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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Flexibility of the transverse arch of the forefoot.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To measure the percentage of the transverse arch length (%TAL) in 2 positions using a 3-dimensional motion capture system to determine the flexibility of the transverse arch of the forefoot.
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STOP accelerating lung aging for the treatment of COPD.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Life expectancy is assumed to rise continuously and consequently global burden of age-associated diseases is expected to increase. All vital organs begin to lose some function during aging with different rates, and the same happens on the lung. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs, which progresses very slowly and the majority of patients are therefore elderly. COPD is a major and increasing global health problem with enormous amount of expenditure of indirect/direct health care costs, and therefore, there is urgent need to clarify the molecular mechanism of COPD and develop novel treatments. We here hypothesize that environmental gases, such as cigarette smoke and kitchen pollutants, may accelerate the aging of lung or worsen aging-related events in the lung, leading to defective resolution of inflammation, reduced anti-oxidant capacity and defective disposal of abnormal proteins, and this consequently induces progression of COPD. Recent studies identified some anti-aging small molecules (geroprotectors) that may open up new avenues for the treatment of COPD.
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A touch panel surgical navigation system with automatic depth perception.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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A touch panel navigation system may be used to enhance endoscopic surgery, especially for cauterization. We developed and tested the in vitro performance of a new touch panel navigation (TPN) system.
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Activation of transcription factor Nrf2 signalling by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI-II is mediated by the formation of Keap1 dimers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Anti-oxidant capacity is crucial defence against environmental or endogenous oxidative stress. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that plays a key defensive role against oxidative and cytotoxic stress and cellular senescence. However, Nrf2 signalling is impaired in several aging-related diseases, such as chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD), cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, novel therapeutics that enhance Nrf2 signalling are an attractive approach to treat these diseases.
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Can we delay the accelerated lung aging in COPD? Anti-aging molecules and interventions.
Curr Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been recently characterized as a disease of accelerated lung aging. The prevalence of COPD is age-dependent suggesting an intimate relationship between the pathogenesis of COPD and aging. Lung function decline, the hallmark feature of COPD evolution, is more prominent with increasing age and this decline is greater in smoking individuals. One of the major goals of COPD pharmacotherapy is the development of drugs that would be able to result in a decrease of the decline in lung function over years. However, till nowadays smoking cessation is the only known intervention which is able to decelerate lung function decline. Several mechanisms of aging, including oxidative stress, inflammation and telomere shortening have been shown to be implicated in COPD. Furthermore, numerous anti-aging molecules, including sirtuins and Nrf-2 are reduced, and pathways such as mTOR and genes such as Klotho have also been shown to be abnormal in the lungs of COPD patients. The above mechanisms have been associated with the accelerated lung aging in COPD patients. Numerous therapeutic interventions have been studied in an attempt to reverse accelerated lung aging, and some of them have already been tested in clinical trials. The aim of the present review is to summarize the mechanisms associated with the accelerated lung aging in COPD and to provide information about the possible therapeutic implications targeting those mechanisms.
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[Acute transverse myelitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia--a case report].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Transverse myelitis is an inflammatory disorder of the spinal cord that results in motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. Herein, we describe a 40-year-old Japanese female who developed acute transverse myelitis (ATM) after an unrelated bone marrow transplantation for Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in molecular complete remission. Approximately 90 days after transplantation, she suffered from paresthesias, sphincter dysfunction, and lower extremity weakness. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated findings consistent with ATM. The symptoms were resolved with the administration of steroids, followed by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for a few sequelae. To the best of our knowledge, the presentation of ATM after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is relatively rare. As the functional prognosis of ATM depends on prompt diagnosis and treatment, we consider that ATM should be included in the differential diagnosis of post-transplant myelopathies.
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Rhinovirus infection causes steroid resistance in airway epithelium through nuclear factor ?B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Although inhaled glucocorticoids are the mainstays of asthma treatment, they are poorly effective at treating and preventing virus-induced asthma exacerbations. The major viruses precipitating asthma exacerbations are rhinoviruses.
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Sputum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 elevation by oxidative stress-dependent nuclear factor-?B activation in COPD.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an important regulator of fibrinolysis at sites of vascular injury and thrombus formation. Recently, sputum PAI-1 was reported to be elevated in COPD. However, the mechanism of PAI-1 elevation in COPD has yet to be clarified. Here, we show that PAI-1 elevation in COPD is closely associated with oxidative stress-induced nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation.
