JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The management of acute hypertension in patients with renal dysfunction: labetalol or nicardipine?
Postgrad Med
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the safety and efficacy of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended doses of labetalol and nicardipine for hypertension (HTN) management in a subset of patients with renal dysfunction (RD).
Related JoVE Video
Opinion paper on utility of point-of-care biomarkers in the emergency department pathways decision making.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overcrowding of the emergency department (ED) is rapidly becoming a global challenge and a major source of concern for emergency physicians. The evaluation of cardiac biomarkers is critical for confirming diagnoses and expediting treatment decisions to reduce overcrowding, however, physicians currently face the dilemma of choosing between slow and accurate central-based laboratory tests, or faster but imprecise assays. With improvements in technology, point-of-care testing (POCT) systems facilitate the efficient and high-throughput evaluation of biomarkers, such as troponin (cTn), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). In this context, POCT may help ED physicians to confirm a diagnosis of conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome, heart failure or kidney damage. Compared with classic laboratory methods, the use of cTn, BNP, and NGAL POCT has shown comparable sensitivity, specificity and failure rate, but with the potential to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis, shorten hospital stay, and alleviate the burden on the ED. Despite this potential, the full advantages of rapid delivery results will only be reached if POCT is implemented within hospital standardized procedures and ED staff receive appropriate training.
Related JoVE Video
Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: A tale of multiple outcomes.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 130 million people and 3 million new infections occur annually. HCV is also recognized as an important cause of chronic liver disease in children. The absence of proofreading properties of the HCV RNA polymerase leads to a highly error prone replication process, allowing HCV to escape host immune response. The adaptive nature of HCV evolution dictates the outcome of the disease in many ways. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of HCV in three unrelated children who acquired chronic HCV infection as a result of mother-to-child transmission, two of whom were also coinfected with HIV-1. The persistence of discrete HCV variants and their population structure were assessed using median joining network and Bayesian approaches. While patterns of viral evolution clearly differed between subjects, immune system dysfunction related to HIV coinfection or persistent HCV seronegativity stand as potential mechanisms to explain the lack of molecular evolution observed in these three cases. In contrast, treatment of HCV infection with PegIFN, which did not lead to sustained virologic responses in all 3 cases, was not associated with commensurate variations in the complexity of the variant spectrum. Finally, the differences in the degree of divergence suggest that the mode of transmission of the virus was not the main factor driving viral evolution.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of human dental cementum and alveolar bone.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dental cementum (DC) is a bone-like tissue covering the tooth root and responsible for attaching the tooth to the alveolar bone (AB) via the periodontal ligament (PDL). Studies have unsuccessfully tried to identify factors specific to DC versus AB, in an effort to better understand DC development and regeneration. The present study aimed to use matched human DC and AB samples (n=7) to generate their proteomes for comparative analysis. Bone samples were harvested from tooth extraction sites, whereas DC samples were obtained from the apical root portion of extracted third molars. Samples were denatured, followed by protein extraction reduction, alkylation and digestion for analysis by nanoAcquity HPLC system and LTQ-FT Ultra. Data analysis demonstrated that a total of 318 proteins were identified in AB and DC. In addition to shared proteins between these tissues, 105 and 83 proteins exclusive to AB or DC were identified, respectively. This is the first report analyzing the proteomic composition of human DC matrix and identifying putative unique and enriched proteins in comparison to alveolar bone. These findings may provide novel insights into developmental differences between DC and AB, and identify candidate biomarkers that may lead to more efficient and predictable therapies for periodontal regeneration.
Related JoVE Video
Salivary carriage of periodontal pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis families.
Int J Paediatr Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) is a multifactorial disease that shows a specific microbial profile and a familial aggregation. AIM: This study evaluated the salivary microbial profile of families with a history of GAP and compared them with healthy families. DESIGN: Fifteen families with parents presenting periodontal health and 15 with parents with a history of GAP were selected. Each family had a child aged 6-12 years. Stimulated saliva was collected from all subjects, and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) amounts were determined. RESULTS: Children of GAP families showed higher detection of Aa (90%) than children of healthy families (45%) (P < 0.05). Parents with GAP showed a Pg salivary concentration statistically higher than that of healthy parents (P < 0.05).Children of GAP families, however, exhibited similar Pg concentration than healthy children (P > 0.05). Tf amounts did not differ either in parents or in children (P > 0.05) The infection risk calculation indicates that children who have one parent who is positive for Aa have 16.3 times (95% CI 3.1-87.2) more risk of being infected with Aa (P < 0.05) than children from an Aa-negative family. CONCLUSION: It may be concluded that children of parents with aggressive periodontitis have higher levels and higher risk of Aa infection.
