Failure of remyelination in diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), leads to permanent axonal damage and irreversible functional loss. The mechanisms controlling remyelination are currently poorly understood. Recent studies implicate the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in regulating oligodendrocyte (OL) development and myelination in CNS. In this study, we show that Cdk5 is also an important regulator of remyelination. Pharmacological inhibition of Cdk5 inhibits repair of lysolecithin lesions. This inhibition is a consequence of Cdk5 disruption in neural cells because remyelination in slice cultures is blocked by Cdk5 inhibitors, whereas specific deletion of Cdk5 in OLs inhibits myelin repair. In CNP-Cre;Cdk5(fl/fl) conditional knock-out mouse (Cdk5 cKO), myelin repair was delayed significantly in response to focal demyelinating lesions compared with wild-type animals. The lack of myelin repair was reflected in decreased expression of MBP and proteolipid protein and a reduction in the total number of myelinated axons in the lesion. The number of CC1(+) cells in the lesion sites was significantly reduced in Cdk5 cKO compared with wild-type animals although the total number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells (Olig2(+) cells) was increased, suggesting that Cdk5 loss perturbs the transition of early OL lineage cell into mature OL and subsequent remyelination. The failure of remyelination in Cdk5 cKO animals was associated with a reduction in signaling through the Akt pathway and an enhancement of Gsk-3? signaling pathways. Together, these data suggest that Cdk5 is critical in regulating the transition of adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells to mature OLs that is essential for myelin repair in adult CNS.
The symmetry of the hydrogen bond in hydrogen cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylate monoanion was determined in chloroform using the NMR method of isotopic perturbation. As the temperature decreases, the (18)O-induced (13)C chemical-shift separations increase not only at carboxyl carbons but also at ipso (alkene) carbons. The magnitude of the ipso increase is consistent with an (18)O isotope effect on carboxylic acid acidity. Therefore it is concluded that this monoanion is a mixture of tautomers in rapid equilibrium, rather than a single symmetric structure in which a chemical-shift separation arises from coupling between a desymmetrizing vibration and anharmonic isotope-dependent vibrations, which is expected to show the opposite temperature dependence.
In many cases, learning is thought to be driven by differences between the value of rewards we expect and rewards we actually receive. Yet learning can also occur when the identity of the reward we receive is not as expected, even if its value remains unchanged. Learning from changes in reward identity implies access to an internal model of the environment, from which information about the identity of the expected reward can be derived. As a result, such learning is not easily accounted for by model-free reinforcement learning theories such as temporal difference reinforcement learning (TDRL), which predicate learning on changes in reward value, but not identity. Here, we used unblocking procedures to assess learning driven by value- versus identity-based prediction errors. Rats were trained to associate distinct visual cues with different food quantities and identities. These cues were subsequently presented in compound with novel auditory cues and the reward quantity or identity was selectively changed. Unblocking was assessed by presenting the auditory cues alone in a probe test. Consistent with neural implementations of TDRL models, we found that the ventral striatum was necessary for learning in response to changes in reward value. However, this area, along with orbitofrontal cortex, was also required for learning driven by changes in reward identity. This observation requires that existing models of TDRL in the ventral striatum be modified to include information about the specific features of expected outcomes derived from model-based representations, and that the role of orbitofrontal cortex in these models be clearly delineated.
The Orphan Drug Act encourages the development of products for rare diseases and conditions. Many conditions that stand to benefit from stem cell-based products are rare diseases. We address the Orphan Drug Act in relation to the development of stem cell-based products.
Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical for reversal learning. Reversal deficits are typically demonstrated in complex settings that combine Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Yet recent work has implicated the OFC specifically in behaviors guided by cues and the features of the specific outcomes they predict. To test whether the OFC is important for reversing such Pavlovian associations in the absence of confounding instrumental requirements, we trained rats on a simple Pavlovian task in which two auditory cues were presented, one paired with a food pellet reward and the other presented without reward. After learning, we reversed the cue-outcome associations. For half the rats, OFC was inactivated prior to each reversal session. Inactivation of OFC impaired the ability of the rats to reverse conditioned responding. This deficit reflected the inability of inactivated rats to develop normal responding for the previously unrewarded cue; inactivation of OFC had no impact on the ability of the rats to inhibit responding to the previously rewarded cue. These data show that OFC is critical to reversal of Pavlovian responding, and that the role of OFC in this behavior cannot be explained as a simple deficit in response inhibition. Furthermore, the contrast between the normal inhibition of responding, reported here, and impaired inhibition of responding during Pavlovian over-expectation, reported previously, suggests the novel hypothesis that OFC may be particularly critical for learning (or behavior) when it requires the subject to generate predictions about outcomes by bringing together or integrating disparate pieces of associative information.
Humans and other animals change their behavior in response to unexpected outcomes. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is implicated in such adaptive responding, based on evidence from reversal tasks. Yet these tasks confound using information about expected outcomes with learning when those expectations are violated. OFC is critical for the former function; here we show it is also critical for the latter. In a Pavlovian overexpectation task, inactivation of OFC prevented learning driven by unexpected outcomes, even when performance was assessed later. We propose this reflects a critical contribution of outcome signaling by OFC to encoding of reward prediction errors elsewhere. In accord with this proposal, we report that signaling of reward predictions by OFC neurons was related to signaling of prediction errors by dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA). Furthermore, bilateral inactivation of VTA or contralateral inactivation of VTA and OFC disrupted learning driven by unexpected outcomes.
The thermosolvatochromism of nitrospiropyran free and bound to cyclodextrin was studied in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-water binary solvent systems. Spiropyran was interconverted to merocyanine by heating the sample to 55 °C. The merocyanine (MC) was converted back to spiropyran (SP) either by cooling the sample to room temperature or irradiating the sample with a visible light emitting diode. Steady state absorption spectra of SP and MC samples in the free state and bound to cyclodextrin were obtained in several DMSO-water binary solutions. Emission spectra of MC both free and cyclodextrin-bound were also acquired. Blue-shifted absorption and emission spectra of the studied molecules with increasing solvent polarity suggest that the dipole moments of free and bound merocyanines are higher in the ground state compared to the excited state. Merocyanine dipole moments in the ground and excited states were determined using thermosolvatochromism measurements and the Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev, and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet polarity functions. A large change in the dipole moment (ca. 16 D) of the merocyanine in aqueous DMSO was obtained upon electronic excitation, S(1) ? S(0). Analysis of the merocyanine Stokes shifts as a function of solvent polarity indicates that both general solvent effects and specific solvent effects are present in all systems studied. These findings reveal that merocyanine could be utilized as a polarity sensor for DMSO-water binary solutions.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.