Despite the increasing popularity of data-independent acquisition workflows, data-dependent acquisition (DDA) is still the prevalent method of LC-MS-based proteomics. DDA is the basis of isobaric mass tagging technique, a powerful MS2 quantification strategy that allows coanalysis of up to 10 proteomics samples. A well-documented limitation of DDA, however, is precursor coselection, whereby a target peptide is coisolated with other ions for fragmentation. Here, we investigated if additional peptide purification by traveling wave ion mobility separation (TWIMS) can reduce precursor contamination using a mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and HeLa proteomes. In accordance with previous reports on FAIMS-Orbitrap instruments, we find that TWIMS provides a remarkable improvement (on average 2.85 times) in the signal-to-noise ratio for sequence ions. We also report that TWIMS reduces reporter ions contamination by around one-third (to 14-15% contamination) and even further (to 6-9%) when combined with a narrowed quadrupole isolation window. We discuss challenges associated with applying TWIMS purification to isobaric mass tagging experiments, including correlation between ion m/z and drift time, which means that coselected peptides are expected to have similar mobility. We also demonstrate that labeling results in peptides having more uniform m/z and drift time distributions than observed for unlabeled peptides. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001047.
Mitochondrial toxicity is increasingly being implicated as a contributing factor to many xenobiotic-induced organ toxicities, including skeletal muscle toxicity. This has necessitated the need for predictive in vitro models that are able to sensitively detect mitochondrial toxicity of chemical entities early in the research and development process. One such cell model involves substituting galactose for glucose in the culture media. Since cells cultured in galactose are unable to generate sufficient ATP from glycolysis they are forced to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for ATP generation and consequently are more sensitive to mitochondrial perturbation than cells grown in glucose. The aim of this study was to characterise cellular growth, bioenergetics and mitochondrial toxicity of the L6 rat skeletal muscle cell line cultured in either high glucose or galactose media. L6 myoblasts proliferated more slowly when cultured in galactose media, although they maintained similar levels of ATP. Galactose cultured L6 cells were significantly more sensitive to classical mitochondrial toxicants than glucose-cultured cells, confirming the cells had adapted to galactose media. Analysis of bioenergetic function with the XF Seahorse extracellular flux analyser demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was significantly increased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), a measure of glycolysis, was decreased in cells grown in galactose. Mitochondria operated closer to state 3 respiration and had a lower mitochondrial membrane potential and basal mitochondrial O2 (•-) level compared to cells in the glucose model. An antimycin A (AA) dose response revealed that there was no difference in the sensitivity of OCR to AA inhibition between glucose and galactose cells. Importantly, cells in glucose were able to up-regulate glycolysis, while galactose cells were not. These results confirm that L6 cells are able to adapt to growth in a galactose media model and are consequently more susceptible to mitochondrial toxicants.
Apoptosis and necroptosis are dependent on the formation/activation of distinct multi-protein complexes; these include the Death-Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC), apoptosome, piddosome, necrosome and ripoptosome. Despite intense research, the mechanisms that regulate assembly/function of several of these cell death signalling platforms remain to be elucidated. It is now increasingly evident that the composition and stoichiometry of components within these key signalling platforms not only determines the final signalling outcome but also the mode of cell death. Characterising these complexes can therefore provide new insights into how cell death is regulated and also how these cell death signalling platforms could potentially be targeted in the context of disease. Large multi-protein complexes can initially be separated according to their size by gel filtration or sucrose density gradient centrifugation followed by subsequent affinity-purification or immunoprecipitation. The advantage of combining these techniques is that you can assess the assembly of individual components into a complex and then assess the size and stoichiometric composition of the native functional signalling complex within a particular cell type. This, alongside reconstitution of a complex from its individual core components can therefore provide new insight into the mechanisms that regulate assembly/function of key multi-protein signalling complexes. Here, we describe the successful application of a range of methodologies that can be used to characterise the assembly of large multi-protein complexes such as the apoptosome, DISC and ripoptosome. Together with their subsequent purification and/or reconstitution, these approaches can provide novel insights into how cell death signalling platforms are regulated in both normal cell physiology and disease.
A better understanding of the mechanisms through which anticancer drugs exert their effects is essential to improve combination therapies. While studying how genotoxic stress kills cancer cells, we discovered a large ?2MDa cell death-inducing platform, referred to as "Ripoptosome." It contains the core components RIP1, FADD, and caspase-8, and assembles in response to genotoxic stress-induced depletion of XIAP, cIAP1 and cIAP2. Importantly, it forms independently of TNF, CD95L/FASL, TRAIL, death-receptors, and mitochondrial pathways. It also forms upon Smac-mimetic (SM) treatment without involvement of autocrine TNF. Ripoptosome assembly requires RIP1s kinase activity and can stimulate caspase-8-mediated apoptosis as well as caspase-independent necrosis. It is negatively regulated by FLIP, cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP. Mechanistically, IAPs target components of this complex for ubiquitylation and inactivation. Moreover, we find that etoposide-stimulated Ripoptosome formation converts proinflammatory cytokines into prodeath signals. Together, our observations shed new light on fundamental mechanisms by which chemotherapeutics may kill cancer cells.