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A novel macrolide solithromycin exerts superior anti-inflammatory effect via NF-?B inhibition.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Macrolides are reported to reduce exacerbation of chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and also show anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. However the anti-inflammatory efficacies of current macrolides are relatively weak. Here we found that a novel macrolide/fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) showed superior anti-inflammatory effects to macrolides in current clinical use. The effects of solithromycin (SOL) on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF? (tumor necrosis factor ?) and/or CXCL8 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8; interleukin-8) release, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity and NF-?B (nuclear factor-?B) activity under conditions of oxidative stress have been evaluated and compared with the effects of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin in macrophage-like PMA-differentiated U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from COPD patients. We also examined effect of SOL on cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in mice. SOL exerted superior inhibitory effects on TNF?/CXCL8 production and MMP9 activity in monocytic U937 cells. In addition, SOL suppressed TNF? release and MMP9 activity in PBMC from COPD patients at 10 µM, which is 10 times more potent than the other macrolides tested. Activated NF-?B by oxidative stress was completely reversed by SOL. SOL also inhibited cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia and pro-MMP9 production in vivo, although erythromycin did not inhibit them. Thus, SOL showed better anti-inflammatory profiles compared with macrolides currently used in the clinic and may be a promising anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial macrolide for the treatment of COPD in future.
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Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation causes corticosteroid-refractory airway neutrophilia and hyperresponsiveness in mice.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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RNA virus infections, such as rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, induce exacerbations in patients with COPD and asthma, and the inflammation is corticosteroid refractory. The main aim of this study is to establish a murine model induced by a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist, an RNA virus mimic, and investigate the response to corticosteroid.
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The influence of severe hypoalbuminemia on the half-life of vancomycin in elderly patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus hospital-acquired pneumonia.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Vancomycin (VCM) treatment outcomes depend on the characteristics of the patient, and it is well known that hypoalbuminemia is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, as reported in a previous study. However, the reason that severe hypoalbuminemia has an influence on the treatment outcome of VCM remains unknown.
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Defect of adaptation to hypoxia in patients with COPD due to reduction of histone deacetylase 7.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia by activating oxygen-regulated genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin. Sputum VEGF levels are reported to be decreased in COPD, despite hypoxia. Here we show that patients with COPD fail to induce HIF-1? and VEGF under hypoxic condition because of a reduction in histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7.
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Denitrosylation of HDAC2 by targeting Nrf2 restores glucocorticosteroid sensitivity in macrophages from COPD patients.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is caused primarily by cigarette smoking, is a major health problem worldwide. The progressive decline in lung function that occurs in COPD is a result of persistent inflammation of the airways and destruction of the lung parenchyma. Despite the key role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of COPD, treatment with corticosteroids - normally highly effective antiinflammatory drugs - has little therapeutic benefit. This corticosteroid resistance is largely caused by inactivation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), which is critical for the transrepressive activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that mediates the antiinflammatory effect of corticosteroids. Here, we show that in alveolar macrophages from patients with COPD, S-nitrosylation of HDAC2 is increased and that this abolishes its GR-transrepression activity and promotes corticosteroid insensitivity. Cys-262 and Cys-274 of HDAC2 were found to be the targets of S-nitrosylation, and exogenous glutathione treatment of macrophages from individuals with COPD restored HDAC2 activity. Treatment with sulforaphane, a small-molecule activator of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), was also able to denitrosylate HDAC2, restoring dexamethasone sensitivity in alveolar macrophages from patients with COPD. These effects of sulforaphane were glutathione dependent. We conclude that NRF2 is a novel drug target for reversing corticosteroid resistance in COPD and other corticosteroid-resistant inflammatory diseases.
