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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock.
Mol Metab
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with reduced protein levels of GLUT4, the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, and TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase involved in GLUT4 translocation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was also reduced due to altered expression of circadian genes Pdk4 and Pdp1, coding for PDH kinase and phosphatase, respectively. PDH inhibition leads to reduced glucose oxidation and diversion of glycolytic intermediates to alternative metabolic pathways, as revealed by metabolome analysis. The impaired glucose metabolism induced by muscle-specific Bmal1 knockout suggests that a major physiological role of the muscle clock is to prepare for the transition from the rest/fasting phase to the active/feeding phase, when glucose becomes the predominant fuel for skeletal muscle.
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Reprogramming of the circadian clock by nutritional challenge.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Circadian rhythms and cellular metabolism are intimately linked. Here, we reveal that a high-fat diet (HFD) generates a profound reorganization of specific metabolic pathways, leading to widespread remodeling of the liver clock. Strikingly, in addition to disrupting the normal circadian cycle, HFD causes an unexpectedly large-scale genesis of de novo oscillating transcripts, resulting in reorganization of the coordinated oscillations between coherent transcripts and metabolites. The mechanisms underlying this reprogramming involve both the impairment of CLOCK:BMAL1 chromatin recruitment and a pronounced cyclic activation of surrogate pathways through the transcriptional regulator PPAR?. Finally, we demonstrate that it is specifically the nutritional challenge, and not the development of obesity, that causes the reprogramming of the clock and that the effects of the diet on the clock are reversible.
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Myeloid calcifying cells promote atherosclerotic calcification via paracrine activity and allograft inflammatory factor-1 overexpression.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Several cell types contribute to atherosclerotic calcification. Myeloid calcifying cells (MCCs) are monocytes expressing osteocalcin (OC) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Herein, we tested whether MCCs promote atherosclerotic calcification in vivo. We show that the murine spleen contains OC(+)BAP(+) cells with a phenotype similar to human MCCs, a high expression of adhesion molecules and CD11b, and capacity to calcify in vitro and in vivo. Injection of GFP(+) OC(+)BAP(+) cells into 8- or 40-week ApoE(-/-) mice led to more extensive calcifications in atherosclerotic areas after 24 or 4 weeks, respectively, compared to control OC(-)BAP(-) cells. Despite that OC(+)BAP(+) cells had a selective transendothelial migration capacity, tracking of the GFP signal revealed that presence of injected cells within atherosclerotic areas was an extremely rare event and so GFP mRNA was undetectable by qPCR of lesion extracts. By converse, injected OC(+)BAP(+) cells persisted in the bloodstream and bone marrow up to 24 weeks, suggesting a paracrine effect. Indeed, OC(+)BAP(+) cell-conditioned medium (CM) promoted calcification by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) more than CM from OC(-)BAP(-) cells. A genomic and proteomic investigation of MCCs identified allograft inflammatory factor (AIF)-1 as a potential candidate of this paracrine activity. AIF-1 stimulated VSMC calcification in vitro and monocyte-specific (CD11b-driven) AIF-1 overexpression in ApoE(-/-) mice increased calcium content in atherosclerotic areas. In conclusion, we show that murine OC(+)BAP(+) cells correspond to human MCCs and promote atherosclerotic calcification in ApoE(-/-) mice, through paracrine activity and modulation of resident cells by AIF-1 overexpression.
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Muscle type and fiber type specificity in muscle wasting.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Muscle wasting occurs in a variety of conditions, including both genetic diseases, such as muscular dystrophies, and acquired disorders, ranging from muscle disuse to cancer cachexia, from heart failure to aging sarcopenia. In most of these conditions, the loss of muscle tissue is not homogeneous, but involves specific muscle groups, for example Duchenne muscular dystrophy affects most body muscles but spares extraocular muscles, and other dystrophies affect selectively proximal or distal limb muscles. In addition, muscle atrophy can affect specific fiber types, involving predominantly slow type 1 or fast type 2 muscle fibers, and is frequently accompanied by a slow-to-fast or fast-to-slow fiber type shift. For example, muscle disuse, such as spinal cord injury, causes type 1 fiber atrophy with a slow-to-fast fiber type shift, whereas cancer cachexia leads to preferential atrophy of type 2 fibers with a fast-to-slow fiber type shift. The identification of the signaling pathways responsible for the differential response of muscles types and fiber types can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of muscle wasting and to the design of therapeutic interventions appropriate for the specific disorders. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting.