The intracellular regulation of cell death pathways by cIAPs has been enigmatic. Here we show that loss of cIAPs promotes the spontaneous formation of an intracellular platform that activates either apoptosis or necroptosis. This 2 MDa intracellular complex that we designate "Ripoptosome" is necessary but not sufficient for cell death. It contains RIP1, FADD, caspase-8, caspase-10, and caspase inhibitor cFLIP isoforms. cFLIP(L) prevents Ripoptosome formation, whereas, intriguingly, cFLIP(S) promotes Ripoptosome assembly. When cIAPs are absent, caspase activity is the "rheostat" that is controlled by cFLIP isoforms in the Ripoptosome and decides if cell death occurs by RIP3-dependent necroptosis or caspase-dependent apoptosis. RIP1 is the core component of the complex. As exemplified by our studies for TLR3 activation, our data argue that the Ripoptosome critically influences the outcome of membrane-bound receptor triggering. The differential quality of cell death mediated by the Ripoptosome may cause important pathophysiological consequences during inflammatory responses.
An initial stage of many neurodegenerative processes is associated with compromised synaptic function and precedes synapse loss, neurite fragmentation, and neuronal death. We showed previously that deficiency of heme, regulating many proteins of pharmacological importance, causes neurodegeneration of primary cortical neurons via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent suppression of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Here, we asked whether the reduction of heme causes synaptic perturbation before neurite fragmentation in neuronal cultures and investigated molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunction in these cells. We showed the change in the NR2B subunit phosphorylation that correlates with compromised NMDAR function after the reduction of regulatory heme and a rapid rescue of NR2B phosphorylation and NMDAR function by exogenous heme. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated diminished NMDAR currents and NMDAR-mediated calcium influx after 24 h of inhibition of heme synthesis. These effects were reversed by treatment with heme; however, inhibition of the Src family kinases abolished the rescue effect of heme on NMDA-evoked currents. Diminished NMDAR current and Ca(2+) influx resulted in suppressed cGMP production and impairment of spine formation. Exogenous heme exerted rescue effects on NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and NMDA-evoked currents within minutes, suggesting direct interactions within the NMDAR complex. These synaptic changes after inhibition of heme synthesis occurred at this stage without apparent dysfunction of major hemoproteins. We conclude that regulatory heme is necessary in maintaining NR2B phosphorylation and NMDAR function. NMDAR failure occurs before neurite fragmentation and may be a causal factor in neurodegeneration; this could suggest a route for an early pharmacological intervention.
The identification of proteins aberrantly expressed in malignant B-cells can potentially be used to develop new diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic targets. Proteomic studies of B-cell malignancies have made significant progress, but further studies are needed to increase our coverage of the B-cell malignant proteome. To achieve this goal we stress the advantages of using sub-cellular fractionation, protein separation, quantitation and affinity purification techniques to identify hitherto unidentified signalling and regulatory proteins. For example, proteomic analysis of B-cell plasma membranes isolated from patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) identified the voltage-gated proton channel (HVCN1,). This protein has now been characterised as a key modulator of B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling and abrogation of HVCN1 function could have a role in the treatment of B-cell malignancies dependent on maintained BCR signalling . Similarly, proteomic studies on cell lysates from prognostic subtypes of CLL, distinguished by the absence (UM-CLL) or presence (M-CLL) of somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus identified nucleophosmin 1 (NMP1) as a potential prognostic marker [3,4]. Thus, targeted proteomic analysis on selected organelles or sub-cellular compartments can identify novel proteins with unexpected localisation or function in malignant B-cells that could be developed for clinical purposes.
Mutations of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), an essential component of the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage pathway, can give rise to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDS). These clinically heterogeneous disorders are characterized by severe reduction in mtDNA copy number in affected tissues and are associated with progressive myopathy, hepatopathy and/or encephalopathy, depending in part on the underlying nuclear genetic defect. Mutations of TK2 have previously been associated with an isolated myopathic form of MDS (OMIM 609560). However, more recently, neurological phenotypes have been demonstrated in patients carrying TK2 mutations, thus suggesting that loss of TK2 results in neuronal dysfunction. Here, we directly address the role of TK2 in neuronal homeostasis using a knockout mouse model. We demonstrate that in vivo loss of TK2 activity leads to a severe ataxic phenotype, accompanied by reduced mtDNA copy number and decreased steady-state levels of electron transport chain proteins in the brain. In TK2-deficient cerebellar neurons, these abnormalities are associated with impaired mitochondrial bioenergetic function, aberrant mitochondrial ultrastructure and degeneration of selected neuronal types. Overall, our findings demonstrate that TK2 deficiency leads to neuronal dysfunction in vivo, and have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of neurological impairment in MDS.
Voltage-gated proton currents regulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In B cells, stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the production of ROS that participate in B cell activation, but the involvement of proton channels is unknown. We report here that the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 associated with the BCR complex and was internalized together with the BCR after activation. BCR-induced generation of ROS was lower in HVCN1-deficient B cells, which resulted in attenuated BCR signaling via impaired BCR-dependent oxidation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. This resulted in less activation of the kinases Syk and Akt, impaired mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis and diminished antibody responses in vivo. Our findings identify unanticipated functions for proton channels in B cells and demonstrate the importance of ROS in BCR signaling and downstream metabolism.