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p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-? inhibition by long-acting ?2 adrenergic agonists reversed steroid insensitivity in severe asthma.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Corticosteroid insensitivity (CI) is a major barrier to treating severe asthma. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanism of CI remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine abnormality in corticosteroid action in severe asthma and to identify the molecular mechanism of the long-acting ?(2)-adrenergic agonists (LABAs) formoterol and salmeterol on restoration of corticosteroid sensitivity in severe asthma in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 16 subjects with severe corticosteroid-insensitive asthma, 6 subjects with mild corticosteroid-sensitive asthma, and 11 healthy volunteers. Corticosteroid (dexamethasone) sensitivity was determined on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) phosphorylation and kinase phosphorylation were evaluated by immunoprecipitation-Western blotting analysis and kinase phosphorylation array in IL-2/IL-4-treated corticosteroid insensitive model in PBMCs. In vitro corticosteroid sensitivity on TNF-?-induced IL-8 production was significantly lower in patients with severe asthma than in healthy volunteers and patients with mild asthma. This CI seen in severe asthma was associated with reduced GR nuclear translocation and with hyperphosphorylation of GR, which were reversed by LABAs. In IL-2/IL-4-treated PBMCs, LABAs inhibited phosphorylation of Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-? (p38MAPK-?) as well as GR. In addition, cells with p38MAPK-? knockdown by RNA interference did not develop CI in the presence of IL-2/IL-4. Furthermore, p38MAPK-? protein expression was up-regulated in PBMCs from some patients with severe asthma. In conclusion, p38 MAPK-? activation impairs corticosteroid action and p38 MAPK-? inhibition by LABAs has potential for the treatment of severe asthma.
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Defects of protein phosphatase 2A causes corticosteroid insensitivity in severe asthma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Corticosteroid insensitivity is a major barrier of treatment for some chronic inflammatory diseases, such as severe asthma, but the molecular mechanism of the insensitivity has not been fully elucidated. The object of this study is to investigate the role of protein phosphate 2A (PP2A), a serine/threonine phosphatase, on corticosteroid sensitivity in severe asthma.
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Long-acting fluticasone furoate has a superior pharmacological profile to fluticasone propionate in human respiratory cells.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Currently available glucocorticoids are relatively short acting and may be less effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where high levels of oxidative stress are seen. Here we show that a novel glucocorticoid, fluticasone furoate (FF), has a longer duration of action in several cell systems compared with fluticasone propionate (FP) and budesonide, and unlike FP, FF is resistant to oxidative stress. FF had similar or slightly higher potency to FP and was 2-9 fold more potent than budesonide, when assessed at 4h, in inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production in epithelial cell lines (BEAS2B, A549), primary bronchial epithelial cells and a monocytic cell line (U937). The potency of FF was sustained beyond 16 h with or without washout compared with FP or budesonide, such that it showed a greater duration of action in this range of cellular assays. The activated YFP-conjugated glucocorticoid receptor was detectable in nuclei of FF treated BEAS2B cells for at least for 30 h, and FF had a longer duration of action than FP in inhibiting activation of transcription factors such as NF-?B and AP-1. In addition, FF showed superior effects to FP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COPD and also in U937 cells or primary bronchial epithelial cells under conditions of oxidative stress. The longer duration of action and oxidative stress insensitivity of FF compared with FP has potential clinical implications for the control of inflammation in respiratory diseases, such as COPD.
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Unbalanced oxidant-induced DNA damage and repair in COPD: a link towards lung cancer.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by oxidative stress and increased risk of lung carcinoma. Oxidative stress causes DNA damage which can be repaired by DNA-dependent protein kinase complex.
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Comparison of Symbicort® versus Pulmicort® on steroid pharmacodynamic markers in asthma patients.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2011
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Combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting ?(2)-adrenergic agonists (LABA) is reported to have superior effects on controlling asthma symptoms to ICS alone; however, there is no molecular-based evidence to explain the clinical effects. Here, the effect of the ICS/LABA combination was compared with ICS on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation in sputum macrophages.
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Nortriptyline reverses corticosteroid insensitivity by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-?.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Corticosteroid insensitivity represents a major barrier to the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe asthma. It is caused by oxidative stress, leading to reduced histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) function through activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-? (PI3K?). The tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline has been identified in high-throughput screens as an agent that increases corticosteroid responsiveness. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism whereby nortriptyline increases corticosteroid sensitivity. Phosphorylation of Akt, a footprint of PI3K activation, and HDAC activity were evaluated by Western blotting and fluorescent activity assay in U937 monocytic cells. Corticosteroid sensitivity was evaluated by the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)-induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) production by budesonide. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) increased the level of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and reduced HDAC activity. Pretreatment with nortriptyline inhibited pAkt induced by CSE and H(2)O(2) as well as restored HDAC activity that had been decreased by H(2)O(2) and CSE. In addition, nortriptyline inhibited PI3K? activity, but had no effect on the PI3K? and PI3K? isoforms. Although CSE reduced the effects of budesonide on TNF?-induced IL-8 production in U937 cells, nortriptyline reversed CSE-induced corticosteroid insensitivity. Nortriptyline restores corticosteroid sensitivity induced by oxidative stress via direct inhibition of PI3K? and is a potential treatment for corticosteroid-insensitive diseases such as COPD and severe asthma.
