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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Organic One-Transistor-Type Nonvolatile Memory Gated with Thin Ionic Liquid-Polymer Film for Low Voltage Operation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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As one of the most emerging next-generation nonvolatile memories, one-transistor (1T)-type nonvolatile memories are of great attention due to their excellent memory performance and simple device architecture suitable for high density memory arrays. In particular, organic 1T-type memories containing both organic semiconductors and insulators are further beneficial because of their mechanical flexibility with low cost fabrication. Here, we demonstrate a new flexible organic 1T-type memory operating at low voltage. The low voltage operation of a memory less than 10 V was obtained by employing a polymer gate insulator solution blended with ionic liquid as a charge storage layer. Ionic liquid homogeneously dissolved in a thin poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) film gave rise to low voltage operation of a device due to its high capacitance. Simultaneously, stable charge trapping of either anions or cations efficiently occurred in the polymer matrix, dependent upon gate bias. Optimization of ionic liquid in PVDF-TrFE thus led to an air-stable and mechanically flexible organic 1T-type nonvolatile memory operating at programming voltage of ±7 V with large ON/OFF current margin of approximately 10(3), reliable time-dependent data retention of more than 10(4) seconds, and write/read endurance cycles of 80.
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Nonthermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in ATC Cells: Involvement of JNK and p38 MAPK-Dependent ROS.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To determine the effects of nonthermal plasma (NTP) induced by helium (He) alone or He plus oxygen (O?) on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.
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Totally Tubeless Versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Renal Stones: Analysis of Clinical Outcomes and Cost.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the safety and cost-effectiveness of a totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by comparing the clinical outcomes and cost analysis between standard PCNL and totally tubeless PCNL for renal stones. Patients and Methods: From June 2012 to September 2013, a total of 121 patients with renal stones who underwent totally tubeless or standard PCNL by two experienced surgeons were retrospectively evaluated by group. According to the surgeon's preference for the nephrostomy tube and/or ureteral stent, the present study was designed to be divided into Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 was performed by one surgeon (H.J. Cho) who preferred a totally tubeless PCNL and Group 2 was performed by the other surgeon (S.H. Hong) who preferred a standard PCNL. We excluded bilateral renal stones, multiple approach, whole staghorn calculi, and previous renal surgery. Patient and stone characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative parameters, and cost analysis were compared between the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in the patient demographics between groups. Mean stone burden was 501.5±361.1?mm(2) in Group 1 versus 535.2±353.1?mm(2) in Group 2 (P=0.651). Length of hospital stay (1.72±0.58 v 4.10±1.88 days, P<0.001), postoperative pain scores using a visual analog scale (day 0: P<0.001, day 1: P=0.002), and analgesia requirements (33.2±21.3 v 45.2±19.5?mg, P=0.005) for Group 1 versus Group 2 showed significant differences. The stone-free rate was 86.4% versus 89.8% in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively (P=0.609). There were no significant differences in overall complications between groups (P=0.213). Mean total medical treatment costs in Groups 1 and 2 were 2398.22±549.1 USD and 2845.70±824.2 USD, respectively (P=0.002). Conclusions: Many clinical outcomes in the totally tubeless PCNL showed comparable or better results than standard PCNL. We believe that totally tubeless PCNL is an acceptable, safe, and cost-effective alternative to standard PCNL for the treatment of renal stones.
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Nutrient-sensing nuclear receptors coordinate autophagy.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that recycles nutrients upon starvation and maintains cellular energy homeostasis. Its acute regulation by nutrient-sensing signalling pathways is well described, but its longer-term transcriptional regulation is not. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are activated in the fasted and fed liver, respectively. Here we show that both PPAR? and FXR regulate hepatic autophagy in mice. Pharmacological activation of PPAR? reverses the normal suppression of autophagy in the fed state, inducing autophagic lipid degradation, or lipophagy. This response is lost in PPAR? knockout (Ppara(-/-), also known as Nr1c1(-/-)) mice, which are partially defective in the induction of autophagy by fasting. Pharmacological activation of the bile acid receptor FXR strongly suppresses the induction of autophagy in the fasting state, and this response is absent in FXR knockout (Fxr(-/-), also known as Nr1h4(-/-)) mice, which show a partial defect in suppression of hepatic autophagy in the fed state. PPAR? and FXR compete for binding to shared sites in autophagic gene promoters, with opposite transcriptional outputs. These results reveal complementary, interlocking mechanisms for regulation of autophagy by nutrient status.
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Prognostic Scoring Models for Patients Undergoing Sorafenib Treatment for Advanced Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Real-Life Practice.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to build prognostic models capable of estimating the outcomes of individual sorafenib-treated advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients based on specific patient and tumor factors.
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Oral Administration of Vaccinium uliginosum L. Extract Alleviates DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that responds to the interplay of environmental, immunological, and genetic factors. To explore the effect of Vaccinium uliginosum (VU) extract on AD, we orally administrated VU total water extract to AD-induced NC/Nga mice. VU extract reduced AD-like skin lesions, ear thickness, and the frequency of scratching episodes in a time-dependent manner. VU also suppressed the levels of IgE and histamine and the ratio of IgG1/IgG2a in the serum of AD-induced NC/Nga mice. VU administration resulted in the reduction of splenic cytokine production, epidermal thickening, and the infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells, and degranulated mast cells induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). In addition, VU significantly reduced the mRNA expression of chemokine ligands in dorsal skin. Total water extract and subfractions of VU inhibited interleukin (IL)-4 production in splenocytes, suggesting that VU total extract has a Th2 cytokine modulating effect. These results suggest that the VU total water extract could be a candidate therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD through an immunoregulatory effect.
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Compartment syndrome following total knee arthroplasty: clinical results of late fasciotomy.
Knee Surg Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare complication. Because of its rarity, it may be overlooked and misdiagnosed as peroneal nerve palsy or deep vein thrombosis. This misdiagnosis could have a profound impact on the patient's outcome. We report a case of a 77-year-old female who developed unilateral compartment syndrome in the calf after staged bilateral TKA at an outside clinic. The patient presented with medical complications related to compartment syndrome: rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, which caused acute renal failure. Thus, we performed late fasciotomy one week after symptom onset to debride necrotic tissue and salvage the compartment. In the discussion section, we will discuss risk factors for compartment syndrome after TKA, results of late fasciotomy and other indications for surgical treatment of compartment syndrome.
