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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Autophagy gene atg16l1 prevents lethal T cell alloreactivity mediated by dendritic cells.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Atg16L1 mediates the cellular degradative process of autophagy and is considered a critical regulator of inflammation based on its genetic association with inflammatory bowel disease. Here we find that Atg16L1 deficiency leads to an exacerbated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a mouse model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Atg16L1-deficient allo-HSCT recipients with GVHD displayed increased T cell proliferation due to increased dendritic cell (DC) numbers and costimulatory molecule expression. Reduced autophagy within DCs was associated with lysosomal abnormalities and decreased amounts of A20, a negative regulator of DC activation. These results broaden the function of Atg16L1 and the autophagy pathway to include a role in limiting a DC-mediated response during inflammatory disease, such as GVHD.
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Endothelial dysfunction and altered mechanical and structural properties of resistance arteries in a murine model of graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A putative involvement of the vasculature seems to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We aimed to characterize alterations of mesenteric resistance arteries in GVHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned with total body irradiation that underwent transplantation with bone marrow cells and splenocytes from syngeneic (BALB/c) or allogeneic (C57BL/6) donors. After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed and mesenteric resistance arteries were studied in a pressurized myograph. The expression of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide (NO)-synthase (iNOS) was quantified and vessel wall ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. The myograph study revealed an endothelial dysfunction in allogeneic-transplant recipients, whereas endothelium-independent vasodilation was similar to syngeneic-transplant recipients or untreated controls. The expression of eNOS was decreased and iNOS increased, possibly contributing to endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, arteries of allogeneic transplant recipients exhibited a geometry-independent increase in vessels strain. For both findings, electron microscopy provided a structural correlate by showing severe damage of the whole vessel wall in allogeneic-transplant recipient animals. Our study provides further data to prove, and is the first to characterize, functional and structural vascular alterations in the early course after allogeneic transplantation directly in an ex vivo setting and, therefore, strongly supports the hypothesis of a vascular form of GVHD.
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Metagenomic analysis of the stool microbiome in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation: loss of diversity is associated with use of systemic antibiotics and more pronounced in gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Next-generation sequencing of the hypervariable V3 region of the 16s rRNA gene isolated from serial stool specimens collected from 31 patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) was performed to elucidate variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome in the course of allogeneic SCT. Metagenomic analysis was complemented by strain-specific enterococcal PCR and indirect assessment of bacterial load by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of urinary indoxyl sulfate. At the time of admission, patients showed a predominance of commensal bacteria. After transplantation, a relative shift toward enterococci was observed, which was more pronounced under antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of neutropenic infections. The shift was particularly prominent in patients that developed subsequently or suffered from active gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The mean proportion of enterococci in post-transplant stool specimens was 21% in patients who did not develop GI GVHD as compared with 46% in those that subsequently developed GI GVHD and 74% at the time of active GVHD. Enterococcal PCR confirmed predominance of Enterococcus faecium or both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in these specimens. As a consequence of the loss of bacterial diversity, mean urinary indoxyl sulfate levels dropped from 42.5 ± 11 ?mol/L to 11.8 ± 2.8 ?mol/L in all post-transplant samples and to 3.5 ± 3 ?mol/L in samples from patients with active GVHD. Our study reveals major microbiome shifts in the course of allogeneic SCT that occur in the period of antibiotic treatment but are more prominent in association with GI GVHD. Our data indicate early microbiome shifts and a loss of diversity of the intestinal microbiome that may affect intestinal inflammation in the setting of allogeneic SCT.
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Pharmacokinetics and safety of aclidinium bromide, a muscarinic antagonist, in adults with normal or impaired renal function: A phase I, open-label, single-dose clinical trial.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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Aclidinium bromide is an inhaled, long-acting muscarinic antagonist currently in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Renal impairment may affect drug clearance.
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[Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency in Austria: analysis of the Austrian Alpha1-international-registry database].
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency is a rare hereditary disorder. Deficient patients are at a higher risk to develop lung emphysema at an early age. The alpha1-antitrypsin registry was founded on 1996 to get new insights into the pathogenesis of the disease and to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this study the epidemiological and clinical findings of the Austrian alpha1-antitrypsin deficient patients are presented.
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Pharmacokinetics and safety of aclidinium bromide in younger and elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
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To investigate the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of aclidinium bromide 200 ?g and 400 ?g after a single dose and repeated once-daily doses in younger and elderly patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.