Ticagrelor (Brilique®) is a novel reversible platelet inhibitor at P2Y12 receptor used in patients with acute coronary syndrome and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Unlike clopidogrel (Plavix®), ticagrelor has a quicker offset of action, and therefore, it seems that platelet function recovers faster on discontinuation of therapy. These drugs sometimes cannot be stopped before coronary artery bypass grafting due to the risk of stent thrombosis or in case of emergency operations. Therefore, we investigated whether the continued preoperative use of ticagrelor influences the perioperative course of cardiac surgical patients.
High-grade gliomas are amongst the most deadly human tumors. Treatment results are disappointing. Still, in several trials around 20% of patients respond to therapy. To date, diagnostic strategies to identify patients that will profit from a specific therapy do not exist.
The research on fast screening methods for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens in slaughter animals is important for food safety in farming and meat-processing industries. As a proof-of-concept study, antibodies against the emerging zoonotic pathogen hepatitis E virus (HEV) and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. were analyzed in parallel using immobilized recombinant antigens (rAgs) of HEV genotypes 1 and 3 and Yersinia outer protein D (YopD) on a flow-through chemiluminescence immunochip. These rAgs are usually part of commercially available line immunoassays (LIAs) used for human diagnostics. In this study, sera from slaughtered pigs were tested on the microarray analysis platform MCR 3 to detect anti-HEV and anti-Yersinia IgG. The new method was characterized regarding signal reproducibility and specificity. The analytical performance was compared with in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a LIA based on recomLine HEV (Mikrogen) or the ELISA test kit pigtype Yersinia Ab (Qiagen), respectively. The immunochip revealed the highest analytical sensitivity and was processed in 9 min automatically on the MCR 3. A comparative screening of swine serum samples from Bavarian slaughterhouses regarding anti-HEV and anti-Yersinia IgG seroprevalence was conducted. By using the LIA, 78% of the sera were tested positive for HEV antibodies. The immunochip and the ELISA identified anti-HEV IgG in 96% and 93% of the tested samples using the O2C-gt1 and O2C-gt3 rAg, respectively. The screening for anti-Yersinia IgG resulted in 86% positive findings using the immunochip and 57% and 48% for the ELISA methods, respectively, indicating a higher detection capability of the new method. Serum samples of slaughtered pigs could be analyzed faster and in an automated way on the microarray analysis platform MCR 3 which shows the great potential of the new immunochip assay format for multiplexed serum screening purposes.
Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), a small soluble secreted protein, is functionally important for progression of malignant melanoma. We recently revealed that p54(nrb) acts as a mediator of MIA action. In this study, we characterize the transcriptional regulation of p54(nrb) by MIA to explain MIAs molecular action. We identified one highly conserved region in the p54(nrb) promoter that is necessary and sufficient for MIA-dependent activation. Functional promoter analysis identified the transcription factor YBX1 as the mediator of MIA activation of p54(nrb) transcription. We screened the genome for further potential MIA-regulated genes carrying the element in their promoter regions. Integrating our sequence data with expression data from human melanomas identified a list of 23 potential MIA-YBX1 targets in melanomas. In summary, we present for the first time effects of MIA on transcriptional regulation. Uncovering new potential downstream effectors working via activation of YBX1 supports the important role of MIA in melanoma.
Duration and severity of obesity is a risk factor for developing left ventricular dysfunction, manifest cardiac damage and heart failure. To fulfill the increased energy demand with excessive body weight, the organism responds by phyiologic adaptation mechanism such as an increased blood volume, and structural and functional cardiac adaptations. These adaptations result in an increased stroke volume and cardiac output at rest and during exercise. In early stages of obesity an increased cardiac load is resulting in ventricular remodelling and diastolic dysfunction. As obesity becomes chronic a progressive impairment of diastolic and systolic function ensues, and finally a development of left heart failure. Therefore, already in early stages of cardiac overload and left ventricular dysfunction a sufficient and sustainable weight reduction should be targeted avoiding an impairment of diastolic and systolic function and development of heart failure in time.
