS cells from apoptosis. Our study demonstrates that VCP phosphorylation following H. pylori infection promotes both gastric epithelial cell survival, mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway, and the degradation of cellular regulators. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of H. pylori infection induced gastric carcinogenesis.
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Catechins and Sialic Acid Attenuate Helicobacter pylori-Triggered Epithelial Caspase-1 Activity and Eradicate Helicobacter pylori Infection.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway in immune cells plays a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis; however, the regulation of this pathway in the gastric epithelium during Helicobacter pylori infection is yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of catechins (CAs), sialic acid (SA), or combination of CA and SA (CASA) on H. pylori-induced caspase-1-mediated epithelial damage, as well as H. pylori colonization in vitro (AGS cells) and in vivo (BALB/c mice). Our results indicate that the activity of caspase-1 and the expression of its downstream substrate IL-1 ? were upregulated in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. In addition, we observed increased oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase gp91phox, CD68, caspase-1/IL-1 ? , and apoptosis, but decreased autophagy, in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected mice. We have further demonstrated that treatment with CASA led to synergistic anti-H. pylori activity and was more effective than treatment with CA or SA alone. In particular, treatment with CASA for 10 days eradicated H. pylori infection in up to 95% of H. pylori-infected mice. Taken together, we suggest that the pathogenesis of H. pylori involves a gastric epithelial inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway, and our results show that CASA was able to attenuate this pathway and effectively eradicate H. pylori infection.
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Improved dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of lovastatin in red yeast rice products.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Lovastatin, categorized as a class II compound according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, is mainly responsible for the blood cholesterol lowering effect of red yeast rice (RYR). The aim of this study was to compare the dissolution rate, physical state, and oral bioavailability of lovastatin in three RYR products (LipoCol Forte, Cholestin, or Xuezhikang) to those of two lovastatin tablets (Mevacor or Lovasta). The results showed that the dissolution rate of lovastatin in various dissolution media in the registered RYR products was faster and higher than that of lovastatin in lovastatin tablets. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry patterns showed that the crystallinity of lovastatin was reduced in RYR products. In human studies, the AUC and Cmax values for both lovastatin and its active metabolite, lovastatin acid, were significantly higher in volunteers receiving LipoCol Forte capsules or powder than in those receiving lovastatin tablets or powder. In addition, shorter and less variable Tmax values were observed in volunteers taking LipoCol Forte than in those taking lovastatin tablets. These findings suggest that the oral bioavailability of lovastatin is significantly improved in RYR products as a result of a higher dissolution rate and reduced crystallinity.
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Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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The experimental demonstrations of light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication with surface plasmon (SP) coupling with the radiating dipoles in its quantum wells are first reviewed. The SP coupling with a radiating dipole can create an alternative emission channel through SP radiation for enhancing the effective internal quantum efficiency when the intrinsic non-radiative recombination rate is high, reducing the external quantum efficiency droop effect at high current injection levels, and producing partially polarized LED output by inducing polarization-sensitive SP for coupling. Then, we report the theoretical and numerical study results of SP-dipole coupling based on a simple coupling model between a radiating dipole and the SP induced on a nearby Ag nanoparticle (NP). To include the dipole strength variation effect caused by the field distribution built in the coupling system (the feedback effect), the radiating dipole is represented by a saturable two-level system. The spectral and dipole-NP distance dependencies of dipole strength variation and total radiated power enhancement of the coupling system are demonstrated and interpreted. The results show that the dipole-SP coupling can enhance the total radiated power. The enhancement is particularly effective when the feedback effect is included and hence the dipole strength is increased.