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Melatonin and its metabolites accumulate in the human epidermis in vivo and inhibit proliferation and tyrosinase activity in epidermal melanocytes in vitro.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Melatonin and its metabolites including 6-hydroxymelatonin (6(OH)M), N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5MT) are endogenously produced in human epidermis. This production depends on race, gender and age. The highest melatonin levels are in young African-Americans [30-50 years old (yo)], old Caucasian males (60-90 yo) and Caucasian females. AFMK levels are the highest in Caucasians males, while 6(OH)M and 5MT levels are similar in all groups. Testing of their phenotypic effects in normal human melanocytes show that melatonin and its metabolites (10(-5)?M) inhibit tyrosinase activity and cell growth, and inhibit DNA synthesis in a dose dependent manner with 10(-9)?M being the lowest effective concentration. In melanoma cells, they inhibited cell growth but had no effect on melanogenesis, except for 5MT which enhanced L-tyrosine induced melanogenesis. In conclusion, melatonin and its metabolites [6(OH)M, AFMK and 5MT] are produced endogenously in human epidermis and can affect melanocyte and melanoma behavior.
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Hand-assisted and pure laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy: a matched-cohort comparison over 10 yr at a single institute.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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To compare outcomes between matched patients who underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) and pure laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (PLDN) from living donors.
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Local melatoninergic system as the protector of skin integrity.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The human skin is not only a target for the protective actions of melatonin, but also a site of melatonin synthesis and metabolism, suggesting an important role for a local melatoninergic system in protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced damages. While melatonin exerts many effects on cell physiology and tissue homeostasis via membrane bound melatonin receptors, the strong protective effects of melatonin against the UVR-induced skin damage including DNA repair/protection seen at its high (pharmocological) concentrations indicate that these are mainly mediated through receptor-independent mechanisms or perhaps through activation of putative melatonin nuclear receptors. The destructive effects of the UVR are significantly counteracted or modulated by melatonin in the context of a complex intracutaneous melatoninergic anti-oxidative system with UVR-enhanced or UVR-independent melatonin metabolites. Therefore, endogenous intracutaneous melatonin production, together with topically-applied exogenous melatonin or metabolites would be expected to represent one of the most potent anti-oxidative defense systems against the UV-induced damage to the skin. In summary, we propose that melatonin can be exploited therapeutically as a protective agent or as a survival factor with anti-genotoxic properties or as a "guardian" of the genome and cellular integrity with clinical applications in UVR-induced pathology that includes carcinogenesis and skin aging.
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Lumisterol is metabolized by CYP11A1: Discovery of a new pathway.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Lumisterol3 (L3) is produced by photochemical transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) during exposure to high doses of ultraviolet B radiation. It has been assumed that L3 is biologically inactive and is not metabolized in the body. However, some synthetic derivatives of L3 display biological activity. The aim of this study was to test the ability of CYP11A1 to metabolize L3. Incubation of L3 with bovine or human CYP11A1 resulted in the formation of three major and a number of minor products. The catalytic efficiency of bovine CYP11A1 for metabolism of L3 dissolved in 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin was approximately 20% of that reported for vitamin D3 and cholesterol. The structures of the three major products were identified as 24-hydroxy-L3, 22-hydroxy-L3 and 20,22-dihydroxy-L3 by NMR. 22-Hydroxy-L3 was further metabolized by bovine CYP11A1 to 20,22-dihydroxy-L3. Both 22-hydroxy-L3 and 20,22-dihydroxy-L3 gave rise to a minor metabolite identified from authentic standard and mass spectrometry as pregnalumisterol (pL) (product of C20-C22 side chain cleavage of L3) and two trihydroxy-L3 products. The capability of tissues expressing CYP11A1 to metabolize L3 was demonstrated using pig adrenal fragments where 20,22-dihydroxy-L3, 22-hydroxy-L3, 24-hydroxy-L3 and pL were detected by LC/MS. Thus, we have established that L3 is metabolized by CYP11A1 to 22- and 24-hydroxy-L3 and 20,22-dihydroxy-L3 as major products, as well as to pL and other minor products. The previously reported biological activity of pL and the presence of CYP11A1 in skin suggest that this pathway may serve to produce biologically active products from L3, emphasizing a novel role of CYP11A1 in sterol metabolism.
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Clinical implications of correlation between peripheral eosinophil count and serum levels of IL-5 and tryptase in acute eosinophilic pneumonia.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The peripheral eosinophil count (PEC) tends to increase during the course of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP), and an initially elevated PEC is associated with milder disease. However, there is a lack of data regarding these phenomena and inflammatory process of AEP.
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Prevalence and prediction of coronary artery disease in patients with liver cirrhosis: a registry-based matched case-control study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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There is conflict regarding the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with liver cirrhosis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of silent CAD in comparison with the general population, and to identify the relevant risk factors in patients with liver cirrhosis.
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Prognostic Nomograms for Prediction of Recurrence and Survival After Curative Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To develop clinical predictive nomograms generating per-patient numerical probabilities of postoperative recurrence-free and overall survival at specific times.
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Comparison of efficacy and safety between a segmental thermo-expandable metal alloy spiral stent (Memokath 051) and a self-expandable covered metallic stent (UVENTA) in the management of ureteral obstructions.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To determine the efficacy and safety of the Memokath 051™ (PNN Medical, Glostrup, Denmark) and UVENTA™ (Taewoong Medical, Seoul, Korea) metal stents, we reviewed our experience with these two metallic ureteral stents for treating benign and malignant ureteral obstructions.
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Effects of KH-204 on the expression of heat shock protein 70 and germ cell apoptosis in infertility rat models.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Idiopathic infertility is a significant number of causes of male infertility. Empirical treatments are used for idiopathic male infertility, and antioxidant supplementation is a kind of management of oxidative stress related infertility. We investigated the antioxidant effects of the modified Ojayeonjonghwan (KH-204) in a rat model of cryptorchidism.
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Lung macrophages "digest" carbon nanotubes using a superoxide/peroxynitrite oxidative pathway.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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In contrast to short-lived neutrophils, macrophages display persistent presence in the lung of animals after pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes. While effective in the clearance of bacterial pathogens and injured host cells, the ability of macrophages to "digest" carbonaceous nanoparticles has not been documented. Here, we used chemical, biochemical, and cell and animal models and demonstrated oxidative biodegradation of oxidatively functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes via superoxide/NO* ? peroxynitrite-driven oxidative pathways of activated macrophages facilitating clearance of nanoparticles from the lung.
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No association between the IL28B SNP and response to peginterferon plus ribavirin combination treatment in Korean chronic hepatitis C patients.