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Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H(2)O(2)-induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r=0.92, p<0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.
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Differential patterns of histone acetylation in inflammatory bowel diseases.
J Inflamm (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Post-translational modifications of histones, particularly acetylation, are associated with the regulation of inflammatory gene expression. We used two animal models of inflammation of the bowel and biopsy samples from patients with Crohns disease (CD) to study the expression of acetylated histones (H) 3 and 4 in inflamed mucosa. Acetylation of histone H4 was significantly elevated in the inflamed mucosa in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of colitis particularly on lysine residues (K) 8 and 12 in contrast to non-inflamed tissue. In addition, acetylated H4 was localised to inflamed tissue and to Peyers patches (PP) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated rat models. Within the PP, H3 acetylation was detected in the mantle zone whereas H4 acetylation was seen in both the periphery and the germinal centre. Finally, acetylation of H4 was significantly upregulated in inflamed biopsies and PP from patients with CD. Enhanced acetylation of H4K5 and K16 was seen in the PP. These results demonstrate that histone acetylation is associated with inflammation and may provide a novel therapeutic target for mucosal inflammation.
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Analysis of surgeons line of sight using an optical tracking system with a multifaceted marker device.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a widely used technique where operating surgeons alternate between direct vision through minithoracotomy and monitor-aided vision as required. We analyzed surgeons line of sight to assess their proficiency at using an optical tracking system with a multifaceted marker device.
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Osteoprotegerin in sputum is a potential biomarker in COPD.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation and inflammation of the respiratory tract. Several inflammatory biomarkers have been evaluated in COPD but are poorly related to disease severity and progression. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein mediator that is expressed in the lung and macrophages, so we have studied its concentration in induced sputum and macrophages of patients with COPD.
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Polymorphisms in the AR and PSA genes as markers of susceptibility and aggressiveness in prostate cancer.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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The study of genes involved in androgen pathway can contribute to a better knowledge of prostate cancer. Our aim was to examine if polymorphisms in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) genes were involved in prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP (PSA) or using a 377 ABI DNA Sequencer (AR). PSA(G/G) genotype (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.06–2.99) and AR short CAG repeats (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.21–2.96) increased risk for prostate cancer and were related with tumor aggressiveness. About 38.3% of tumors showed microsatellite instability. In conclusion, polymorphisms in these genes may be indicated as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer.
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A mouse model of amyloid beta oligomers: their contribution to synaptic alteration, abnormal tau phosphorylation, glial activation, and neuronal loss in vivo.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Although amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers are presumed to cause synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimers disease (AD), their contribution to other pathological features of AD remains unclear. To address the latter, we generated APP transgenic mice expressing the E693Delta mutation, which causes AD by enhanced Abeta oligomerization without fibrillization. The mice displayed age-dependent accumulation of intraneuronal Abeta oligomers from 8 months but no extracellular amyloid deposits even at 24 months. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory were impaired at 8 months, at which time the presynaptic marker synaptophysin began to decrease. Furthermore, we detected abnormal tau phosphorylation from 8 months, microglial activation from 12 months, astrocyte activation from 18 months, and neuronal loss at 24 months. These findings suggest that Abeta oligomers cause not only synaptic alteration but also other features of AD pathology and that these mice are a useful model of Abeta oligomer-induced pathology in the absence of amyloid plaques.
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Targeting phosphoinositide-3-kinase-delta with theophylline reverses corticosteroid insensitivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show a poor response to corticosteroids. This has been linked to a reduction of histone deacetylase-2 as a result of oxidative stress and is reversed by theophylline.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce apoptosis in human eosinophils and neutrophils.
J Inflamm (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Granulocytes are important in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. Apoptosis is pivotal in the resolution of inflammation. Apoptosis in malignant cells is induced by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, whereas HDAC inhibitors do not usually induce apoptosis in non-malignant cells. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of HDAC inhibitors on apoptosis in human eosinophils and neutrophils.
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Evaluation of the influence of polymorphic variants CYP1A1 2B, CYP1B1 2, CYP3A4 1B, GSTM1 0, and GSTT1 0 in prostate cancer.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P-450 (CYPs) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) genes can influence the appearance of tumors by the formation of new enzymes with altered activities. In the present study, 5 polymorphic variants were examined in 154 patients with prostate carcinoma and in 154 controls.