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Diverse origin of P[19] rotaviruses in children with acute diarrhea in Taiwan: Detection of novel lineages of the G3, G5, and G9 VP7 genes.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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We previously reported the detection of genotype P[19] rotavirus strains from children hospitalized with acute dehydrating diarrhea during a 5-year surveillance period in Taiwan. The characterization of five P[19] strains (0.4% of all typed), including three G3P[19], a novel G5P[19], and a unique G9P[19] genotype is described in this study. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4, VP7, VP6, and NSP4 genes was performed, which demonstrated novel lineages for respective genotypes of the VP4 and the VP7 genes. The sequence similarities of the P[19] VP4 gene among Taiwanese human strains was higher (nt, 91.5-96.2%; aa, 93.7-97.6%) than to other P[19] strains (nt, 83.5-86.6%; aa, 89.4-94.1%) from different regions of the world. The VP7 gene of the three G3P[19] Taiwanese strains shared up to 93.4% nt and 97.5% aa identity to each other but had lower similarity to reference strain sequences available in GenBank (nt, <90.1%; aa, <95.6%). Similarly, the VP7 gene of the novel G5P[19] strain was only moderately related to the VP7 gene of reference G5 strains (nt, 82.2-87.3%; aa, 87.0-93.1%), while the VP7 gene of the single G9P[19] strain was genetically distinct from other known human and animal G9 rotavirus strains (nt, ? 92.0%; aa, ? 95.7%). Together, these findings suggest that the Taiwanese P[19] strains originated by independent interspecies transmission events. Synchronized surveillance of human and animal rotaviruses in Taiwan should identify possible hosts of these uncommon human rotavirus strains.
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Identification of 14-3-3? in human gastric cancer cells and its potency as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide and due to its poor prognosis, it is important that specific biomarkers are identified to enable its early detection. Through 2-D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-TOF-based proteomics approaches, we found that 14-3-3?, which was one of the proteins that were differentially expressed by 5-fluorouracil-treated gastric cancer SC-M1 cells, was upregulated in gastric cancer cells. 14-3-3? levels in tissues and serum were further validated in gastric cancer patients and controls. The results showed that 14-3-3? levels were elevated in tumor tissues (n=40) in comparison to normal tissues (n=40; p<0.01), and serum 14-3-3? levels in cancer patients (n=145) were also significantly higher than those in controls (n=63; p<0.0001). Elevated serum 14-3-3? levels highly correlated with the number of lymph node metastases, tumor size and a reduced survival rate. Moreover, overexpression of 14-3-3? enhanced the growth, invasiveness and migratory activities of tumor cells. Twenty-eight proteins involved in anti-apoptosis and tumor progression were also found to be differentially expressed in 14-3-3?-overexpressing gastric cancer cells. Overall, these results highlight the significance of 14-3-3? in gastric cancer cell progression and suggest that it has the potential to be used as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer.
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Role of omeprazole dosage and cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype in patients receiving omeprazole-amoxicillin dual therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication.
Pharmacotherapy
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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To determine the factors that may influence Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients receiving omeprazole-amoxicillin dual therapy.
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Surveillance of HIV type 1 recent infection and molecular epidemiology among different risk behaviors between 2007 and 2009 after the HIV type 1 CRF07_BC outbreak in Taiwan.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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The objective of this study was to analyze recent infections and the molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among different risk groups since the outbreak of circulating recombinant form CRF07_BC among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in 2004 in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the env and pol fragment sequences amplified from these specimens. The BED IgG capture incidence EIA (BED-CEIA assay) was used to determine recent infections. Among the 683 HIV-1-positive individuals enrolled between 2007 and 2009, 394 (57.7%) were subtype B, 260 (38.1%) were CRF07_BC, 26 (3.8%) were CRF01_AE, two (0.3%) were CRF08_BC, and one (0.1%) was CRF06_cpx. While the percentage of CRF07_BC decreased (58.5-17.9%, p < 0.001) from 2007 to 2009, the percentage of subtype B increased (37.6% to 74.9%, p < 0.001). A concordant decrease in the proportion of recent infections to new infections among IDUs (63.6% to 9.8%, p < 0.001), accompanied with an increase of the proportion of recent infections in MSM (men having sex with men) (22.4-67.1%, p = 0.77) and heterosexual groups (13.1- 23.2%, p = 0.852), was observed. The decrease in CRF07_BC infections and the reduction in the proportion of recent infections among IDUs reflected the success of harm reduction strategies initiated by the government in 2005.