Clin Mol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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There are few available data regarding the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene encoding interleukin 28B (IL28B) and a sustained virologic response (SVR) to peginterferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy in Korean chronic hepatitis C patients.
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Dynamics in a tetrahedral network glassformer: vibrations, network rearrangements, and diffusion.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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We perform molecular dynamics simulation on a tetrahedral network glassformer using a model for viscous SiO2 by Coslovich and Pastore [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21, 285107 (2009)]. In this system, Si and O particles form a random network at low temperature T. We attach an ellipsoid to each particle to represent its time-averaged vibration tensor. We then examine the anisotropic vibrations of Si and O, where the ellipsoid orientations are correlated with the network. The ellipsoids exhibit marked vibrational heterogeneity. The configuration changes occur as breakage and reorganization of the network, where only one or two particles undergo large jumps at each rearrangement leading to diffusion. To the time-correlation functions, however, the particles surrounding these largely displaced ones yield significantly T-dependent contributions, resulting in a weak violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation. This crossover is mild in silica due to the small Si-O bond numbers per particle, while it is strong in fragile glassformers with large coordination numbers. On long timescales, jump events tend to occur in the same regions forming marked dynamic heterogeneity. We also calculate the diffusion constants and the viscosity. The diffusion obeys activation dynamics and may be studied by short-time analysis of irreversible jumps.
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microRNA-148a dysregulation discriminates poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in association with USP4 overexpression.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is classified as a poor prognostic tumor, and becomes frequently aggressive. MicroRNAs emerge as key contributors to tumor progression. This study investigated whether miR-148a dysregulation differentiates poor prognosis of HCC, exploring new targets of miR-148a. miR-148a dysregulation discriminated not only the overall survival and recurrence free survival rates of HCC, but the microvascular invasion. In the human HCC samples, ubiquitin specific protease 4 (USP4) and sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) were up-regulated as the new targets of miR-148a. USP4 and S1P1 were up-regulated in mesenchymal-type liver-tumor cells with miR-148a dysregulation, facilitating migration and proliferation of tumor cells. The inverse relationship between miR-148a and the identified targets was verified in a tumor xenograft model. In the analysis of human samples, the expression of USP4, but not S1P1, correlated with the decrease of miR-148a. In a heterotropic patient-derived HCC xenograft model, USP4 was also overexpressed in G1 and G2 tumors when miR-148a was dysregulated, reflecting the closer link between miR-148a and USP4 for a shift in the expansion phase of tumorgraft. In conclusion, miR-148a dysregulation affects the poor prognosis of HCC. Of the identified targets of miR-148a, USP4 overexpression may contribute to HCC progression towards more aggressive feature.
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A case of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis caused by valproic Acid for the treatment of seizure disorders.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Valproic acid is one of the most common antiepileptic drugs used for the treatment of several seizure disorders. A 20-year-old man presented with a sudden decline of consciousness. He had a neurosurgery operation for intracranial and intraventricular hemorrhage. Following surgery, antiepileptic medication was administered to the patient in order to control his seizure events. On valproic acid treatment, he began to complain of fever and dyspnea. His symptoms persisted despite receiving empirical antibiotic treatment. All diagnostic tests for infectious causes were negative. A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest revealed predominantly dependent consolidation and ground-glass opacities in both lower lobes. The primary differential was drug associated with interstitial lung disease. Therefore, we discontinued valproic acid treatment and began methylprednisolone treatment. His symptoms and radiologic findings had significantly improved after receiving steroid therapy. We propose that clinicians should be made aware of the potential for valproic acid to induce lung injury.
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White matter hyperintensities and cognitive dysfunction in patients with infratentorial stroke.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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To determine whether cognitive function is associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in patients with infratentorial stroke.
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Melatonin and its metabolites ameliorate ultraviolet B-induced damage in human epidermal keratinocytes.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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We investigated the protective effects of melatonin and its metabolites: 6-hydroxymelatonin (6-OHM), N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK), N-acetylserotonin (NAS), and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) in human keratinocytes against a range of doses (25, 50, and 75 mJ/cm2) of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. There was significant reduction in the generation of reactive oxygen species (50-60%) when UVB-exposed keratinocytes were treated with melatonin or its derivatives. Similarly, melatonin and its metabolites reduced the nitrite and hydrogen peroxide levels that were induced by UVB as early as 30 min after the exposure. Moreover, melatonin and its metabolites enhanced levels of reduced glutathione in keratinocytes within 1 hr after UVB exposure in comparison with control cells. Using proliferation assay, we observed a dose-dependent increase in viability of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes that were treated with melatonin or its derivatives after 48 hr. Using the dot-blot technique and immunofluorescent staining we also observed that melatonin and its metabolites enhanced the DNA repair capacity of UVB-induced pyrimidine photoproducts (6-4)or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers generation in human keratinocytes. Additional evidence for induction of DNA repair in cells exposed to UVB and treated with the indole compounds was shown using the Comet assay. Finally, melatonin and its metabolites further enhanced expression of p53 phosphorylated at Ser-15 but not at Ser-46 or its nonphosphorylated form. In conclusion, melatonin, its precursor NAS, and its metabolites 6-OHM, AFMK, 5-MT, which are endogenously produced in keratinocytes, protect these cells against UVB-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage.
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Alteration of the QT variability index in end-stage liver disease.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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A prolonged QT interval can lead to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, and has frequently been found in end-stage liver disease (ESLD). However, myocardial repolarization lability has not yet been fully investigated. We evaluated the QT variability index (QTVI), a marker of temporal inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization and an abnormality associated with re-entrant malignant ventricular arrhythmias. We determined whether QTVI is affected by the head-up tilt test in ESLD.