Related JoVE Video
PpeTAC1 promotes the horizontal growth of branches in peach trees and is a member of a functionally conserved gene family found in diverse plants species.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trees are capable of tremendous architectural plasticity, allowing them to maximize their light exposure under highly competitive environments. One key component of tree architecture is the branch angle, yet little is known about the molecular basis for the spatial patterning of branches in trees. Here, we report the identification of a candidate gene for the br mutation in Prunus persica (peach) associated with vertically oriented growth of branches, referred to as pillar or broomy. Ppa010082, annotated as hypothetical protein in the peach genome sequence, was identified as a candidate gene for br using a next generation sequence-based mapping approach. Sequence similarity searches identified rice TAC1 (tiller angle control 1) as a putative ortholog, and we thus named it PpeTAC1. In monocots, TAC1 is known to lead to less compact growth by increasing the tiller angle. In Arabidopsis, an attac1 mutant showed more vertical branch growth angles, suggesting that the gene functions universally to promote the horizontal growth of branches. TAC1 genes belong to a gene family (here named IGT for a shared conserved motif) found in all plant genomes, consisting of two clades: one containing TAC1-like genes; the other containing LAZY1, which contains an EAR motif, and promotes vertical shoot growth in Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis through influencing polar auxin transport. The data suggest that IGT genes are ancient, and play conserved roles in determining shoot growth angles in plants. Understanding how IGT genes modulate branch angles will provide insights into how different architectural growth habits evolved in terrestrial plants.
Related JoVE Video
Participation of CD161(+) and invariant natural killer T cells in pediatric asthma exacerbations.
Allergy Asthma Proc
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asthma has been defined as a disease of chronic airway inflammation in which many cells and cellular products participate with variable degrees of airflow obstruction and hyperresponsiveness that lead to recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. Prominent among these cellular elements are two cell types referred to as the invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and a subpopulation of T cells expressing the molecule CD161, which are both thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Although the presence of iNKT and other CD161(+) cells in murine models has been associated with asthma, relatively few studies have been performed in the adult patient with asthma that have been often conflicting and even fewer studies are available in children. The present study was performed to investigate the peripheral blood frequencies of iNKT and CD161(+) T cells in children with asthma. A total of 35 children, 19 stable asthmatic patients, 6 who had experienced an asthmatic attack within 24 hours and had not received any treatment, and 10 healthy controls, aged 6-12 years, were enrolled in the study. iNKT and CD161(+) T-cell frequencies in blood were measured together with quantitative levels of IL-4 and interferon (IFN) ? using a cytofluorimetric approach. The results show that iNKT cells are increased in pediatric asthmatic patients undergoing exacerbations of asthma. These cells also produced less IFN-? and more IL-4 than children with stable asthma and in healthy control children. These results suggest that iNKT cells might participate in the development of the asthmatic exacerbations. The increased production of IL-4 in conjunction with the decrease of IFN-? may be mechanistically responsible, at least partially, for the heightening of the immunologic response leading to the asthmatic attack in children. Knowledge of these interactive mechanisms involving the iNKT cell and our understanding of its role in the exacerbation of asthma hold great promise in the development of better diagnostic predictive markers of disease progression as well as new forms of therapeutic interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate and enamel matrix derivative for treatment of proximal class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To clinically evaluate proximal furcations treated with hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) isolated or combined with enamel matrix derivative (EMD).