Burkitts lymphoma (BL) is a highly malignant, aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphoma derived from germinal center B cells. Recently, global gene expression profiling of patient samples led to a molecular definition of BL with lymphocyte enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) as a signature gene. Herein, we report the expression of nucleic LEF1 in 15 of 18 patients with BL and the identification of LEF1 target genes. Germinal center B cells were devoid of detectable nuclear LEF1 expression, as were mantle cell lymphoma (0 of 5), marginal zone lymphoma (0 of 6), follicular lymphoma (0 of 12), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (1 of 31). Whole-genome gene expression profiling after transient knockdown of LEF1 in BL cell lines identified new LEF1 target genes; these LEF1 targets are enriched with genes associated with cancers. The expression of LEF1 and LEF1-regulated genes in primary BL suggests that LEF1 is not only aberrantly expressed but also transcriptionally active. This study supports a functionally important role for LEF1 and its target genes in BLs.
MIA/CD-RAP is a small, secreted protein involved in cartilage differentiation and melanoma progression. We recently revealed that p54(nrb) acts as a mediator of MIA/CD-RAP action to promote chondrogenesis and the progression of malignant melanoma. As the molecular mechanism of MIA/CD-RAP action in cartilage has not been defined in detail until now, we aimed to understand the regulation of p54(nrb) transcription in chondrogenesis. We concentrated on the previously described MIA/CD-RAP-dependent regulatory region in the p54(nrb) promoter and characterized the transcriptional regulation of p54(nrb) by MIA/CD-RAP in cartilage. A series of truncated p54(nrb) promoter constructs and mutagenesis analysis revealed that the transcription factor YBX1, which has not been investigated in chondrogenesis thus far, is the mediator of MIA/CD-RAP dependent activation of p54(nrb) transcription. A systematic analysis of genes carrying this binding site in their promoter region revealed further potential MIA/CD-RAP-regulated genes that have been implicated in cartilage differentiation. In summary, we described the effects of MIA/CD-RAP on transcriptional regulation in chondrocytes. Understanding the regulation of p54(nrb) via YBX1 contributes to the understanding of chondrogenesis. Uncovering new downstream effectors that function via the activation of YBX1 supports the important role of MIA/CD-RAP in these processes.
The work incapacity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) ranges between 3% and 50% in Europe. In many countries, work incapacity is difficult to quantify. The work ability index (WAI) is applied to measure the work ability in workers, but it is not well investigated in patients.
Meprin ? and ?, zinc metalloproteinases, play significant roles in inflammation, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), possibly by activating cytokines, like interleukin 1?, interleukin 18, or tumor growth factor ?. Although a number of potential activators for meprins are known, no endogenous inhibitors have been identified. In this work, we analyzed the inhibitory potential of human plasma and identified bovine fetuin-A as an endogenous meprin inhibitor with a K(i) (inhibition constant) of 4.2 × 10(-5) M for meprin ? and a K(i) of 1.1 × 10(-6) M meprin ?. This correlated with data obtained for a fetuin-A homologue from carp (nephrosin inhibitor) that revealed a potent meprin ? and ? inhibition (residual activities of 27 and 22%, respectively) at a carp fetuin concentration of 1.5 × 10(-6) M. Human fetuin-A is a negative acute phase protein involved in inflammatory diseases, thus being a potential physiological regulator of meprin activity. We report kinetic studies of fetuin-A with the proteolytic enzymes astacin, LAST, LAST_MAM, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, indeed demonstrating that fetuin-A is a broad-range protease inhibitor. Fetuin-A inhibition of meprin ? activity was 40 times weaker than that of meprin ? activity. Therefore, we tested cystatin C, a protein structurally closely related to fetuin-A. Indeed, cystatin C was an inhibitor for human meprin ? (K(i) = 8.5 × 10(-6) M) but, interestingly, not for meprin ?. Thus, the identification of fetuin-A and cystatin C as endogenous proteolytic regulators of meprin activity broadens our understanding of the proteolytic network in plasma.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is paradigmatic for the investigation of cancer stem cells (CSC) in solid tumors. Growing evidence suggests that different types of CSC lead to the formation of GBM. This has prompted the present comparison of gene expression profiles between 17 GBM CSC lines and their different putative founder cells. Using a newly derived 24-gene signature, we can now distinguish two subgroups of GBM: Type I CSC lines display "proneural" signature genes and resemble fetal neural stem cell (fNSC) lines, whereas type II CSC lines show "mesenchymal" transcriptional profiles similar to adult NSC (aNSC) lines. Phenotypically, type I CSC lines are CD133 positive and grow as neurospheres. Type II CSC lines, in contrast, display (semi-)adherent growth and lack CD133 expression. Molecular differences between type I and type II CSC lines include the expression of extracellular matrix molecules and the transcriptional activity of the WNT and the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways. Importantly, these characteristics were not affected by induced adherence on laminin. Comparing CSC lines with their putative cells of origin, we observed greatly increased proliferation and impaired differentiation capacity in both types of CSC lines but no cancer-associated activation of otherwise silent signaling pathways. Thus, our data suggest that the heterogeneous tumor entity GBM may derive from cells that have preserved or acquired properties of either fNSC or aNSC but lost the corresponding differentiation potential. Moreover, we propose a gene signature that enables the subclassification of GBM according to their putative cells of origin.