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ROR? and ROR ? are expressed in human skin and serve as receptors for endogenously produced noncalcemic 20-hydroxy- and 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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ROR? and ROR? are expressed in human skin cells that produce the noncalcemic 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 [20(OH)D3] and 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,23(OH)2D3]. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing a Tet-on ROR? or ROR? expression vector and a ROR-responsive element (RORE)-LUC reporter, and a mammalian 2-hybrid model examining the interaction between the ligand binding domain (LBD) of ROR? or ROR? with an LBD-interacting LXXLL-peptide, were used to study ROR-antagonist activities. These assays revealed that 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 function as antagonists of ROR? and ROR?. Moreover, 20(OH)D3 inhibited the activation of the promoter of the Bmal1 and G6pase genes, targets of ROR?, and 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 inhibited Il17 promoter activity in Jurkat cells overexpressing ROR? or ROR?. Molecular modeling using crystal structures of the LBDs of ROR? and ROR? revealed docking scores for 20(OH)D3, 20,23(OH)2D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 similar to those of the natural ligands, predicting good binding to the receptor. Notably, 20(OH)D3, 20,23(OH)2D3, and 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited RORE-mediated activation of a reporter in keratinocytes and melanoma cells and inhibited IL-17 production by immune cells. Our study identifies a novel signaling pathway, in which 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 act as antagonists or inverse agonists of ROR? and ROR?, that opens new possibilities for local (skin) or systemic regulation.-Slominski, A. T., Kim, T.-K., Takeda, Y., Janjetovic, Z., Broz?yna, A. A., Skobowiat, C., Wang, J., Postlethwaite, A., Li, W., Tuckey, R. C., Jetten, A. M. ROR? and ROR ? are expressed in human skin and serve as receptors for endogenously produced noncalcemic 20-hydroxy- and 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D.
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In vivo monitoring of structural and mechanical changes of tissue scaffolds by multi-modality imaging.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Degradable tissue scaffolds are implanted to serve a mechanical role while healing processes occur and putatively assume the physiological load as the scaffold degrades. Mechanical failure during this period can be unpredictable as monitoring of structural degradation and mechanical strength changes at the implant site is not readily achieved in vivo, and non-invasively. To address this need, a multi-modality approach using ultrasound shear wave imaging (USWI) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for both mechanical and structural assessment in vivo was demonstrated with degradable poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and polydioxanone (PDO) scaffolds. The fibrous scaffolds were fabricated with wet electrospinning, dyed with indocyanine green (ICG) for optical contrast in PAI, and implanted in the abdominal wall of 36 rats. The scaffolds were monitored monthly using USWI and PAI and were extracted at 0, 4, 8 and 12 wk for mechanical and histological assessment. The change in shear modulus of the constructs in vivo obtained by USWI correlated with the change in average Young's modulus of the constructs ex vivo obtained by compression measurements. The PEUU and PDO scaffolds exhibited distinctly different degradation rates and average PAI signal intensity. The distribution of PAI signal intensity also corresponded well to the remaining scaffolds as seen in explant histology. This evidence using a small animal abdominal wall repair model demonstrates that multi-modality imaging of USWI and PAI may allow tissue engineers to noninvasively evaluate concurrent mechanical stiffness and structural changes of tissue constructs in vivo for a variety of applications.
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A case of acute bilateral retrocochlear hearing loss as an initial symptom of unilateral thalamic hemorrhage.
Korean J Audiol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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A speech discrimination test is a test using a list of 25 phonetically balanced monosyllables. It is often overlooked but significant enough for pure tone audiometry. Many physicians have performed pure tone audiometry but without a speech discrimination test. A 73-year-old woman visited our clinic complaining of sudden bilateral hearing loss. Pure tone audiometry showed only bilateral high frequency loss. However, speech discrimination had decreased markedly. We decided to follow-up after 1 week of Ginexin-F® (ginkgo leaf extract) and Nafril® (nafronyl oxalate). She felt a gait disturbance within 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left thalamic hemorrhage. After a 1 month hospitalization, the hematoma subsided, and speech discrimination recovered 3 months later. Acute hearing loss due to thalamic hemorrhage that recovered has never been reported. We report the first case of retrocochlear hearing loss that occurred with a thalamic hemorrhage in a patient who recovered.
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Clinical implications of preoperative and intraoperative liver biopsies for evaluating donor steatosis in living related liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The role of liver biopsy in selecting optimal donors is an area of continuing controversy in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Our aim was to assess the potential implications of preoperative and intraoperative biopsies for evaluating donor liver fat content. Three thousand eight hundred fifty-nine consecutive subjects underwent predonation needle biopsy of the right lobe, and 1766 of these subjects actually donated their livers for LDLT and underwent intraoperative wedge biopsies of paired right and left lobes. The preoperative workup protocol also included abdominal ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT). Intersample agreement on steatosis grades (<5%, 5% to <15%, 15% to <30%, and ?30%) was calculated, and clinicometabolic factors related to sampling variability were evaluated. For detecting ?30% steatosis in the 3859 potential donors, USG and CT had sensitivities of 84.9% and 57.3%, specificities of 76.3% and 92.7%, positive predictive values of 29.6% and 48.0%, and negative predictive values of 97.7% and 94.8%, respectively. Analyses of the 1766 actual donors showed that with respect to the total steatosis grades of intraoperative right and left biopsies versus preoperative biopsy, 36.7% and 36.0% of the pairs, respectively, differed from the weighted ? values of 0.44 and 0.40. Similar agreement levels existed for macrovesicular and microvesicular steatosis subtypes. The per-subject agreement rate for the total steatosis grade between intraoperative right and left biopsies was 83.6%. According to a multivariate analysis, independent factors affecting the variability of the total steatosis results from preoperative and intraoperative biopsies (major features) were higher systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and alanine aminotransferase values and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. In conclusion, imaging may be insufficiently sensitive for evaluating donor hepatic steatosis. Preoperative and selective intraoperative liver biopsies are mandatory for assessing donor steatosis in LDLT unless preoperative imaging demonstrates no fat.
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Reappraisal of serum alpha-foetoprotein as a surveillance test for hepatocellular carcinoma during entecavir treatment.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the diagnostic performance of alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) as a surveillance test for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus-related chronic liver disease who were treated with entecavir (ETV).
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Do the radiographic findings of symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus in children differ from normal control subjects?
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare radiographic findings of symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus in children with those of matched controls.
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G?12gep oncogene inhibits FOXO1 in hepatocellular carcinoma as a consequence of miR-135b and miR-194 dysregulation.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The high mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with its fast-growing malignancy. In tumor microenvironments, certain GPCRs are coupled to G?12 for signal transduction. Given the role of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in the inhibition of various tumors, this study investigated whether increase of G?12 in HCC causes FOXO1 repression, and if so, whether this event occurs through microRNA dysregulation. Overexpression of an active mutant of G?12 (G?12QL) decreased FOXO1 levels, whereas knockdown of G?12 had the opposite effect. Of the microRNAs targeting FOXO1, miR-135b levels were markedly increased by G?12 signaling, which led to FOXO1 repression as shown by the experiments using mimic, antisense oligonucleotide or siRNA. G?12QL increased the primary form of miR-135b by activating JunB (or c-Jun)/AP-1. Consistently, knockdown of JunB (or c-Jun) decreased miR-135b levels, thereby increasing FOXO1. Moreover, G?12QL induced MDM2, the deficiency of which facilitated FOXO1 accumulation. In addition, G?12QL repressed miR-194 cluster gene products (194/192/215), which contributed to MDM2-mediated FOXO1 repression. In functional assays, G?12QL facilitated tumor cell growth with alterations in cell cycle-associated protein levels, which was antagonized by enforced expression of FOXO1. In human HCCs, FOXO1 levels were decreased as compared with the surrounding liver tissue. Moreover, decrease of FOXO1 or miR-194 was statistically significant between stages T1 and T2, whereas increase of miR-135b discriminated tumor stage T3a versus T1/T2. In conclusion, G?12gep oncogene inhibits FOXO1, which may result from the inhibition of FOXO1 de novo synthesis by miR-135b in conjunction with MDM2-mediated destabilization of FOXO1.