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha induces corticosteroid-insensitive inflammation via reduction of histone deacetylase-2 transcription.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory agents, but corticosteroid insensitivity is a major barrier for the treatment of some chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we show that hypoxia induces corticosteroid-insensitive inflammation via reduced transcription of histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) in lung epithelial and macrophage cells. HDAC2 mRNA and protein expression was reduced under hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)). Hypoxia enhanced interleukin-1beta-induced interleukin-8 (CXCL8) production in A549 cells and decreased the ability of dexamethasone to suppress the CXCL8 production. Deletion or point mutation studies revealed that binding of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1alpha to a HIF response element at position -320, but not HIF-1beta or HIF-2alpha, results in reduced polymerase II binding at the site, leading to reduced promoter activity of HDAC2. Our results suggest that activation of HIF-1alpha by hypoxia decreases HDAC2 levels, resulting in amplified inflammation and corticosteroid resistance.
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Nitric oxide synthase isoenzyme expression and activity in peripheral lung tissue of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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Nitric oxide (NO) is increased in the lung periphery of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, expression of the NO synthase(s) responsible for elevated NO has not been identified in the peripheral lung tissue of patients with COPD of varying severity.
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Immunohistochemical study of androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumors.
Braz Oral Res
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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The aim of this work was to study the immunohistochemical expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor in pleomorphic adenomas, Warthins tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas of salivary glands. A total of 41 pleomorphic adenomas, 30 Warthins tumors, 30 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 30 adenoid cystic carcinomas were analyzed, and the immunohistochemical expression of these hormone receptors were assessed. It was observed that all cases were negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Androgen receptor was positive in 2 cases each of pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. In conclusion, the results do not support a role of estrogen and progesterone in the tumorigenesis of pleomorphic adenomas, Warthins tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas. However, androgen receptors can play a role in a small set of salivary gland tumors, and this would deserve further studies.
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MUC5AC expression is increased in bronchial submucosal glands of stable COPD patients.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Mucus expectoration is a common feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MUC5AC and MUC5B, the major mucins, are released predominantly from submucosal glands in the central airways. The aim was to investigate gland size and MUC5AC and MUC5B expression in bronchial rings from smokers with COPD compared with control groups.
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Therapeutic targets for new therapy for corticosteroid refractory asthma.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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Corticosteroids are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of mild to moderate asthma. However, a small percentage of the asthma population (< 10%) do not respond well, or at all, to corticosteroid therapy, and this severe corticosteroid-refractory asthma contributes to more than 50% of health care expenditure for all asthma because these is no appropriate pharmacological therapy.
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Neutrophil elastase represses IL-8/CXCL8 synthesis in human airway smooth muscle cells through induction of NF-kappa B repressing factor.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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NF-kappaB repressing factor (NRF), a nuclear inhibitor of NF-kappaB, is constitutively expressed and is implicated in the basal silencing of specific NF-kappaB targeting genes, including IFN-beta, IL-8/CXCL8, and iNOS. Little is known about the regulation of NRF and its role in response to stimuli. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is a rich source of inflammatory mediators that may regulate the development and progression of airway inflammation. We have previously reported that NE activates NF-kappaB in primary human ASM (hASM), leading to induction of TGF-beta1. In this study, we describe that, instead of inducing the NF-kappaB response gene IL-8/CXCL8, NE suppressed IL-8/CXCL8 release and mRNA expression in hASM cells. Transcriptional blockade studies using actinomycin D revealed a similar degradation rate of IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA in the presence or absence of NE, suggesting an involvement at the transcription level. Mechanistically, the NE repressive effect was mediated by inducing NRF, as shown by RT-PCR and Western blotting, which was subsequently recruited to the native IL-8/CXCL8 promoter leading to removal of RNA polymerase II from the promoter, as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Knockdown of NRF by small interfering RNA prevented NE-induced suppression of IL-8/CXCL8 expression. In contrast, NE did not induce NRF expression in A549 and Beas-2B cells, where NE only stimulates NF-kappaB activation and IL-8/CXCL8 induction. Forced expression of NRF in A549 cells by an NRF expression plasmid suppressed IL-8/CXCL8 expression. Hence, we describe a novel negative regulatory mechanism of NE-induced NRF, which is restricted to hASM and mediates the suppression of IL-8/CXCL8 expression.