The death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) is critical for initiation of death-receptor-mediated apoptosis; however, paradoxically, CD95 also signals for cell survival. Here, we reconstitute a functional DISC using only purified CD95, FADD, and procaspase-8 and unveil a two-step activation mechanism involving both dimerization and proteolytic cleavage of procaspase-8 that is obligatory for death-receptor-induced apoptosis. Initially, dimerization yields active procaspase-8 with a very restricted substrate repertoire, limited to itself or c-FLIP. Proteolytic cleavage is then required to fully activate caspase-8, thereby permitting DISC-mediated cleavage of the critical exogenous apoptotic substrates, caspase-3 and Bid. This switch in catalytic activity and substrate range is a key determinant of DISC signaling, as cellular expression of noncleavable procaspase-8 mutants, which undergo DISC-mediated oligomerization, but not cleavage, fails to initiate CD95-induced apoptosis. Thus, using the reconstituted DISC, we have delineated a crucial two-step activation mechanism whereby activated death receptor complexes can trigger death or survival.
We used shotgun proteomics to identify plasma membrane and lipid raft proteins purified from B cells obtained from mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients in leukemic phase. Bioinformatics identified 111 transmembrane proteins, some of which were profiled in primary MCL cases, MCL-derived cell lines, and normal B cells using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Several transmembrane proteins, including CD27, CD70, and CD31 (PECAM-1), were overexpressed when compared with normal B cells. CD70 was up-regulated (>10-fold) in three of five MCL patients along with its cognate receptor CD27, which was up-regulated (4-9-fold) in five of five patients, suggesting that MCL cells may undergo autocrine stimulation via this signaling pathway. Activated calpain I and protein kinase C betaII were also detected in the plasma membranes, suggesting that these proteins are constitutively active in MCL. Protein kinase C betaII has been associated with lipid rafts, and shotgun proteomics/protein profiling revealed that key lipid raft proteins, raftlin (four of five patients) and CSK (C-terminal Src kinase)-binding protein (Cbp)/phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG) (four of four patients) were down-regulated in MCL. Levels of other known lipid raft proteins, such as Lyn kinase and flotillin 1, were similar to normal B cells. However, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), a key enzyme in leukotriene biosynthesis, was associated with lipid rafts and was up-regulated approximately 7-fold in MCL compared with normal B cells. Significantly inhibitors of 5-LO activity (AA861) and 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) (MK886, its activating enzyme) induced apoptosis in MCL cell lines and primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, indicating an important role for the leukotriene biosynthetic pathway in MCL and other B cell malignancies. Thus, using shotgun proteomics and mRNA and protein expression profiling we identified a subset of known and unknown transmembrane proteins with aberrant expression in MCL plasma membranes. These proteins may play a role in the pathology of the disease and are potential therapeutic targets in MCL.
TRAIL, a putative anticancer cytokine, induces extrinsic cell death by activating the caspase cascade directly (Type I cells) via the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) or indirectly (Type II cells) by caspase-8 cleavage of Bid and activation of the mitochondrial cell death pathway. Cancer cells are characterized by their dependence on aerobic glycolysis, which, although inefficient in terms of ATP production, facilitates tumor metabolism. Our studies show that TRAIL-induced cell death is significantly affected by the metabolic status of the cell. Inhibiting glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose potentiates TRAIL-induced cell death, whereas glucose deprivation can paradoxically inhibit apoptosis. These conflicting responses to glycolysis inhibition are modulated by the balance between the Akt and AMPK pathways and their subsequent downstream regulation of mTORC1. This results in marked changes in protein translation, in which the equilibrium between anti- and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member proteins is decided by their individual degradation rates. This regulates the mitochondrial cell death pathway and alters its sensitivity not only to TRAIL, but to ABT-737, a Bcl-2 inhibitor. Taken together, our studies show that the sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis can be modulated by targeting their unique metabolism in order to enhance sensitivity to apoptotic agents.
Formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) is a critical step in death receptor-mediated apoptosis, yet the mechanisms underlying assembly of this key multiprotein complex remain unclear. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we have delineated the stoichiometry of the native TRAIL DISC. While current models suggest that core DISC components are present at a ratio of 1:1, our data indicate that FADD is substoichiometric relative to TRAIL-Rs or DED-only proteins; strikingly, there is up to 9-fold more caspase-8 than FADD in the DISC. Using structural modeling, we propose an alternative DISC model in which procaspase-8 molecules interact sequentially, via their DED domains, to form a caspase-activating chain. Mutating key interacting residues in procaspase-8 DED2 abrogates DED chain formation in cells and disrupts TRAIL/CD95 DISC-mediated procaspase-8 activation in a functional DISC reconstitution model. This provides direct experimental evidence for a DISC model in which DED chain assembly drives caspase-8 dimerization/activation, thereby triggering cell death.
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