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A GaN photonic crystal membrane laser.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
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The implementation of a series of optically pumped GaN photonic crystal (PhC) membrane lasers is demonstrated at room temperature. The photonic crystal is composed of a scalene-triangular arrangement of circular holes in GaN. Three defect structures are fabricated for comparing their lasing characteristics with those of perfect PhC. It is observed that all the lasing defect modes have lasing wavelengths very close to the band-edge modes in the perfect PhC structure. Although those lasing modes, including band-edge and defect modes, have different optical pump thresholds, different lasing spectral widths, different quality factors (Q factors), and different polarization ratios, all their polarization distributions show maxima in the directions around one of the hole arrangement axes. The similar lasing characteristics between the band-edge and defect modes are attributed to the existence of extremely narrow partial band gaps for forming the defect modes. Also, the oriented polarization properties are due to the scalene-triangle PhC structure. In one of the defect lasing modes, the lasing threshold is as low as 0.82 mJ cm(-2), the cavity Q factor is as large as 1743, and the polarization ratio is as large as 25.4. Such output parameters represent generally superior lasing behaviors when compared with previously reported implementations of similar laser structures.
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An uncommon case of HIV-1 transmission due to a knife fight.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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This article describes a case of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection transmission caused by a bloody knife fight in a robbery. The victim was a 69-year-old man who was not infected with HIV-1, and his wife was HIV-antibody negative. A robber, a 42-year-old man, was HIV antibody-positive since December 2005 and had not taken antiretroviral therapy. The BED IgG Capture incidence EIA (BED-CEIA assay) data showed that the specimens from the victim were compatible with a recent seroconversion. Phylogenetic analysis of fragments of pol, encompassing protease and a portion of reverse transcriptase, and of env genes isolated from the victim, the robber, and a local population samples of HIV-1 positive individuals showed that the victims HIV-1 sequences were most closely related to and nested within a lineage comprised of the robbers HIV-1 sequences. We provide HIV-1 seroconversion data and phylogenetic analysis as evidence that the HIV-1 transmission likely occurred from contact during the robbery.
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Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of Illicium verum against antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2010
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In recent years, human pathogenic microorganisms have developed multiple drug resistance and caused serious nosocomial infections. In this study, we identified four new antimicrobial compounds from the Chinese herbal medicine Illicium verum and assessed their antibacterial efficacies. The supercritical CO? and ethanol extracts of Illicium verum showed substantial antibacterial activity against 67 clinical drug-resistant isolates, including 27 Acinetobacter baumannii, 20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 20 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The diethyl ether (EE) fraction obtained from partition extraction and supercritical CO? extracts revealed an antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 0.15-0.70?mg/mL and 0.11?mg/mL, respectively. The EE fraction of I. verum showed synergetic effects with some commercial antibiotics. The antimicrobial mechanism was investigated with killing curves and scanning electron microscopy observation. The chemical components of the extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometry; (E)-anethole, anisyl acetone, anisyl alcohol, and anisyl aldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity against different clinical isolates. These extracts from I. verum can be further developed into antibiotic medicines due to their proven antibacterial activity.
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Characterizing the localized surface plasmon resonance behaviors of Au nanorings and tracking their diffusion in bio-tissue with optical coherence tomography.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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The characterization results of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au nanorings (NRs) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) are first demonstrated. Then, the diffusion behaviors of Au NRs in mouse liver samples tracked with OCT are shown. For such research, aqueous solutions of Au NRs with two different localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths are prepared and characterized. Their LSPR-induced extinction cross sections at 1310 nm are estimated with OCT scanning of solution droplets on coverslip to show reasonably consistent results with the data at individual LSPR wavelengths and at 1310 nm obtained from transmission measurements of Au NR solutions and numerical simulations. The resonant and non-resonant Au NRs are delivered into mouse liver samples for tracking Au NR diffusion in the samples through continuous OCT scanning for one hour. With resonant Au NRs, the average A-mode scan profiles of OCT scanning at different delay times clearly demonstrate the extension of strong backscattering depth with time. The calculation of speckle variance among successive OCT scanning images, which is related to the local transport speed of Au NRs, leads to the illustrations of downward propagation and spreading of major Au NR motion spot with time.
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Genetic diversity and C2-like subgenogroup strains of enterovirus 71, Taiwan, 2008.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2010
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Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is known of having caused numerous outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease, and other clinical manifestations globally. In 2008, 989 EV-71 strains were isolated in Taiwan.