Related JoVE Video
ABA may promote or delay peach fruit ripening through modulation of ripening- and hormone-related gene expression depending on the developmental stage.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peach (Prunus persica laevis L. Batsch) was chosen as a model to further clarify the physiological role of ABA during fruit ripening. To this aim, branches bearing one fruit at mid-S3, S3/S4 and S4 stages of fruit development and characterized by a different ripening index (I(AD)), as revealed by a non-destructive device called a DA-meter, were treated with ABA (0.02 mM) for 1 and 5 days. Exogenously applied ABA interfered with the progression of ripening leading to less ripe or riper fruit depending on the physiological stage. To better understand the molecular basis of ABA interference with ripening, the time-course changes in the expression of ethylene-, cell wall-, and auxin-related genes as well as other genes (NCED, PIP, LOX, AOS and SOT) was evaluated in the fruit mesocarp. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that in mid-S3 fruit transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling (ACS1, ACO1, ETR2, ERF2), cell wall softening-related (PG, PMEI, EXP1, EXP2) and auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, transport and perception (TRPB, IGPS, Aux/IAA, GH3, PIN1 and TIR1) genes were substantially down-regulated on day 5 indicating a ripening delay. On the contrary, in more advanced stages (S3/S4 and S4) the same genes were early (day 1) up-regulated suggesting an acceleration of ripening. Transcript profiling of other ripening-related genes revealed changes that were in accord with a ripening delay (mid-S3) or acceleration (S3/S4 and S4). Thus, in peach fruit, ABA appears to modulate ripening through interference not only with ethylene and cell wall but also with auxin-related genes.
Related JoVE Video
Specific detection of naturally occurring hepatitis C virus mutants with resistance to telaprevir and boceprevir (protease inhibitors) among treatment-naïve infected individuals.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of telaprevir and boceprevir, both protease inhibitors (PI), as part of the specifically targeted antiviral therapy for hepatitis C (STAT-C) has significantly improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates. However, different clinical studies have also identified several mutations associated with viral resistance to both PIs. In the absence of selective pressure, drug-resistant hepatitis C virus (HCV) mutants are generally present at low frequency, making mutation detection challenging. Here, we describe a mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR method for the specific detection of naturally occurring drug-resistant HCV mutants. MAMA PCR successfully identified the corresponding HCV variants, while conventional methods such as direct sequencing, endpoint limiting dilution (EPLD), and bacterial cloning were not sensitive enough to detect circulating drug-resistant mutants in clinical specimens. Ultradeep pyrosequencing was used to confirm the presence of the corresponding HCV mutants. In treatment-naïve patients, the frequency of all resistant variants was below 1%. Deep amplicon sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the structure of the viral population among these patients, showing that the evolution of the NS3 is limited to a rather small sequence space. Monitoring of HCV drug resistance before and during treatment is likely to provide important information for management of patients undergoing anti-HCV therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular epidemiology of autochthonous dengue virus strains circulating in Mexico.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important arthropod-borne viral infection in humans. Here, the genetic relatedness among autochthonous DENV Mexican isolates was assessed. Phylogenetic and median-joining network analyses showed that viral strains recovered from different geographic locations are genetically related and relatively homogeneous, exhibiting limited nucleotide diversity.
Related JoVE Video
Is ultra-violet radiation the main force shaping molecular evolution of varicella-zoster virus?
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Varicella (chickenpox) exhibits a characteristic epidemiological pattern which is associated with climate. In general, primary infections in tropical regions are comparatively less frequent among children than in temperate regions. This peculiarity regarding varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection among certain age groups in tropical regions results in increased susceptibility during adulthood in these regions. Moreover, this disease shows a cyclic behavior in which the number of cases increases significantly during winter and spring. This observation further supports the participation of environmental factors in global epidemiology of chickenpox. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this distinctive disease behavior are not understood completely. In a recent publication, Philip S. Rice has put forward an interesting hypothesis suggesting that ultra-violet (UV) radiation is the major environmental factor driving the molecular evolution of VZV.
Related JoVE Video
Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions.