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Nitration of distinct tyrosine residues causes inactivation of histone deacetylase 2.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key molecules involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We have previously demonstrated that oxidative stress caused a reduction in HDAC2, resulting in amplified inflammation and reduced corticosteroid responsiveness. Here we showed nitrative/oxidative stress reduced HDAC2 expression via nitration of distinct tyrosine residues. Peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide and cigarette smoke-conditioned medium reduced HDAC2 expression in A549 epithelial cells in vitro. This reduction was due to increased proteasomal degradation following ubiquitination rather than reduction of mRNA expression or stability. HDAC2 was nitrated under nitrative/oxidative stress and in the peripheral lung tissues of smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mutagenesis studies replacing tyrosine (Y) residues with alanine revealed that Y253 is at least partly responsible for the proteasomal degradation of HDAC2 under nitrative stress. Thus, nitration of distinct tyrosine residues modifies both the expression and activity of HDAC2, having an impact on epigenetic regulation.
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A protein deacetylase SIRT1 is a negative regulator of metalloproteinase-9.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Inappropriate elevation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The object of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism underlying this increase of MMP9 expression, and here we show that oxidative stress-dependent reduction of a protein deacetylase, SIRT1, known as a putative antiaging enzyme, causes elevation of MMP9 expression. A sirtuin inhibitor, splitomycin, and SIRT1 knockdown by RNA interference led an increase in MMP9 expression in human monocytic U937 cells and in primary sputum macrophages, which was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot, activity assay, and zymography. In fact, the SIRT1 level was significantly decreased in peripheral lungs of patients with COPD, and this increase was inversely correlated with MMP9 expression and MMP9 promoter activation detected by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. H(2)O(2) reduced SIRT1 expression and activity in U937 cells; furthermore, cigarette smoke exposure also caused reduction of SIRT1 expression in lung tissue of A/J mice, with concomitant elevation of MMP9. Intranasal treatment of a selective and novel SIRT1 small molecule activator, SRT2172, blocked the increase of MMP9 expression in the lung as well as pulmonary neutrophilia and the reduction in exercise tolerance. Thus, SIRT1 is a negative regulator of MMP9 expression, and SIRT1 activation is implicated as a novel therapeutic approach to treating chronic inflammatory diseases, in which MMP9 is abundant.
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Oligomeric amyloid beta-protein as a therapeutic target in Alzheimers disease: its significance based on its distinct localization and the occurrence of a familial variant form.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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Oligomer Abeta is the term utilized for multimeric but non-fibrillar forms of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). The most prominent property of oligomer Abeta is considered to be its solubility and structure. Here, we examined the histochemical localization of oligomer Abeta in AD brains. At present, little information is available on the structure and function of cerebral oligomer Abeta. We therefore studied the molecular localization of oligomer Abeta using a newly generated polyclonal mouse antisera against a variant Abeta with a deletion mutation of the 22(nd) glutamate that we found recently in a patient with familial Alzheimers disease. Intracellular as well as extracellular oligomer Abeta are herein discussed to define their structure and pathological roles in disease.
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Effects of aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, on nitric oxide production and its metabolites in healthy control subjects, healthy smokers, and COPD patients.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by resident and inflammatory cells in the respiratory tract by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS), which exists in three isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS. NO production is increased in patients with COPD, and the production of NO under oxidative stress conditions generates reactive nitrogen species that may amplify the inflammatory response in COPD.
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Suppression of GATA-3 nuclear import and phosphorylation: a novel mechanism of corticosteroid action in allergic disease.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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GATA-3 plays a critical role in regulating the expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 from T helper-2 (Th2) cells and therefore is a key mediator of allergic diseases. Corticosteroids are highly effective in suppressing allergic inflammation, but their effects on GATA-3 are unknown. We investigated the effect of the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate on GATA-3 regulation in human T-lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo.
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Salivary gland tumors: immunohistochemical study of EGF, EGFR, ErbB-2, FAS and Ki-67.
Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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To analyze the expression of ErbB-1 (Her-1 or EGFR), ErbB-2 (Her-2 or neu), ErbB-3 (Her-3) and ErbB-4 (Her-4) and their correlation in 3 different types of salivary gland tumors.
