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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Single-agent tenofovir versus combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 acquisition: an update of data from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine, has been shown to be efficacious for HIV-1 prevention. Although the use of more than one antiretroviral agent is essential for effective HIV-1 treatment, more than one agent might not be required for effective prophylaxis. We assessed the efficacy of single-agent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate relative to combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as PrEP.
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The effects of HIV testing advocacy messages on test acceptance: a randomized clinical trial.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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BackgroundNearly 1 in 5 people living with HIV in the United States are unaware they are infected. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate health communication messages that clinicians can use to encourage HIV testing.MethodsThe objective was to evaluate health communication messages designed to increase HIV testing rates among women and evaluate possible moderators of message effect. We used a randomized four-arm clinical trial conducted at urban community outpatient health clinics involving 1,919 female patients, 18 to 64 years old. The four health message intervention groups were: i) information-only control; ii) one-sided message describing the advantages of HIV testing; iii) two-sided message acknowledging a superficial objection to testing (i.e., a 20 minute wait for results) followed by a description of the advantages of testing; and iv) two-sided message acknowledging a serious objection (i.e., fear of testing positive for HIV) followed by a description of the advantages of testing. The main outcome was acceptance of an oral rapid HIV test.ResultsParticipants were randomized to receive the control message (n =483), one-sided message (n =480), two-sided message with a superficial objection (n =481), or two-sided message with a serious objection (n =475). The overall rate of HIV test acceptance was 83%. The two-sided message groups were not significantly different from the controls. The one-sided message group, however, had a lower rate of testing (80%) than the controls (86%) (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47¿0.93; P =0.018). ¿Perceived obstacles to HIV testing¿ moderated this effect, indicating that the decrease in HIV test acceptance for the one-sided message group was only statistically significant for those who had reported high levels of obstacles to HIV testing (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.19¿0.67; P =0.001).ConclusionsNone of the messages increased test acceptance. The one-sided message decreased acceptance and this effect was particularly true for women with greater perceived obstacles to testing, the very group one would most want to persuade. This finding suggests that efforts to persuade those who are reluctant to get tested, in some circumstances, may have unanticipated negative effects. Other approaches to messaging around HIV testing should be investigated, particularly with diverse, behaviorally high-risk populations.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00771537. Registration date: October 10. 2008.
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Daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis reduces herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among heterosexual HIV-1-uninfected men and women: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or in combination with emtricitabine (FTC-TDF) reduces the risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Tenofovir has in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).
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Helicase-primase inhibitor pritelivir for HSV-2 infection.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Pritelivir, an inhibitor of the viral helicase-primase complex, exhibits antiviral activity in vitro and in animal models of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. We tested the efficacy and safety of pritelivir in otherwise healthy persons with genital HSV-2 infection.
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HIV-1 subtype C is not associated with higher risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission: a multinational study among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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HIV-1 subtype C has emerged as the most prevalent strain of HIV-1 worldwide, leading to speculation that subtype C may be more transmissible than other subtypes. We compared the risk of HIV-1 transmission for subtype C versus non-C subtypes (A, D, G and recombinant forms) among heterosexual African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.
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Daily acyclovir to decrease herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) transmission from HSV-2/HIV-1 coinfected persons: a randomized controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Daily suppressive therapy with valacyclovir reduces risk of sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in HSV-2-serodiscordant heterosexual couples by 48%. Whether suppressive therapy reduces HSV-2 transmission from persons coinfected with HSV-2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is unknown.
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Partner characteristics predicting HIV-1 set point in sexually acquired HIV-1 among African seroconverters.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected "source partner" and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point ( + 0.44 log10 copies/ml per log(10) source partner plasma HIV-1, p < 0.001). In addition, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female source partners near the time of infection was associated with higher set point in their male seroconverters ( + 0.49 log(10), p = 0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision ( - 0.63 log(10), p = 0.03) and assignment to acyclovir ( - 0.44 log10, p = 0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners genital compartment.
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Plasma viral loads during early HIV-1 infection are similar in subtype C- and non-subtype C-infected African seroconverters.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Recent data suggest that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C results in prolonged high-level viremia (>5 log10 copies/mL) during early infection. We examined the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and plasma viremia among 153 African seroconverters. Mean setpoint viral loads were similar for C and non-C subtypes: 4.36 vs 4.42 log10 copies/mL (P = .61). The proportion of subtype C-infected participants with viral loads >5 log10 copies/mL was not greater than the proportion for those with non-C infection. Our data do not support the hypothesis that higher early viral load accounts for the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa.
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Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.