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Au nanorings for enhancing absorption and backscattering monitored with optical coherence tomography.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Preparation of a high-concentration Au nanoring (NR) water solution and its applications to the enhancement of image contrast in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the generation of the photothermal effect in a bio-sample through localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance are demonstrated. Au NRs are first fabricated on a sapphire substrate with colloidal lithography and secondary sputtering of Au, and then transferred into a water solution through a liftoff process. By controlling the NR geometry, the LSP dipole resonance wavelength in tissue can cover a spectral range of 1300 nm for OCT scanning of deep tissue penetration. The extinction cross sections of the fabricated Au NRs in water are estimated to give levels of 10(-10)-10(-9) cm(2) near their LSP resonance wavelengths. The fabricated Au NRs are then delivered into pig adipose samples for OCT scanning. It is observed that, when resonant Au NRs are delivered into such a sample, LSP resonance-induced Au NR absorption results in a photothermal effect, making the opaque pig adipose cells transparent. Also, the delivered Au NRs in the intercellular substance enhance the image contrast of OCT scanning through LSP resonance-enhanced scattering. By continuously OCT scanning a sample, both photothermal and image contrast enhancement effects are observed. However, by continually scanning a sample with a low scan frequency, only the image contrast enhancement effect is observed.
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Absorption enhancement of an amorphous Si solar cell through surface plasmon-induced scattering with metal nanoparticles.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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The simulation results of absorption enhancement in an amorphous-Si (a-Si) solar cell by depositing metal nanoparticles (NPs) on the device top and embedding metal NPs in a layer above the Al back-reflector are demonstrated. The absorption increase results from the near-field constructive interference of electromagnetic waves in the forward direction such that an increased amount of sunlight energy is distributed in the a-Si absorption layer. Among the three used metals of Al, Ag, and Au, Al NPs show the most efficient absorption enhancement. Between the two used NP geometries, Al nanocylinder (NC) are more effective in absorption enhancement than Al nanosphere (NS). Also, a random distribution of isolated metal NCs can lead to higher absorption enhancement, when compared with the cases of periodical metal NC distributions. Meanwhile, the fabrication of both top and bottom Al NCs in a solar cell results in further absorption enhancement. Misalignments between the top and bottom Al NCs do not significantly reduce the enhancement percentage. With a structure of vertically aligned top and bottom Al NCs, solar cell absorption can be increased by 52%.
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Enhancing InGaN-based solar cell efficiency through localized surface plasmon interaction by embedding Ag nanoparticles in the absorbing layer.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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The use of localized surface plasmon (LSP) interaction for significantly enhancing InGaN absorption near its band edge and the overall efficiency of an InGaN-based solar cell by embedding Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the InGaN absorbing layer is numerically demonstrated. The generation of LSP resonance on the embedded Ag NPs and the NP scattering can produce a field distribution in the InGaN layer for enhancing absorption. It is shown that the embedded Ag NPs do not significantly affect the transport of the photo-generated carriers. The distortion of static electrical stream lines in the solar cell due to the embedded Ag NP leads to a decrease of photocurrent by only a few percents. Based on the material parameter values we use, unless the surface recombination velocity at the interface between the Ag NP and surrounding InGaN is extremely high, Ag NP embedment in the absorbing layer of an InGaN-based solar cell can enhance its efficiency by up to 27%. Such an increase is significantly larger than that achieved by depositing metal NP on the top surface of a solar cell.
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Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC infection among injection drug users in Taiwan.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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An explosive outbreak of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC among injection drug users (IDUs) in Taiwan was first reported in 2004 and reach the peak in 2005. The objectives of this study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of different HIV-1 subtypes and their associated risk factors among Taiwanese IDUs in 2004 and 2005.
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Cholinergic modulation of neuronal excitability in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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The central cholinergic system regulates both the circadian clock and sleep-wake cycle and may participate in the feedback control of vigilance states on neural excitability in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that houses the circadian clock. Here we investigate the mechanisms for cholinergic modulation of SCN neuron excitability. Cell-attached recordings indicate that the nonspecific cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) inhibited 55% and excited 21% SCN neurons, leaving 24% nonresponsive. Similar response proportions were produced by two muscarinic receptor [muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)] agonists, muscarine and McN-A-343 (M1/4 agonist), but not by two nicotinic receptor (nAChR) agonists, nicotine and choline (alpha7-nAChR agonist), which, however, produced similar response proportions. Whole cell and perforated-patch recordings indicate that CCh inhibition of firing was mediated by membrane hyperpolarization due to activation of background K(+) currents, which were sensitive to submillimolar concentrations of Ba(2+) and to millimolar concentrations of TEA. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of mRNA for M1 to M5 mAChRs in SCN. The CCh-induced hyperpolarization and activation of background K(+) currents were blocked by M4 antagonists and to a lesser degree by M1 antagonists but were insensitive to the antagonists for M2 or M3, suggesting the involvement of M4 and M1 mAChRs in mediating CCh inhibition of firing. CCh enhancement of firing was mediated by membrane depolarization, as a result of postsynaptic inhibition of background K(+) currents. The multiple actions of cholinergic modulation via multiple receptors and ion channels may allow acetylcholine to finely control SCN neuron excitability in different physiological settings.