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Peroxynitrite elevation in exhaled breath condensate of COPD and its inhibition by fudosteine.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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Peroxynitrite (PN) formed by the reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide is a powerful oxidant/nitrosant. Nitrative stress is implicated in COPD pathogenesis, but PN has not been detected due to a short half-life (< 1 s) at physiologic condition. Instead, 3-nitrotyrosine has been measured as a footprint of PN release.
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Inhibition of PI3Kdelta restores glucocorticoid function in smoking-induced airway inflammation in mice.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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There is an increasing prevalence of reduced responsiveness to glucocorticoid therapy in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The molecular mechanism of this remains unknown. Recent studies have shown that histone deacetylase activity, which is critical to glucocorticoid function, is altered by oxidant stress and may be involved in the development of glucocorticoid insensitivity.
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The E693Delta mutation in amyloid precursor protein increases intracellular accumulation of amyloid beta oligomers and causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in cultured cells.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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The E693Delta mutation within the amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been suggested to cause dementia via the enhanced formation of synaptotoxic amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers. However, this mutation markedly decreases Abeta secretion, implying the existence of an additional mechanism of neuronal dysfunction that is independent of extracellular Abeta. We therefore examined the effects of this mutation on both APP processing to produce Abeta as well as subcellular localization and accumulation of Abeta in transfected HEK293 and COS-7 cells. Both beta- and gamma-cleavage of mutant APP increased, indicating a lack of inhibition in Abeta production. Instead, this mutation promoted Abeta accumulation within cells, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, early and late endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes, all of which have been proposed as intracellular sites of Abeta generation and/or degradation, suggesting impairment of APP/Abeta trafficking. Notably, the intracellular mutant Abeta was found to predominantly form oligomers. Concomitant with this accumulation, the ER stress markers Grp78 and phosphorylated eIF2alpha were both strongly induced. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-4 and -3 as well as DNA fragmentation were detected in these cells. These results suggest that mutant Abeta induces alteration of Abeta trafficking and subsequent ER stress-induced apoptosis via enhancement of its intracellular oligomerization. Our findings suggest that Abeta oligomers exhibit toxicity in the extracellular space and within the cells themselves.
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COPD as a disease of accelerated lung aging.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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There is increasing evidence for a close relationship between aging and chronic inflammatory diseases. COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs, which progresses very slowly and the majority of patients are therefore elderly. We here review the evidence that accelerating aging of lung in response to oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of COPD, particularly emphysema. Aging is defined as the progressive decline of homeostasis that occurs after the reproductive phase of life is complete, leading to an increasing risk of disease or death. This results from a failure of organs to repair DNA damage by oxidative stress (nonprogrammed aging) and from telomere shortening as a result of repeated cell division (programmed aging). During aging, pulmonary function progressively deteriorates and pulmonary inflammation increases, accompanied by structural changes, which are described as senile emphysema. Environmental gases, such as cigarette smoke or other pollutants, may accelerate the aging of lung or worsen aging-related events in lung by defective resolution of inflammation, for example, by reducing antiaging molecules, such as histone deacetylases and sirtuins, and this consequently induces accelerated progression of COPD. Recent studies of the signal transduction mechanisms, such as protein acetylation pathways involved in aging, have identified novel antiaging molecules that may provide a new therapeutic approach to COPD.
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Interactive multicentre teleconferences using open source software in a team of thoracic surgeons.
J Telemed Telecare
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Real-time consultation between a team of thoracic surgeons is important for the management of difficult cases. We established a system for interactive teleconsultation between multiple sites, based on open-source software. The graphical desktop-sharing system VNC (virtual network computing) was used for remotely controlling another computer. An image-processing package (OsiriX) was installed on the server to share the medical images. We set up a voice communication system using Voice Chatter, a free, cross-platform voice communication application. Four hospitals participated in the trials. One was connected by gigabit ethernet, one by WiMAX and one by ADSL. Surgeons at three of the sites found that it was comfortable to view images and consult with each other using the teleconferencing system. However, it was not comfortable using the client that connected via WiMAX, because of dropped frames. Apart from the WiMAX connection, the VNC-based screen-sharing system transferred the clinical images efficiently and in real time. We found the screen-sharing software VNC to be a good application for medical image interpretation, especially for a team of thoracic surgeons using multislice CT scans.