Twelve cluster groups of Escherichia coli O26 isolates found in three cattle farms were monitored in space and time. Cluster analysis suggests that only some O26:H11 strains had the potential for long-term persistence in hosts and farms. As judged by their virulence markers, bovine enterohemorrhagic O26:H11 isolates may represent a considerable risk for human infection.
High sympathetic tone creates a significant risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death, which can especially affect patients after a myocardial infarction (MI) when exercising in a hypoxic environment.
Burkitt lymphoma is a mature aggressive B-cell lymphoma derived from germinal center B cells. Its cytogenetic hallmark is the Burkitt translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants, which juxtapose the MYC oncogene with one of the three immunoglobulin loci. Consequently, MYC is deregulated, resulting in massive perturbation of gene expression. Nevertheless, MYC deregulation alone seems not to be sufficient to drive Burkitt lymphomagenesis. By whole-genome, whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of four prototypical Burkitt lymphomas with immunoglobulin gene (IG)-MYC translocation, we identified seven recurrently mutated genes. One of these genes, ID3, mapped to a region of focal homozygous loss in Burkitt lymphoma. In an extended cohort, 36 of 53 molecularly defined Burkitt lymphomas (68%) carried potentially damaging mutations of ID3. These were strongly enriched at somatic hypermutation motifs. Only 6 of 47 other B-cell lymphomas with the IG-MYC translocation (13%) carried ID3 mutations. These findings suggest that cooperation between ID3 inactivation and IG-MYC translocation is a hallmark of Burkitt lymphomagenesis.
Although brain tumors are classified and treated based upon their histology, the molecular factors involved in the development of various tumor types remain unknown. In this study, we show that the type and order of genetic events directs the development of gliomas, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid-like tumors from postnatal mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC). We found that the overexpression of specific genes led to the development of these three different brain tumors from NSC/NPCs, and manipulation of the order of genetic events was able to convert one established tumor type into another. In addition, loss of the nuclear chromatin-remodeling factor SMARCB1 in rhabdoid tumors led to increased phosphorylation of eIF2?, a central cytoplasmic unfolded protein response (UPR) component, suggesting a role for the UPR in these tumors. Consistent with this, application of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib led to an increase in apoptosis of human cells with reduced SMARCB1 levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that the order of genetic events determines the phenotypes of brain tumors derived from a common precursor cell pool, and suggest that the UPR may represent a therapeutic target in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.
Immune cell infiltration varies widely between different glioblastomas (GBMs). The underlying mechanism, however, remains unknown. Here we show that TGF-beta regulates proliferation, migration, and tumorigenicity of mesenchymal GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, proneural GBM CSCs resisted TGF-beta due to TGFR2 deficiency. In vivo, a substantially increased infiltration of immune cells was observed in mesenchymal GBMs, while immune infiltrates were rare in proneural GBMs. On a functional level, proneural CSC lines caused a significantly stronger TGF-beta-dependent suppression of NKG2D expression on CD8(+) T and NK cells in vitro providing a mechanistic explanation for the reduced immune infiltration of proneural GBMs. Thus, the molecular subtype of CSCs TGF-beta-dependently contributes to the degree of immune infiltration.
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