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin-28B genotyping by melt-mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917, a useful tool for prediction of therapy response in hepatitis C patients.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several studies have identified associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring near the interleukin-28B (IL-28B) gene and response to antiviral treatment among hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Here, we describe a reliable melt-mismatch amplification mutation assay (melt-MAMA) PCR-based genotyping method for IL-28B which can be used in the management of HCV patients, helping to better define the course of therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of the pulmonary allergic granulocyte recruitment in rats exposed to DMTI-II, a Kunitz-type inhibitor isolated from Dimorphandra mollis seeds.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DMTI-II (23-kDa trypsin inhibitor purified from Dimorphandra mollis seeds) promotes acute inflammation accompanied by an early infiltration of eosinophils, a critical cell type involved in allergic diseases. We have evaluated here the capacity of DMTI-II to enhance the allergic pulmonary inflammation, looking over time to the leukocyte trafficking from bone marrow to peripheral blood, and their recruitment into the allergic airways. Male Wistar rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). At 2 to 16h prior to OVA challenge, animals were exposed to DMTI-II (10?g). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), circulating blood and bone marrow were examined at 24h post-OVA challenge. Challenge with OVA significantly increased the influx of total inflammatory cells, neutrophils and eosinophils in BAL and lung tissue. Pre-exposure to DMTI-II potentiated total inflammatory cell and neutrophil recruitment (p<0.05). Neutropoiesis and neutrophilia accompanied pulmonary cell influx. Pre-exposure to DMTI-II also significantly increased eosinophil recruitment to BAL, an effect starting at 4h, remaining markedly elevated at 16h (p<0.05). Eosinopoiesis and eosinophilia (seen within 2 to 4h) were also observed. Exposure to DMTI-II alone increased the IL-4 levels, and further increased the IL-4 levels in OVA-challenged rats. The levels of IgE, LTB(4) and eotaxin in OVA-challenged rats were greater compared with non-sensitized rats, but DMTI-II exposure failed to further enhance such levels. In summary, our study shows that DMTI-II itself presents granulocytopoietic activity, and enhances allergen-induced neutrophil and eosinophil mobilization from bone marrow to lung tissues that is accompanied by enhanced IL-4 production.
Related JoVE Video
The men and history behind the Venturi mask.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The delivery of supplemental oxygen is a critical part in the management of patients presenting with acute hypoxemia. While a number of delivery options are available, one of easiest and least invasive is the simple facemask or "Venturi" mask. Worldwide, these types of masks have been used for over 50 years. Developed initially as simple oxygen-delivery system, the face mask has evolved, acquiring more complexity and efficacy by the application of physical principles in an attempt to provide maximal patient benefit. The original Venturi mask was created by the British physician Earl James Moran Campbell. It was named after the Italian physicist Giovanni Battista Venturi who described the principal of increased velocity of a gas resulting in lower pressures, Campbell incorporated Venturis principle into the oxygen delivery facemask. By using this principle, precise oxygen delivery occurs, thus, representing the standard of supplemental oxygen facemasks today.
Related JoVE Video
Peri-implant reconstruction using autologous periosteum-derived cells and guided bone regeneration.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This investigation evaluated the bone healing in peri-implant defects treated with periosteum-derived cells (PCs) and guided bone regeneration (GBR).
Related JoVE Video
Periosteum-derived cells as an alternative to bone marrow cells for bone tissue engineering around dental implants. A histomorphometric study in beagle dogs.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of periosteum-derived cells (PCs) for tissue engineering in peri-implant defects.
Related JoVE Video
Cigarette smoke inhalation modulates gene expression in sites of bone healing: a study in rats.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation (CSI) on gene expression in alveolar bone healing sites.
Related JoVE Video
Taenia solium: immune response against oral or systemic immunization with purified recombinant calreticulin in mice.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recombinant functional Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) confers different degrees of protection in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response induced after oral or systemic immunization with an electroeluted rTsCRT in BALB/c mice. Oral immunization elicited high fecal IgA and the production of IL-4 and IL-5 by mesenteric lymph node cells after in vitro stimulation with rTSCRT, indicating a Th2 response. Mice subcutaneously immunized produced high amounts of serum IgG, being IgG1 (Th2-related) the predominant isotype, while in vitro stimulated spleen cells synthesized IL-4, IL-5 and also IFN-?, indicating a mixed Th1/Th2 cellular response after systemic immunization. Our data show that purified rTsCRT induces polarized Th2 responses after oral immunization of mice, a common characteristic of protective immunity against helminths and, consequently, a desirable hallmark in the search for a vaccine.