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Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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The fabrications of sphere-like Au nanoparticles (NPs) on sapphire, GaN, and SiO(2) substrates through the irradiation of a few pulses of 266-nm laser onto Au thin films deposited on the substrates are demonstrated. The top-view diameter, contact angle on substrate, surface population density, and surface coverage percentage of the NPs can be controlled by the Au thin film thickness, laser energy density, substrate choice, and the gas or liquid, in which the Au thin film is immersed during laser irradiation. Optical transmission measurements show clear in-plane and out-of-plane localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features, including the air resonance feature dictated by the gas or liquid immersing the NPs during transmission measurement, the in-plane substrate resonance feature controlled by the substrate material and the contact angle, and the out-of-plane resonance feature, which is strongly influenced also by the substrate material and the contact angle. Numerical simulations based on the finite-element method using the experimental parameters show highly consistent LSPR spectral positions and their variation trends. From the simulation results, one can also observe the relative importance between NP absorption and scattering in contributing to the extinction. This simple laser-irradiation method for fabricating sphere-like Au NPs of no aggregation and of strong adhesion to the substrate is useful for developing polarization-sensitive LSPR bio-sensing.
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A new approach for the prevention and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection via upregulation of autophagy and downregulation of apoptosis.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2009
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Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. The current proton pump inhibitor-based triple regimens or second-line therapies for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori face an increase in resistance problems, demanding a search for novel candidates. A new strategy for reduction of Helicobacter pylori infection is to interfere with the interaction between bacteria and target cells and to kill the bacteria but not target cells at the same time. By this approach, we found that the combination of anti-adhesion, antibacterial, antioxidant agents like sialic acid and catechins have a protective potential against Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric injury via a biphasic response in apoptosis and autophagy. The combination of sialic acid and catechins induced an upregulation in autophagy and a downregulation in apoptosis in the Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelium and efficiently reduced gastric inflammation. It appears that a novel agent or a combination of several agents can be utilized to protect against Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric injury via the mechanism of upregulation of survival-related autophagy and downregulation of death-related apoptosis.
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Attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by treatment with IL-10.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2009
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The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in neutrophils and cytokines in BAL fluid following acute lung injury (ALI), and to determine the protective effect of post-injury treatment with IL-10.
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Investigations of clinical isolations of oral poliovirus vaccine strains between 2000 and 2005 in southern Taiwan.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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In Taiwan, trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) is in the routine immunization schedule, but its association with illnesses had not been examined.
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Epidemiology of enterovirus types causing neurological disease in Austria 1999-2007: detection of clusters of echovirus 30 and enterovirus 71 and analysis of prevalent genotypes.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Between 1999 and 2007 1,388 stool specimens from patients with acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis were submitted to the Austrian reference laboratory for poliomyelitis. Samples (201) yielded non-poliovirus enterovirus in culture. One hundred eighty-one viruses were available for typing and 78 isolates which remained serologically untyped were further analyzed by CODEHOP-PCR and sequencing of the VP1 gene and the 5-untranslated region (5-UTR). Typing revealed an Echovirus 30 outbreak in northwestern Austria in 2000, which was in accordance with the situation in Europe, and no dramatic seasonal changes of Coxsackie viruses were observed. In 2002/2003 a small outbreak of enterovirus 71 (EV71), affected 12 patients in the province of Styria. This virus was identified as genotype C1 and appeared to be genetically distinct from the isolates observed in 2001/2002 in Vienna. In 2004 two unrelated cases occurred in Lower Austria, which were identified as genotype C4, which has been described associated with high mortality most recently in China. In contrast to the situation in Asia the detected EV71 cases were not associated with hand-foot-mouth disease, but with serous meningitis only. This was surprising as a recent publication suggested a reduced neurovirulence of C1 genotype in children in Norway, presumably due to alterations in 5-UTR and polymerase gene. However, comparing the 5-UTR of the Austrian isolates and established virulent reference strains to the Norwegian isolate and an attenuated EV71 laboratory strain we did not find an indication that the genotype C1 possesses a RNA structure in its 5-UTR leading to reduced neurovirulence.