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Safety and immunogenicity of long HSV-2 peptides complexed with rhHsc70 in HSV-2 seropositive persons.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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HSV-2, the primary causative agent of genital herpes, establishes latency in sensory ganglia and reactivates causing recurrent lesions and viral shedding. Induction or expansion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses are expected to be important for a successful therapeutic vaccine against HSV-2. A candidate vaccine consisting of 32 synthetic 35mer HSV-2 peptides non-covalently complexed with recombinant human Hsc70 protein (named HerpV, formerly AG-707) was tested for safety and immunogenicity in a Phase I study. These peptides are derived from 22 HSV-2 proteins representative of all phases of viral replication. Thirty-five HSV-2 infected participants were randomized and treated in one of four groups: HerpV+QS-21 (saponin adjuvant), HerpV, QS-21, or vehicle. The vaccine was well tolerated and safe. All seven participants with evaluable samples who were administered HerpV with QS-21 demonstrated a statistically significant CD4(+) T cell response to HSV-2 antigens, and the majority of such participants demonstrated a statistically significant CD8(+) T cell response as well. To our knowledge, this is the first candidate vaccine against HSV-2 to demonstrate a broad CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response in HSV-2(+) participants, and the first HSP-based vaccine to show immune responses against viral antigens in humans.
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Imiquimod 3.75% cream applied daily to treat anogenital warts: combined results from women in two randomized, placebo-controlled studies.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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To evaluate if new imiquimod formulations using a shorter treatment duration are safe and efficacious to treat anogenital warts.
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Performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in seven African countries.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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To compare the performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the gold standard herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 western blot, among HIV-1-uninfected men and women in east and southern Africa.
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Herpes simplex virus type 2 suppressive therapy with acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for specific HIV-1 resistance in HIV-1/HSV-2 dually infected persons.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Recent in vitro studies suggest that acyclovir may directly inhibit HIV-1 replication and can select for a specific HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutation (V75I) with concomitant loss of an anti-HIV-1 effect. We tested for HIV-1 genotypic resistance at reverse transcriptase codon 75 in plasma from 168 HIV-1-infected persons from Botswana, Kenya, Peru, and the United States taking daily acyclovir or valacyclovir for between 8 weeks and 24 months. No V75I cases were detected (95% confidence interval, 0%-2.2%). These prospective in vivo studies suggest that standard-dose acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for HIV-1 resistance.
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Bariatric surgery outcomes in HIV-infected subjects: a case series.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Obesity is now a common problem among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Gastric bypass surgery may be an option for some patients who have failed diet and therapeutic lifestyle changes, changes in ART or other treatment modalities for HIV/ART-related lipohypertrophy and obesity. However, few data are available regarding HIV-related outcomes after such surgery and its impact on ART tolerability. We present here a case series of seven subjects with HIV infection who underwent bariatric surgery. Viral suppression was maintained in five of the six subjects who were receiving ART prior to surgery, including three subjects who experienced surgical complications. The median (range) decrease in body mass index (BMI) postoperatively was 10 kg/m(2) (6-28 kg/m(2)). Improvements were also seen in serum lipid fractions with median (range) changes in total cholesterol of -19 mg/dL (-61 to +3 mg/dL) and triglycerides of -185 mg/dL (-739 to +35 mg/dL). Four of the subjects had a reduction in their metabolic medication prescriptions postoperatively. Three of the subjects experienced postsurgical complications. Based on our experience, bariatric surgery may provide an effective treatment modality for obesity and its related comorbidities in the HIV-infected population while not sacrificing virologic suppression. Larger studies are needed to verify these results, especially in regards to surgical complications.
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Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in young adult women: risk factors for infection and frequency of viral shedding.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Population-based studies suggest that acquisition of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV 2) is most common between ages 20 and 29, especially in minority women. We examined HSV 2 infection and viral shedding in a cohort of young women.
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Implementation of routine access to herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody testing in a public health sexually transmitted disease clinic.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2009
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Testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibody is not common in clinical practice. Client characteristics associated with HSV-2 rapid antibody test uptake and test positivity were analyzed in clients attending an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic.
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Prevalence and persistence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical specimens from treatment-naive women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and explore the longitudinal association of HPV DNA with CD4 count and HIV viral load (VL).
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Once daily valacyclovir for reducing viral shedding in subjects newly diagnosed with genital herpes.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Genital herpes (GH) recurrences and viral shedding are more frequent in the first year after initial HSV-2 infection. The objective of this study was to provide the first evaluation of valacyclovir 1 g once daily compared to placebo in reducing viral shedding in subjects newly diagnosed with GH.
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Single-day famciclovir for the treatment of genital herpes: follow-up results of time to next recurrence and assessment of antiviral resistance.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Episodic therapy of genital herpes is usually recommended for patients with infrequent symptomatic recurrences and where transmission is not a concern. While shorter courses are as effective as standard 5-day regimens, it is unknown whether abbreviated therapy has detrimental effects on natural history and the development of antiviral resistance.
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Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.