Related JoVE Video
[ErbB-2 expression and hormone receptor status in areas of transition from in situ to invasive ductal breast carcinoma].
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
to evaluate the expression of erbB-2 and of the estrogen and progesterone (ER/P) hormonal receptors in the transition regions between the in situ and the invasive fractions of ductal breast neoplasia (ISDC and IDC, respectively).
Related JoVE Video
Risk stratification for suspected acute coronary syndromes and heart failure in the emergency department.
Acute Card Care
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many professional societies publish acute intervention guidelines, and most are predicated on the knowledge of an accurate diagnosis. In the emergency department patients do not arrive with a diagnosis, rather they present with symptoms that must be evaluated in the context of their estimated illness severity. Unique to emergency medicine practice, and within a relatively short time frame, all emergency patients must go somewhere else. Appropriate dispositions may be home, admission to a chest pain center, hospitalization to a regular medical floor, or transfer to an intensive care unit, but they cannot stay in the emergency department. This disposition process must occur, even in the setting of great diagnostic uncertainty. Since an accurate diagnosis is a time dependent event, requiring data collection and analysis, emergency department disposition decisions may be based on risk estimates rather than an established diagnosis. Owing to the subjective nature of the early evaluation process, biomarkers currently determine much of the risk stratification process. In this manuscript, we discuss the value of biomarkers as an adjunct to the diagnosis and risk stratification process for patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndromes and acute heart failure.
Related JoVE Video
Resuscitation great. George W. Crile: a visionary mind in resuscitation.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
George Washington Crile was a successful surgeon who lived at the end of the 19th century. He was born on 11 November 1864 on a farm near Chili, Ohio. He became interested in the study of shock after a close friend died from hemorrhage. Crile dedicated his research years to the study of shock, cardiac arrest, and the use of adrenaline. His research on shock and cardiac arrest led to treatment guidelines that are still used today. He also participated in the Spanish-American War and in World War I as a Navy Surgeon and saved the lives of many soldiers with his principles of blood transfusion and sanitation. He is also known in the surgical world as the grandfather of radical neck dissection and received the Gold Lannelongue Medal and prize. Having written over 400 papers and 24 books, George W. Crile died from complications of bacterial endocarditis on 7th January 1943. Although they were published a long time ago, his contributions to medicine remain fundamental to clinical practice in todays operating rooms and critical care units.
Related JoVE Video
Steroidal and non-steroidal cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor anti-inflammatory drugs as pre-emptive medication in patients undergoing periodontal surgery.
Braz Dent J
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to compare the pre-emptive use of a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor with a well established steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for pain and edema relief following periodontal surgery for crown lengthening. Thirty patients requiring periodontal surgery were randomly assigned to receive one of the following medications: selective COX-2 inhibitor or steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, 60 min before the surgical procedure. To examine patient anxiety, a Corahs dental anxiety scale was applied before surgery. Using a visual analog scale, the extent of pain/discomfort during the trans-operative period and immediately after the surgery was measured. Additionally, intensity of pain/discomfort and edema were examined 4, 8, 12 and 24 h postoperatively. With regard to anxiety, no statistical differences between the groups were observed (p>0.05). With respect to the extent of pain/discomfort during the trans-operative, immediate and late postoperative period, data demonstrated no significant differences (p>0.05) between the COX-2 inhibitor and steroidal groups. With regard to edema, intragroup analysis did not reveal any statistically significant difference (p>0.05) during the 24 h following surgery in either group. In conclusion, both anti-inflammatory drugs presented a similar potential for pain and edema relief following periodontal surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Ethylene and auxin biosynthesis and signaling are impaired by methyl jasmonate leading to a transient slowing down of ripening in peach fruit.