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Effects of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa on cytokine genes in the hippocampus of maternal separation rats.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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We investigated the effects of an essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) on early life stress, using maternal separation (MS) rats and a microarray method to analyze the changes in gene expressions caused by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Rats in the MS groups were separated from their respective mothers from postnatal day (pnd) 14 to 28. Rats in the EOCO-treated groups were exposed to EOCO for 1 or 2 h by inhalation from pnd 21 to 28. The EOCO-treated MS rats showed decreased anxiety-related behaviors compared with the untreated MS rats in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. In the microarray analysis, we found that EOCO downregulated the expressions of cytokine genes such as Ccl2, Il6, Cxcl10, Ccl19, and Il1rl in the hippocampus of MS rats, and also confirmed that using reverse transcriptase - PCR. In particular, the expressions of Ccl2 and Il6 were predominantly decreased by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Interestingly, protein expression was also reduced by EOCO in MS rats. These results indicate that EOCO decreases MS-induced anxiety-related behaviors, and modulates cytokines, particularly Ccl2 and Il6, in the hippocampus of MS rats.
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Clinical implications of initial peripheral eosinophilia in acute eosinophilic pneumonia.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The initial peripheral eosinophil count (PEC) is rarely elevated but tends to increase during the clinical course of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP). We evaluated whether initial peripheral eosinophilia is an indicator of mild disease in patients with AEP.
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Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ? 3 s and ? 9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (-0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (-0.124 ± 0.037%). Using histology as a gold standard to classify mouse livers, US-TSI had a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 90%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.775. This ex vivo study demonstrates the feasibility of using US-TSI to detect fatty livers and warrants further investigation of US-TSI as a diagnostic tool for hepatic steatosis.
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Non-volatile ferroelectric memory with position-addressable polymer semiconducting nanowire.
Small
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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One-dimensional nanowires (NWs) have been extensively examined for numerous potential nano-electronic device applications such as transistors, sensors, memories, and photodetectors. The ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors (Fe-FETs) with semiconducting NWs in particular in combination with ferroelectric polymers as gate insulating layers have attracted great attention because of their potential in high density memory integration. However, most of the devices still suffer from low yield of devices mainly due to the ill-control of the location of NWs on a substrate. NWs randomly deposited on a substrate from solution-dispersed droplet made it extremely difficult to fabricate arrays of NW Fe-FETs. Moreover, rigid inorganic NWs were rarely applicable for flexible non-volatile memories. Here, we present the NW Fe-FETs with position-addressable polymer semiconducting NWs. Polymer NWs precisely controlled in both location and number between source and drain electrode were achieved by direct electrohydrodynamic NW printing. The polymer NW Fe-FETs with a ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) exhibited non-volatile ON/OFF current margin at zero gate voltage of approximately 10(2) with time-dependent data retention and read/write endurance of more than 10(4) seconds and 10(2) cycles, respectively. Furthermore, our device showed characteristic bistable current hysteresis curves when being deformed with various bending radii and multiple bending cycles over 1000 times.
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Role of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase down-regulation on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin Mol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the modulation of cell growth is well established in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the significance of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) down-regulation on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
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Biomechanical properties of a new anatomical locking metal block plate for opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: uniplane osteotomy.
Knee Surg Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of a new anatomical locking metal block plate by comparing the initial biomechanical stability of three different fixation constructs for open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO).
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Prognostic performance of preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To assess the impact of preoperative evaluation by gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on early recurrence outcomes after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resection.
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Corrective tibial osteotomy in young adults using an intramedullary nail.
Knee Surg Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in young adults using an intramedullary tibial nail.
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Clinical significance of the best response during repeated transarterial chemoembolization in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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We assessed the clinical implications of the best response compared with the initial response during repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma induces apoptosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Involvement of DNA-damage-triggering sub-G(1) arrest via the ATM/p53 pathway.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Recent advances in physics have made possible the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) in cancer research. Although increasing evidence suggests that NTP induces death of various cancer cell types, thus offering a promising alternative treatment, the mechanism of its therapeutic effect is little understood. In this study, we report for the first time that NTP led to apoptotic cell death in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Interestingly, NTP induced a sub-G(1) arrest in p53 wild-type OSCCs, but not in p53-mutated OSCCs. In addition, NTP increased the expression levels of ATM, p53 (Ser 15, 20 and 46), p21, and cyclin D1. A comet assay, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry of ?H2AX suggested that NTP-induced apoptosis and sub-G(1) arrest were associated with DNA damage and the ATM/p53 signaling pathway in SCC25 cells. Moreover, ATM knockdown using siRNA attenuated the effect of NTP on cell death, sub-G(1) arrest and related signals. Taken together, these results indicate that NTP induced apoptotic cell death in p53 wild-type OSCCs through a novel mechanism involving DNA damage and triggering of sub-G(1) arrest via the ATM/p53 pathway. These findings show the therapeutic potential of NTP in OSCC.
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Arthroscopic anatomic study of posteromedial joint capsule in knee joint associated with popliteal cyst.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The purpose of this study was to examine the arthroscopic anatomy of posteromedial capsule and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in internal derangement of the knee joint and to analyze the relationship between popliteal cysts and the posteromedial capsule.
