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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Studying cell cycle checkpoints using Drosophila cultured cells.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Drosophila cell lines are valuable tools to study a number of cellular processes, including DNA damage responses and cell cycle checkpoint control. Using an in vitro system instead of a whole organism has two main advantages: it saves time and simple and effective molecular techniques are available. It has been shown that Drosophila cells, similarly to mammalian cells, display cell cycle checkpoint pathways required to survive DNA damaging events (de Vries et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 1833-1842; Bae et al. 1995, Experimental Cell Research 217, 541-545). Moreover, a number of proteins involved in checkpoint and cell cycle control in mammals are highly conserved among different species, including Drosophila (de Vries et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 1833-1842; Bae et al. 1995, Experimental Cell Research 217, 541-545; LaRocque et al. 2007, Genetics 175, 1023-1033; Sibon et al. 1999, Current Biology 9, 302-312; Purdy et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 3305-3315). Because of straightforward and highly efficient methods to downregulate specific transcripts in Drosophila cells, these cells are an excellent system for genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens. Thus, the following methods, assays and techniques: Drosophila cell culture, RNAi, introducing DNA damaging events, determination of cell cycle arrest, and determination of cell cycle distributions described here may well be applied to identifying new players in checkpoint mechanisms and will be helpful to investigate the function of these new players in detail. Results obtained with studies using in vitro systems can subsequently be extended to studies in the complete organism as described in the chapters provided by the Su laboratory and the Takada laboratory.
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Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-known determining factor for the acetylation status of proteins. However, the influence of Coenzyme A levels on protein acetylation is unknown. Here we investigate whether decreased levels of the central metabolite Coenzyme A induce alterations in protein acetylation and whether this correlates with specific phenotypes of PKAN models. We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, decreased locomotor function and decreased survival. Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development.
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Pantethine rescues a Drosophila model for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is associated with impairment of pantothenate kinase function. Pantothenate kinase is the first enzyme required for de novo synthesis of CoA, an essential metabolic cofactor. The pathophysiology of PKAN is not understood, and there is no cure to halt or reverse the symptoms of this devastating disease. Recently, we and others presented a PKAN Drosophila model, and we demonstrated that impaired function of pantothenate kinase induces a neurodegenerative phenotype and a reduced lifespan. We have explored this Drosophila model further and have demonstrated that impairment of pantothenate kinase is associated with decreased levels of CoA, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased protein oxidation. Furthermore, we searched for compounds that can rescue pertinent phenotypes of the Drosophila PKAN model and identified pantethine. Pantethine feeding restores CoA levels, improves mitochondrial function, rescues brain degeneration, enhances locomotor abilities, and increases lifespan. We show evidence for the presence of a de novo CoA biosynthesis pathway in which pantethine is used as a precursor compound. Importantly, this pathway is effective in the presence of disrupted pantothenate kinase function. Our data suggest that pantethine may serve as a starting point to develop a possible treatment for PKAN.
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Stwl modifies chromatin compaction and is required to maintain DNA integrity in the presence of perturbed DNA replication.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Hydroxyurea, a well-known DNA replication inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and intact checkpoint functions are required to survive DNA replication stress induced by this genotoxic agent. Perturbed DNA synthesis also results in elevated levels of DNA damage. It is unclear how organisms prevent accumulation of this type of DNA damage that coincides with hampered DNA synthesis. Here, we report the identification of stonewall (stwl) as a novel hydroxyurea-hypersensitive mutant. We demonstrate that Stwl is required to prevent accumulation of DNA damage induced by hydroxyurea; yet, Stwl is not involved in S/M checkpoint regulation. We show that Stwl is a heterochromatin-associated protein with transcription-repressing capacities. In stwl mutants, levels of trimethylated H3K27 and H3K9 (two hallmarks of silent chromatin) are decreased. Our data provide evidence for a Stwl-dependent epigenetic mechanism that is involved in the maintenance of the normal balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin and that is required to prevent accumulation of DNA damage in the presence of DNA replication stress.
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Cofilin/Twinstar phosphorylation levels increase in response to impaired coenzyme a metabolism.
PLoS ONE
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Coenzyme A (CoA) is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK), which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture--a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.