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Effective energy coupling and preservation in a surface plasmon-light emitter coupling system on a metal nanostructure.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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The simulation results of the coupling of a radiation dipole with a surface plasmon (SP), which is induced on a metal/dielectric interface of a single groove (SG) plus a grating structure, are demonstrated. With the SG structure, the dipole can effectively couple energy into an SP feature, which has a mixed nature of localized surface plasmon (LSP) and surface plasmon polariton (SPP). The SPP energy is confined by a grating structure with a well designed grating period and position. With such a cavity configuration, the SPP energy can be well preserved. Both the dipole-SP coupling behaviors in the frequency and time domains are numerically illustrated. The results are useful for designing a metal/dielectric interface nanostructure for implementing a SPASER (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) system.
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Pharmacokinetic- pharmacodynamic analysis of the role of CYP2C19 genotypes in short-term rabeprazole-based triple therapy against Helicobacter pylori.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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The aim was to explore the role of CYP2C19 polymorphism in short-term rabeprazole-based triple therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection.
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Synergistic effect of imp/ostA and msbA in hydrophobic drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Contamination of endoscopy equipment by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) frequently occurs after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-infected patients. In the hospital, manual pre-cleaning and soaking in glutaraldehyde is an important process to disinfect endoscopes. However, this might not be sufficient to remove H. pylori completely, and some glutaraldehyde-resistant bacteria might survive and be passed to the next patient undergoing endoscopic examination through unidentified mechanisms. We identified an Imp/OstA protein associated with glutaraldehyde resistance in a clinical strain, NTUH-C1, from our previous study. To better understand and manage the problem of glutaraldehyde resistance, we further investigated its mechanism.
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Study on the decay mechanisms of surface plasmon coupling features with a light emitter through time-resolved simulations.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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The transient behaviors of the dipole coupling with surface plasmon (SP) features in an Ag/dielectric-interface grating structure in order to understand the characteristics of those dipole-coupling features are demonstrated. In particular, the major decay mechanisms of those coupling features can be identified. For comparison, the time-resolved behaviors of the resonant surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling feature on a flat interface are also illustrated. Among the three major grating-induced SP-dipole coupling features, two of them are identified to be localized surface plasmons (LSPs). The third one is a grating-assisted SPP, which shows two decay components, corresponding to the first stage of SPP in-plane propagation and the second stage of coupling system decay. In all the dipole coupling features, metal dissipation can dominate the energy relaxation process, depending on the assumption of damping factor. All the dissipation rates are proportional to the assumed damping factor in the Drude model of the metal. The dissipation rates of the LSP and resonant SPP features are about the same as the damping rate, implying their local electron oscillation natures. The dissipation rate of the grating-assisted SSP feature is consistent with theoretical calculation. In the LSP features under study, dielectric-side emission is prominent. The coupled energy in the grating-assisted SPP feature can be efficiently stored in the coupling system due to its low emission efficiency and effective energy confinement through grating diffraction.
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The 8ab protein of SARS-CoV is a luminal ER membrane-associated protein and induces the activation of ATF6.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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The 8ab protein of SARS-CoV is a group-specific accessory protein, which is lost when the virus was transmitted from animals to humans due to a 29-nucleotide deletion in the ORF8ab region. Here we found that 8ab protein is associated with ER membrane at luminal surface. 8ab protein was found to up-regulate the synthesis of endogenous ER-resident chaperons involved in protein folding through the activation of the transcription factor ATF6, while it showed no effect on the CHOP induction and XBP1 splicing associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR). When ectopically expressed in mammalian cells, 8ab induced the proteolysis of ATF6 and the translocation of its cleaved DNA-binding and transcription-activation domains from the ER to the nucleus. Finally, we showed that 8ab binds to the luminal domain of ATF6. These findings suggest that 8ab could modulate the UPR by activating ATF6 to facilitate protein folding and processing. Thus, the loss of 8ab in SARS-CoV through viral evolution in animals may play a role in its pathogenicity.