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Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inhibits thyroid papillary cancer cell invasion via cytoskeletal modulation, altered MMP-2/-9/uPA activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is defined as a partially or completely ionized gas that includes a mixture of electrons and ions. Advances in plasma physics have made it possible to use non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) in cancer research. However, previous studies have focused mainly on apoptotic cancer cell death mediated by NTP as a potential cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of NTP on invasion or metastasis, as well as the mechanism by which plasma induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties in human thyroid papillary cancer cell lines (BHP10-3 and TPC1). Wound healing, pull-down, and Transwell assays demonstrated that NTP reduced cell migration and invasion. In addition, NTP induced morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as detected by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We also examined matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity using gelatin zymography, uPA assays and RT-PCR. FAK, Src, and paxillin expression was detected using Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry. NTP decreased FAK, Src, and paxillin expression as well as MMP/uPA activity. In conclusion, NTP inhibited the invasion and metastasis of BHP10-3 and TPC1 cells by decreasing MMP-2/-9 and uPA activities and rearranging the cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the FAK/Src complex. These findings suggest novel actions for NTP and may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies for locally invasive and metastatic cancers.
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Targeting cancer cells with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by atmospheric-pressure air plasma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for cancer. Anticancer activity of plasma has been reported to involve mitochondrial dysfunction. However, what constituents generated by plasma is linked to this anticancer process and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we report that the therapeutic effects of air plasma result from generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) including H2O2, Ox, OH-, •O2, NOx, leading to depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Simultaneously, ROS/RNS activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. As a consequence, treatment with air plasma jets induces apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidants, JNK and p38 inhibitors, or JNK and p38 siRNA abrogates the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs the air plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the ROS/RNS generated by plasma trigger signaling pathways involving JNK and p38 and promote mitochondrial perturbation, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, administration of air plasma may be a feasible strategy to eliminate cancer cells.
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Genetically-engineered Human Neural Stem Cells with Rabbit Carboxyl Esterase Can Target CNS Lymphoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Despite advances in its treatment, CNS lymphoma remains a devastating disease. Taking advantage of the tumour-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a novel therapeutic strategy. To apply this strategy to the treatment of CNS lymphoma, we investigated the role of NSCs expressing carboxyl esterase (HB1.F3.CE), which activates irinotecan.
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Association of HSPA1B SNP rs6457452 with Alopecia Areata in the Korean Population.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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The heat shock 70?kDa protein 1B (HSPA1B), which has been well-studied among the famous heat shock proteins HSPA1A/B/L, is related to autoimmune diseases, including Alopecia Areata (AA). In this study, the association of a 5-untranslated region (5UTR) SNP rs6457452 and a promoter SNP rs2763979 (-1140C?>?T) of HSPA1B with AA was investigated in 236 controls and 228 AA patients. Statistical analyses using the multiple logistic models were done, according to the onset and the clinical features of AA, including the age of onset, family history, type of AA lesion, nail involvement and body hair involvement. The results showed that rs6457452 was associated with the onset of AA (p?
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Flexible integration of high-imaging- resolution and high-power arrays for ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI).
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging (USTSI) for carotid artery plaque detection requires both high imaging resolution (?100 ?m) and sufficient US-induced heating to elevate the tissue temperature (˜1°C to 3°C within 1 to 3 cardiac cycles) to produce a noticeable change in sound speed in the targeted tissues. Because the optimization of both imaging and heating in a monolithic array design is particularly expensive and inflexible, a new integrated approach is presented which utilizes independent ultrasound arrays to meet the requirements for this particular application. This work demonstrates a new approach in dual-array construction. A 3-D printed manifold was built to support both a high-resolution 20 MHz commercial imaging array and 6 custom heating elements operating in the 3.5 to 4 MHz range. For the application of US-TSI in carotid plaque characterization, the tissue target site is 20 to 30 mm deep, with a typical target volume of 2 mm (elevation) × 8 mm (azimuthal) × 5 mm (depth). The custom heating array performance was fully characterized for two design variants (flat and spherical apertures), and can easily deliver 30 W of total acoustic power to produce intensities greater than 15 W/cm(2) in the tissue target region.
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In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland: Metabolism of vitamin D2.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)2D2, 1,20(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)2D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1? -hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)2D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)2D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity.
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HBsAg seroclearance after nucleoside analogue therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B: clinical outcomes and durability.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Little is known about the long-term clinical outcome and durability of HBsAg seroclearance following nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
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Involvement of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Genes in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in a Korean Population.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) have been implicated in prostate growth and are overexpressed in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FGFR genes (FGFR1 and FGFR2) were associated with BPH and its clinical phenotypes in a population of Korean men. We genotyped four SNPs in the exons of FGFR1 and FGFR2 (rs13317 in FGFR1; rs755793, rs1047100, and rs3135831 in FGFR2) using direct sequencing in 218 BPH patients and 213 control subjects. No SNPs of FGFR1 or FGFR2 genes were associated with BPH. However, analysis according to clinical phenotypes showed that rs1047100 of FGFR2 was associated with prostate volume in BPH in the dominant model (GA/AA versus GG, P = 0.010). In addition, a significant association was observed between rs13317 of FGFR1 and international prostate symptom score (IPSS) in the additive (TC versus CC versus TT, P = 0.0022) and dominant models (TC/CC versus TT, P = 0.005). Allele frequency analysis also showed significant association between rs13317 and IPSS (P = 0.005). These results suggested that FGFR genes could be related to progression of BPH.
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Nerve regeneration and elastin formation within poly(glycerol sebacate)-based synthetic arterial grafts one-year post-implantation in a rat model.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term performance of cell-free vascular grafts made from a fast-degrading elastic polymer. We fabricated small arterial grafts from microporous tubes of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) reinforced with polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers on the outer surface. Grafts were interpositioned in rat abdominal aortas and characterized at 1 year post-implant. Grafts remodeled into "neoarteries" (regenerated arteries) with similar gross appearance to native rat aortas. Neoarteries mimic arterial tissue architecture with a confluent endothelium and media and adventita-like layers. Patent vessels (80%) showed no significant stenosis, dilation, or calcification. Neoarteries contain nerves and have the same amount of mature elastin as native arteries. Despite some differences in matrix organization, regenerated arteries had similar dynamic mechanical compliance to native arteries in vivo. Neoarteries responded to vasomotor agents, albeit with different magnitude than native aortas. These data suggest that an elastic vascular graft that resorbs quickly has potential to improve the performance of vascular grafts used in small arteries. This design may also promote constructive remodeling in other soft tissues.