J. Plant Physiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peach (Prunus persica) was chosen as a model to further clarify the physiological role of jasmonates (JAs) during fruit ripening. To this aim, the effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ, 0.88 mM), applied at a late stage (S3) of fruit development under field conditions (in planta), on the time-course of fruit ripening over a 14-day period was evaluated. As revealed by a non-destructive device called a DA-meter, exogenously applied MJ impaired the progression of ripening leading to less ripe fruit at harvest. To better understand the molecular basis of MJ interference with ripening, the time-course changes in the expression of ethylene-, cell wall-, and auxin-related genes as well as other genes (LOX, AOS and bZIP) was evaluated in the fruit mesocarp. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that transcript levels of ethylene-related genes were strongly affected. In a first phase (days 2 and/or 7) of the MJ response, mRNAs of the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACO1, ACS1 and the receptor gene ETR2 were strongly but transiently down-regulated, and then returned to or above control levels in a second phase (days 11 and/or 14). Auxin biosynthetic, conjugating, transport and perception gene transcripts were also affected. While biosynthetic genes (TRPB and IGPS) were up-regulated, auxin-conjugating (GH3), perception (TIR1) and transport (PIN1) genes were transiently but strongly down-regulated in a first phase, but returned to control levels subsequently. Transcript levels of two JA-related genes (LOX, AOS) and a developmentally regulated transcription factor (bZIP) were also affected, suggesting a shift ahead of the ripening process. Thus, in peach fruit, the transient slowing down of ripening by exogenous MJ was associated with an interference not only with ethylene but also with auxin-related genes.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology of varicella in Mexico.
J. Clin. Virol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The epidemiological patterns of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, which are strongly associated with climate, are characterized by more frequent infections occurring among children in temperate regions than in the tropics. In temperate regions, varicella exhibits a seasonal cyclic behavior in which the number of cases increases significantly during the winter and spring seasons, further supporting the role of environmental factors in disease transmission. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this distinctive behavior are not fully understood. In Mexico, information regarding the epidemiology of varicella is scarce, and the distribution of VZV infection has not been analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
Spermidine application to young developing peach fruits leads to a slowing down of ripening by impairing ripening-related ethylene and auxin metabolism and signaling.
Physiol Plant
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peach (Prunus persica var. laevis Gray) was chosen to unravel the molecular basis underlying the ability of spermidine (Sd) to influence fruit development and ripening. Field applications of 1 mM Sd on peach fruit at an early developmental stage, 41 days after full bloom (dAFB), i.e. at late stage S1, led to a slowing down of fruit ripening. At commercial harvest (125 dAFB, S4II) Sd-treated fruits showed a reduced ethylene production and flesh softening. The endogenous concentration of free and insoluble conjugated polyamines (PAs) increased (0.3-2.6-fold) 1 day after treatment (short-term response) butsoon it declined to control levels; starting from S3/S4, when soluble conjugated forms increased (up to five-fold relative to controls at ripening), PA levels became more abundant in treated fruits, (long-term response). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that peaks in transcript levels of fruit developmental marker genes were shifted ahead in accord with a developmental slowing down. At ripening (S4I-S4II) the upregulation of the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACO1 and ACS1 was dramatically counteracted by Sd and this led to a strong downregulation of genes responsible for fruit softening, such as PG and PMEI. Auxin-related gene expression was also altered both in the short term (TRPB) and in the long term (GH3, TIR1 and PIN1), indicating that auxin plays different roles during development and ripening processes. Messenger RNA amounts of other hormone-related ripening-regulated genes, such as NCED and GA2-OX, were strongly downregulated at maturity. Results suggest that Sd interferes with fruit development/ripening by interacting with multiple hormonal pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Diabetes mellitus may increase bone loss after occlusal trauma and experimental periodontitis.
J. Periodontol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can negatively influence periodontal tissues, resulting in more prevalent and severe periodontitis and impaired bone formation. Occlusal trauma (OT) is an injury of the supportive periodontium that results in bone loss. It can be hypothesized that DM would increase bone loss after OT, mainly when associated with periodontitis. Thus, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of DM on bone response in the furcation area of teeth subjected to OT in the presence, or absence, of experimental periodontitis (EP) in the rat model.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of hepatitis C virus transmission using a next-generation sequencing approach.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, we describe a transmission event of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injection drug users. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to assess the intrahost viral genetic variation. Deep amplicon sequencing of HCV hypervariable region 1 allowed for a detailed analysis of the structure of the viral population. Establishment of the genetic relatedness between cases was accomplished by phylogenetic analysis. NGS is a powerful tool with applications in molecular epidemiology studies and outbreak investigations.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.