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Geroprotectors as a novel therapeutic strategy for COPD, an accelerating aging disease.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progresses very slowly and the majority of patients are therefore elderly. COPD is characterized by an abnormal persistent inflammatory response to noxious environmental stimuli and there are increasing evidences for a close relationship between premature aging and chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, COPD is considered to be a disease of an accelerating aging. In this review, we collected the evidence for roles of aging on pathogenesis of COPD and considered future therapeutic strategy for COPD based on this senescence hypothesis. Since calorie restriction has been proved to extend lifespan, many efforts were made to clarify the molecular mechanism of aging. Aging is defined as the progressive decline of homeostasis that occurs after the reproductive phase of life is complete, leading to an increasing risk of disease or death due to impaired DNA repair after damage by oxidative stress or telomere shortening as a result of repeated cell division. During aging, pulmonary function progressively deteriorates; innate immunity is impaired and pulmonary inflammation increases, accompanied by structural changes, such as an enlargement of airspaces. Noxious environmental gases, such as cigarette smoke, may worsen these aging-related events in the lung or accelerate aging of the lung due to reduction in anti-aging molecules and/or stimulation of aging molecules. Aging signaling are complex but conserved in divert species, such as worm, fruit fry, rodent and humans. Especially the insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) signaling was well documented. Geroprotectors are therapeutics that affect the root cause of aging and age-related diseases, and thus prolong the life-span of animals. Most of geroprotectors such as melatonin, metformin, rapamycin and resveratrol are anti-oxidant or anti-aging molecule regulators. Therefore, geroprotection for the lung might be an attractive approach for the treatment of COPD by preventing premature aging of lung.
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Rhinovirus infection induces degradation of antimicrobial peptides and secondary bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections. Objectives: To investigate relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations.
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Restoration of corticosteroid sensitivity by p38 mitogen activated protein kinase inhibition in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from severe asthma.
PLoS ONE
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Severe asthma accounts for a small number of asthmatics but represents a disproportionate cost to health care systems. The underlying mechanism in severe asthma remains unknown but several mechanisms are likely to be involved because of a very heterogeneous profile. We investigated the effects of a p38MAPK inhibitor in corticosteroid sensitivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from severe asthmatics and the profile of its responders.
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Increased corticosteroid sensitivity by a long acting ?2 agonist formoterol via ?2 adrenoceptor independent protein phosphatase 2A activation.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
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Long-acting ?2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) are reported to enhance anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids in vitro and in vivo, although the molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the role of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) on regulation of corticosteroid sensitivity via inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) phosphorylation as the target of formoterol, an LABA. Corticosteroid sensitivity was determined as IC50 to dexamethasone (Dex) on TNF?-induced IL-8 release in a U937 monocytic cell line (Dex-IC50). Phosphorylation levels of GR-Ser226 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were determined by western-blotting. Phosphatase activity of immunopurified PP2A was measured by fluorescence-based assay. Exposure to IL-2/IL-4 for 48 h decreased Dex sensitivity with a concomitant increase of GR phosphorylation at Ser226 with JNK1 activation. Formoterol restored Dex sensitivity by inhibiting phosphorylation of GR-Ser226 and JNK1. PP2A inhibition by okadaic acid, a phosphatase inhibitor, abrogated formoterol-mediated effects. In addition, formoterol enhanced PP2A activity in intact or IL-2/IL-4 treated U937 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, PP2A activation by formoterol was not antagonized by ICI-118551, and formoterol could activate PP2A directly in cell free system. Taken together, formoterol increases corticosteroid sensitivity via activation of PP2A in receptor independent manner, explaining its benefits as add-on therapy for the treatment of corticosteroid-insensitive diseases, such as severe asthma.
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STAT6 expression in T cells, alveolar macrophages and bronchial biopsies of normal and asthmatic subjects.
J Inflamm (Lond)
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Asthma is characterised by increased numbers of Th2-like cells in the airways and IgE secretion. Generation of Th2 cells requires interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 acting through their specific receptors and activating the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6). STAT6 knockout mice fail to produce IgE, airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia after allergen sensitisation, suggesting a critical role for STAT6 in allergic responses.
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Passive smoking impairs histone deacetylase-2 in children with severe asthma.
Chest
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Parental smoking is known to worsen asthma symptoms in children and make them refractory to asthma treatment, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Recently, oxidative stress from tobacco smoke has been reported to impair histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) via phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation and thus to reduce corticosteroid sensitivity. The aim of this study is to investigate passive smoking dependent molecular abnormalities in alveolar macrophages by comparing passive smoke exposed children and non-passive smoke exposed children with uncontrolled severe asthma.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.