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Interaction between Red Yeast Rice and CYP450 Enzymes/P-Glycoprotein and Its Implication for the Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Lovastatin.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Red yeast rice (RYR) can reduce cholesterol through its active component, lovastatin. This study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of lovastatin in RYR products and potential RYR-drug interactions. Extracts of three registered RYR products (LipoCol Forte, Cholestin, and Xuezhikang) were more effective than pure lovastatin in inhibiting the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein. Among CYP450 enzymes, RYR showed the highest inhibition on CYP1A2 and CYP2C19, with comparable inhibitory potencies to the corresponding typical inhibitors. In healthy volunteers taking the RYR product LipoCol Forte, the pharmacokinetic properties of lovastatin and lovastatin acid were linear in the dose range of 1 to 4 capsules taken as a single dose and no significant accumulation was observed after multiple dosing. Concomitant use of one LipoCol Forte capsule with nifedipine did not change the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Yet, concomitant use of gemfibrozil with LipoCol Forte resulted in a significant increase in the plasma concentration of lovastatin acid. These findings suggest that the use of RYR products may not have effects on the pharmacokinetics of concomitant comedications despite their effects to inhibit the activities of CYP450 enzymes and P-gp, whereas gemfibrozil affects the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin acid when used concomitantly with RYR products.
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Intracellular Na(+) and metabolic modulation of Na/K pump and excitability in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.
J. Neurophysiol.
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Na/K pump activity and metabolic rate are both higher during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that houses the circadian clock. Here we investigated the role of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity and neuronal excitability. Removal of extracellular K(+) to block the Na/K pump excited SCN neurons to fire at higher rates and return to normal K(+) to reactivate the pump produced rebound hyperpolarization to inhibit firing. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to block the action potentials, both zero K(+)-induced depolarization and rebound hyperpolarization were blocked by the cardiac glycoside strophanthidin. Ratiometric Na(+) imaging with a Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye indicated saturating accumulation of intracellular Na(+) in response to pump blockade with zero K(+). The Na(+) ionophore monensin also induced Na(+) loading and hyperpolarized the membrane potential, with the hyperpolarizing effect of monensin abolished in zero Na(+) or by pump blockade. Conversely, Na(+) depletion with Na(+)-free pipette solution depolarized membrane potential but retained residual Na/K pump activity. Cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation blocked the Na/K pump to depolarize resting potential and increase spontaneous firing in most cells, and to raise intracellular Na(+) levels in all cells. Nonetheless, the Na/K pump was incompletely blocked by cyanide but completely blocked by iodoacetate to inhibit glycolysis, indicating the involvement of both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in fueling the Na/K pump. Together, the results indicate the importance of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity as well as neuronal excitability in the SCN neurons.
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Differential inhibitory effects of proton pump inhibitors on the metabolism and antiplatelet activities of clopidogrel and prasugrel.
Biopharm Drug Dispos
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The interaction between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and clopidogrel/prasugrel was investigated. The IC50 values of omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole on the metabolic ratios of 2-oxo-clopidogrel/clopidogrel, H4 (the active metabolite of clopidogrel)/2-oxo-clopidogrel and R-138727 (the active metabolite of prasugrel)/prasugrel thiolactone in human liver microsomes were determined. The antiplatelet activities of clopidogrel and prasugrel were measured with or without PPIs. As a result, most PPIs (except for pantoprazole) inhibited the formation of 2-oxo-clopidogrel with IC50 values of 20-32 ?m and inhibited the formation of H4 with IC50 values of 6-20 ?m. PPIs inhibited the formation of R-138727 with IC50 values of 9-25 ?m. Among the tested PPIs, omeprazole exhibited the highest inhibitory potency on the formation of H4. Omeprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole exhibited the highest inhibitory potencies on the formation of R-138727. For platelet aggregation, omeprazole and lansoprazole show higher inhibitory effects on the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel. On the other hand, omeprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole significantly decreased the antiplatelet activity of prasugrel thiolactone. These data indicate that PPIs differ in their effects of inhibiting the metabolism and antiplatelet activities of clopidogrel and prasugrel.
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Quality of life and its associated factors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving one course of transarterial chemoembolization treatment: a longitudinal study.
Oncologist
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To (a) explore changes in physical and psychological distress and quality of life (QOL) and (b) identify the significant pre- and postdischarge factors related to changes in physical and mental domains of QOL over a period of 2 months in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving one course of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.