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Association of the FGA and SLC6A4 Genes with Autistic Spectrum Disorder in a Korean Population.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological disorder characterized by distinctive impairments in cognitive function, language, and behavior. Linkage and population studies suggest a genetic association between solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4) variants and ASD. Method: Logistic regression was used to identify associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ASD with 3 alternative models (additive, dominant, and recessive). Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the influence of SNPs on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores as a quantitative phenotype. Results: In the present study, we examined the associations of SNPs in the SLC6A4 gene and the fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA) gene. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the risk of ASD and rs2070025 and rs2070011 in the FGA gene. The gene-gene interaction between SLC6A4 and FGA was not significantly associated with ASD susceptibility. However, polymorphisms in both SLC6A4 and the FGA gene significantly affected the symptoms of ASD. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that FGA and SLC6A4 gene interactions may contribute to the phenotypes of ASD rather than the incidence of ASD. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Microbiological etiology of bacterial prostatitis in general hospital and primary care clinic in Korea.
Prostate Int
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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The National Institutes of Health classification of prostatitis reported the proportion of chronic bacterial prostatitis, especially category II, at 3% to 10%. Because of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis technique, chronic prostatitis syndrome (CPS) with a known bacterial origin has increased recently. In this study, we evaluated the proportion of chronic bacterial prostatitis in a general hospital and a primary care clinic (PCC) in addition to the distribution of the microorganism in chronic bacterial prostatitis in Korea.
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The role of CYP11A1 in the production of vitamin D metabolites and their role in the regulation of epidermal functions.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Research over the last decade has revealed that CYP11A1 can hydroxylate the side chain of vitamin D3 at carbons 17, 20, 22 and 23 to produce at least 10 metabolites, with 20(OH)D3, 20,23(OH)2D3, 20,22(OH)2D3, 17,20(OH)2D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3 being the main products. However, CYP11A1 does not act on 25(OH)D3. The placenta, adrenal glands and epidermal keratinocytes have been shown to metabolize vitamin D3 via this CYP11A1-mediated pathway that is modified by the activity of CYP27B1, with 20(OH)D3 (the major metabolite), 20,23(OH)2D3, 1,20(OH)2D3, 1,20,23(OH)3D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3 being detected, defining these secosteroids as endogenous regulators/natural products. This is supported by the detection of a mono-hydroxyvitamin D3 with the retention time of 20(OH)D3 in human serum. In new work presented here we demonstrate that the CYP11A1-initiated pathways also occurs in Caco-2 colon cells. Our previous studies show that 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 are non-calcemic at pharmacological doses, dependent in part on their lack of a C1? hydroxyl group. In epidermal keratinocytes, 20(OH)D3, 20(OH)D2 and 20,23(OH)2D3 inhibited cell proliferation, stimulated differentiation and inhibited NF-?B activity with potencies comparable to 1,25(OH)2D3, acting as partial agonists on the VDR. 22(OH)D3 and 20,22(OH)2D3, as well as secosteroids with a short or no side chain, showed antiproliferative and prodifferentiation effects, however, with lower potency than 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3. The CYP11A1-derived secosteroids also inhibited melanocyte proliferation while having no effect on melanogenesis, and showed anti-melanoma activities in terms of inhibiting proliferation and the ability to grow in soft agar. Furthermore, 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 showed anti-fibrosing effects in vitro, and also in vivo for the former. New data presented here shows that 20(OH)D3 inhibits LPS-induced production of TNF? in the J774 line, TNF? and IL-6 in peritoneal macrophages and suppresses the production of proinflammatory Th1/Th17-related cytokines, while promoting the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo. In summary, CYP11A1 initiates new pathways of vitamin D metabolism in a range of tissues and products could have important physiological roles at the local or systemic level. In the skin, CYP11A1-derived secosteroids could serve both as endogenous regulators of skin functions and as excellent candidates for treatment of hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin disorders, and skin cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 16th Vitamin D Workshop.
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Dynamic length scales in glass-forming liquids: an inhomogeneous molecular dynamics simulation approach.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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In this work, we numerically investigate a new method for the characterization of growing length scales associated with spatially heterogeneous dynamics of glass-forming liquids. This approach, motivated by the formulation of the inhomogeneous mode-coupling theory (IMCT) [Biroli, G.; et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006 97, 195701], utilizes inhomogeneous molecular dynamics simulations in which the system is perturbed by a spatially modulated external potential. We show that the response of the two-point correlation function to the external field allows one to probe dynamic correlations. We examine the critical properties shown by this function, in particular, the associated dynamic correlation length, that is found to be comparable to the one extracted from standardly employed four-point correlation functions. Our numerical results are in qualitative agreement with IMCT predictions but suggest that one has to take into account fluctuations not included in this mean-field approach to reach quantitative agreement. Advantages of our approach over the more conventional one based on four-point correlation functions are discussed.
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Sorafenib alone versus sorafenib combined with transarterial chemoembolization for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: results of propensity score analyses.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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To compare the time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are undergoing sorafenib treatment combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) versus sorafenib monotherapy.
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Better quadriceps recovery after minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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PURPOSE: The proponents of minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have reported better functional recovery than conventional TKA. In most of the previous studies, the results were shown with the relatively subjective methods. We investigated the objective results with a dynamometry in this prospective randomized study. It was hypothesized that minimally invasive TKA would have a better and earlier recovery of quadriceps force in terms of the objective numeric data. METHODS: Sixty-six TKAs were prospectively randomized into two groups. Thirty-three knees underwent minimally invasive TKA using mini-midvastus approach and 33 knees underwent conventional TKA using medial parapatellar approach. The quadriceps force was assessed using a dynamometer. The data were collected preoperatively and at postoperative 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year consecutively. RESULTS: The mean of quadriceps force in minimally invasive TKA group at postoperative 6 weeks was greater than conventional TKA after removing the covariate (preoperative quadriceps force) with analysis of covariance (P = 0.002), but thereafter, the difference was not significant till 1 year. Meanwhile, with repeated measures analysis of variance, conventional TKA group had greater quadriceps recovery than minimally invasive TKA group during postoperative 6 weeks to 3 months (P = 0.035). The proportion of patients unable to recover the quadriceps force to their preoperative levels by 1 year postoperatively was similar in two groups. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive TKA has benefit in quadriceps recovery at earlier rehabilitation period although catch-up recovery in conventional TKA was accelerated from the postoperative 6 weeks to 3 months. It may support the concept of early return to full activity after minimally invasive TKA, and patients might get back early to normal life. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, Level I.
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The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis after knee arthroplasty in Asians remains low: a meta-analysis.
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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While Western literature has mostly reported the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) after TKA with chemoprophylaxis, the Asian literature still has mostly reported the incidence without chemoprophylaxis. This may reflect a low incidence of DVT and PE in Asian patients, although some recent studies suggest the incidence after TKA in Asian patients is increasing. Moreover, it is unclear whether the incidence of DVT and PE after TKA is similarly low among different Asian countries.