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Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth and atrophy.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Skeletal muscle mass increases during postnatal development through a process of hypertrophy, i.e. enlargement of individual muscle fibers, and a similar process may be induced in adult skeletal muscle in response to contractile activity, such as strength exercise, and specific hormones, such as androgens and ?-adrenergic agonists. Muscle hypertrophy occurs when the overall rates of protein synthesis exceed the rates of protein degradation. Two major signaling pathways control protein synthesis, the IGF1-Akt-mTOR pathway, acting as a positive regulator, and the myostatin-Smad2/3 pathway, acting as a negative regulator, and additional pathways have recently been identified. Proliferation and fusion of satellite cells, leading to an increase in the number of myonuclei, may also contribute to muscle growth during early but not late stages of postnatal development and in some forms of muscle hypertrophy in the adult. Muscle atrophy occurs when protein degradation rates exceed protein synthesis, and may be induced in adult skeletal muscle in a variety of conditions, including starvation, denervation, cancer cachexia, heart failure and aging. Two major protein degradation pathways, the proteasomal and the autophagic-lysosomal pathways, are activated during muscle atrophy and variably contribute to the loss of muscle mass. These pathways involve a variety of atrophy-related genes or atrogenes, which are controlled by specific transcription factors, such as FoxO3, which is negatively regulated by Akt, and NF-?B, which is activated by inflammatory cytokines.
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Eccentric contractions lead to myofibrillar dysfunction in muscular dystrophy.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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It is commonly accepted that skeletal muscles from dystrophin-deficient mdx mice are more susceptible than those from wild-type mice to damage from eccentric contractions. However, the downstream mechanisms involved in this enhanced force drop remain controversial. We studied the reduction of contractile force induced by eccentric contractions elicited in vivo in the gastrocnemius muscle of wild-type mice and three distinct models of muscle dystrophy: mdx, alpha-sarcoglycan (Sgca)-null, and collagen 6A1 (Col6a1)-null mice. In mdx and Sgca-null mice, force decreased 35% compared with 14% in wild-type mice. Drop of force in Col6a1-null mice was comparable to that in wild-type mice. To identify the determinants of the force drop, we measured force generation in permeabilized fibers dissected from gastrocnemius muscle that had been exposed in vivo to eccentric contractions and from the contralateral unstimulated muscle. A force loss in skinned fibers after in vivo eccentric contractions was detectable in fibers from mdx and Sgca-null, but not wild-type and Col6a1-null, mice. The enhanced force reduction in mdx and Sgca-null mice was observed only when eccentric contractions were elicited in vivo, since eccentric contractions elicited in vitro had identical effects in wild-type and dystrophic skinned fibers. These results suggest that 1) the enhanced force loss is due to a myofibrillar impairment that is present in all fibers, and not to individual fiber degeneration, and 2) the mechanism causing the enhanced force reduction is active in vivo and is lost after fiber permeabilization.
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NFAT isoforms control activity-dependent muscle fiber type specification.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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The intracellular signals that convert fast and slow motor neuron activity into muscle fiber type specific transcriptional programs have only been partially defined. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (Cn) has been shown to mediate the transcriptional effects of motor neuron activity, but precisely how 4 distinct muscle fiber types are composed and maintained in response to activity is largely unknown. Here, we show that 4 nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) family members act coordinately downstream of Cn in the specification of muscle fiber types. We analyzed the role of NFAT family members in vivo by transient transfection in skeletal muscle using a loss-of-function approach by RNAi. Our results show that, depending on the applied activity pattern, different combinations of NFAT family members translocate to the nucleus contributing to the transcription of fiber type specific genes. We provide evidence that the transcription of slow and fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC) genes uses different combinations of NFAT family members, ranging from MyHC-slow, which uses all 4 NFAT isoforms, to MyHC-2B, which only uses NFATc4. Our data contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms whereby activity can modulate the phenotype and performance of skeletal muscle.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.