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Treatment of Schatzker Type V and VI Tibial Plateau Fractures Using a Midline Longitudinal Incision and Dual Plating.
Knee Surg Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of the treatment of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures using a midline longitudinal incision and dual-plate fixation.
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Metabolism of melatonin and biological activity of intermediates of melatoninergic pathway in human skin cells.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Indolic and kynuric pathways of skin melatonin metabolism were monitored by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in human keratinocytes, melanocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and melanoma cells. Production of 6-hydroxymelatonin [6(OH)M], N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) was detected in a cell type-dependent fashion. The major metabolites, 6(OH)M and AFMK, were produced in all cells. Thus, in immortalized epidermal (HaCaT) keratinocytes, 6(OH)M was the major product with Vmax = 63.7 ng/10(6) cells and Km = 10.2 ?M, with lower production of AFMK and 5-MT. Melanocytes, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts transformed melatonin primarily into 6(OH)M and AFMK. In melanoma cells, 6(OH)M and AFMK were produced endogenously, a process accelerated by exogenous melatonin in the case of AFMK. In addition, N-acetylserotonin was endogenously produced by normal and malignant melanocytes. Metabolites showed selective antiproliferative effects on human primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. In ex vivo human skin, both melatonin and AFMK-stimulated expression of involucrin and keratins-10 and keratins-14 in the epidermis, indicating their stimulatory role in building and maintaining the epidermal barrier. In summary, the metabolism of melatonin and its endogenous production is cell type-dependent and expressed in all three main cell populations of human skin. Furthermore, melatonin and its metabolite AFMK stimulate differentiation in human epidermis, indicating their key role in building the skin barrier.
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Two-week schedule of hypofractionated radiotherapy as a local salvage treatment for small hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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In cases of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) where established curative treatment cannot be applied, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been used as a non-invasive alternative treatment modality. However, short-course SBRT may not be safe if the tumor is located around a critical normal organ. Therefore, we applied hypofractionated radiotherapy for these tumors and evaluated outcomes of this treatment.
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Noninvasive detection of lipids in atherosclerotic plaque using ultrasound thermal strain imaging: in vivo animal study.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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This study sought to examine the feasibility of in vivo detection of lipids in atherosclerotic plaque (AP) by ultrasound (US) thermal (or temporal) strain imaging (TSI).
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Multiple length and time scales of dynamic heterogeneities in model glass-forming liquids: a systematic analysis of multi-point and multi-time correlations.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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We report an extensive and systematic investigation of the multi-point and multi-time correlation functions to reveal the spatio-temporal structures of dynamic heterogeneities in glass-forming liquids. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for the supercooled states of various prototype models of glass-forming liquids such as binary Kob-Andersen, Wahnstro?m, soft-sphere, and network-forming liquids. While the first three models act as fragile liquids exhibiting super-Arrhenius temperature dependence in their relaxation times, the last is a strong glass-former exhibiting Arrhenius behavior. First, we quantify the length scale of the dynamic heterogeneities utilizing the four-point correlation function. The growth of the dynamic length scale with decreasing temperature is characterized by various scaling relations that are analogous to the critical phenomena. We also examine how the growth of the length scale depends upon the model employed. Second, the four-point correlation function is extended to a three-time correlation function to characterize the temporal structures of the dynamic heterogeneities based on our previous studies [K. Kim and S. Saito, Phys. Rev. E 79, 060501(R) (2009); and J. Chem. Phys. 133, 044511 (2010)]. We provide comprehensive numerical results obtained from the three-time correlation function for the above models. From these calculations, we examine the time scale of the dynamic heterogeneities and determine the associated lifetime in a consistent and systematic way. Our results indicate that the lifetime of the dynamical heterogeneities becomes much longer than the ?-relaxation time determined from a two-point correlation function in fragile liquids. The decoupling between the two time scales is remarkable, particularly in supercooled states, and the time scales differ by more than an order of magnitude in a more fragile liquid. In contrast, the lifetime is shorter than the ?-relaxation time in tetrahedral network-forming strong liquid, even at lower temperatures.
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Arthroscopic repair of bucket-handle tears of the lateral meniscus.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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This study was undertaken to document the clinical results of arthroscopic meniscus repair for treatment of displaced bucket-handle tears of the lateral meniscus.
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Using an ultrasound elasticity microscope to map three-dimensional strain in a porcine cornea.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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An ultrasound elasticity microscope was used to map 3-D strain volume in an ex vivo porcine cornea to illustrate its ability to measure the mechanical properties of this tissue. Mechanical properties of the cornea play an important role in its function and, therefore, also in ophthalmic diseases such as kerataconus and corneal ectasia. The ultrasound elasticity microscope combines a tightly focused high-frequency transducer with confocal scanning to produce high-quality speckle over the entire volume of tissue. This system and the analysis were able to generate volume maps of compressional strain in all three directions for porcine corneal tissue, more information than any previous study has reported. Strain volume maps indicated features of the cornea and mechanical behavior as expected. These results constitute a step toward better understanding of corneal mechanics and better treatment of corneal diseases.
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Non-invasive assessment of elastic modulus of arterial constructs during cell culture using ultrasound elasticity imaging.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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Mechanical strength is a key design factor in tissue engineering of arteries. Most existing techniques assess the mechanical property of arterial constructs destructively, leading to sacrifice of a large number of animals. We propose an ultrasound-based non-invasive technique for the assessment of the mechanical strength of engineered arterial constructs. Tubular scaffolds made from a biodegradable elastomer and seeded with vascular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells were cultured in a pulsatile-flow bioreactor. Scaffold distension was computed from ultrasound radiofrequency signals of the pulsating scaffold via 2-D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Youngs modulus was then calculated by solving the inverse problem from the distension and the recorded pulse pressure. The stiffness thus computed from ultrasound correlated well with direct mechanical testing results. As the scaffolds matured in culture, ultrasound measurements indicated an increase in Youngs modulus, and histology confirmed the growth of cells and collagen fibrils in the constructs. The results indicate that ultrasound elastography can be used to assess and monitor non-invasively the mechanical properties of arterial constructs.
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Is routine chemoprophylaxis necessary for prevention of venous thromboembolism following knee arthroplasty in a low incidence population?
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Standard thromboprophylaxis guidelines have not been applied universally in regions with low incidence of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) considering risks of chemoprophylaxis and low incidence itself. We evaluated the prevalence of DVT, efficacy and safety of chemoprophylaxis, and necessity of pharmacological prevention in a low DVT incidence population.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.