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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Phylogenetic Position of Kofoidia loriculata (Parabasalia) and its Implications for the Evolution of the Cristamonadea.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Kofoidia loriculata is a parabasalid symbiont inhabiting the hindgut of the lower termite Paraneotermes simplicicornis. It was initially described as a lophomonad due to its apical tuft of multiple flagella that disintegrate during cell division, but its phylogenetic relationships have not been investigated using molecular evidence. From single cell isolations, we sequenced the small subunit rRNA gene and determined that K. loriculata falls within the Cristamonadea, but is unrelated to other lophomonads. This analysis further demonstrates the polyphyly of the lophomonads and the necessity to re-assess the morphological and cellular evolution of the Cristamonadea.
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Expanded newborn screening in New South Wales: missed cases.
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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There have been few reports of cases missed by expanded newborn screening. Tandem mass spectrometry was introduced in New South Wales, Australia in 1998 to screen for selected disorders of amino acid, organic acid and fatty acid metabolism. Of 1,500,000 babies screened by 2012, 1:2700 were diagnosed with a target disorder. Fifteen affected babies were missed by testing, and presented clinically or in family studies. In three cases (cobalamin C defect, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and glutaric aciduria type 1), this led to modification of analyte cut-off values or protocols during the first 3 years. Two patients with intermittent MSUD, two with ?-ketothiolase deficiency, two with citrin deficiency, two siblings with arginosuccinic aciduria, two siblings with homocystinuria, and one with cobalamin C defect had analyte values and ratios below the action limits which could not have been detected without unacceptable false-positive rates. A laboratory interpretation error led to missing one case of cobalamin C defect. Reference ranges, regularly reviewed, were not altered. For citrin deficiency, while relevant metabolites are detectable by tandem mass spectrometry, our cut-off values do not specifically screen for that disorder. Most of the missed cases are doing well and with no acute presentations although eight of 15 are likely to have been somewhat adversely affected by a late diagnosis. Analyte ratio and cut-off value optimisations are important, but for some disorders occasional missed cases may have to be tolerated to maintain an acceptable specificity, and avoid harm from screening.
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Activating HSP72 in rodent skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity and decreases insulin resistance.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised.
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Treatable childhood neuronopathy caused by mutations in riboflavin transporter RFVT2.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Childhood onset motor neuron diseases or neuronopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. A particularly severe subgroup first described in 1894, and subsequently called Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, is characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensorineural hearing loss and respiratory insufficiency. There has been no treatment for this progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to respiratory failure and usually death during childhood. We recently reported the identification of SLC52A2, encoding riboflavin transporter RFVT2, as a new causative gene for Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. We used both exome and Sanger sequencing to identify SLC52A2 mutations in patients presenting with cranial neuropathies and sensorimotor neuropathy with or without respiratory insufficiency. We undertook clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characterization of patients with mutations in SLC52A2, functionally analysed the most prevalent mutations and initiated a regimen of high-dose oral riboflavin. We identified 18 patients from 13 families with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SLC52A2. Affected individuals share a core phenotype of rapidly progressive axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (manifesting with sensory ataxia, severe weakness of the upper limbs and axial muscles with distinctly preserved strength of the lower limbs), hearing loss, optic atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. We demonstrate that SLC52A2 mutations cause reduced riboflavin uptake and reduced riboflavin transporter protein expression, and we report the response to high-dose oral riboflavin therapy in patients with SLC52A2 mutations, including significant and sustained clinical and biochemical improvements in two patients and preliminary clinical response data in 13 patients with associated biochemical improvements in 10 patients. The clinical and biochemical responses of this SLC52A2-specific cohort suggest that riboflavin supplementation can ameliorate the progression of this neurodegenerative condition, particularly when initiated soon after the onset of symptoms.
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Correlated SEM, FIB-SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS imaging of microbes from the hindgut of a lower termite: methods for in situ functional and ecological studies of uncultivable microbes.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The hindguts of lower termites harbor highly diverse, endemic communities of symbiotic protists, bacteria, and archaea essential to the termites ability to digest wood. Despite over a century of experimental studies, ecological roles of many of these microbes are unknown, partly because almost none can be cultivated. Many of the protists associate with bacterial symbionts, but hypotheses for their respective roles in nutrient exchange are based on genomes of only two such bacteria. To show how the ecological roles of protists and nutrient transfer with symbiotic bacteria can be elucidated by direct imaging, we combined stable isotope labeling (13C-cellulose) of live termites with analysis of fixed hindgut microbes using correlated scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution imaging mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). We developed methods to prepare whole labeled cells on solid substrates, whole labeled cells milled with a FIB-SEM instrument to reveal cell interiors, and ultramicrotome sections of labeled cells for NanoSIMS imaging of 13C enrichment in protists and associated bacteria. Our results show these methods have the potential to provide direct evidence for nutrient flow and suggest the oxymonad protist Oxymonas dimorpha phagocytoses and enzymatically degrades ingested wood fragments, and may transfer carbon derived from this to its surface bacterial symbionts.
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An unusual case of neck pain.
Pediatr Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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The complaint of nontraumatic neck pain in a pediatric patient without fever or any other symptoms is unusual and can be very challenging. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with imaging consistent with a rare diagnosis. This report discusses this diagnosis as well as the utility of advanced imaging and laboratory evaluations in the presentation of pediatric neck pain.
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Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of neonatal lethality in argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient mice.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Viral vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are showing exciting promise in gene therapy trials targeting the adult liver. A major challenge in extending this promise to the pediatric liver is the loss of episomal vector genomes that accompanies hepatocellular proliferation during liver growth. Hence maintenance of sufficient transgene expression will be critical for success in infants and children. We therefore set out to explore the therapeutic efficacy and durability of liver-targeted gene transfer in the challenging context of a neonatal lethal urea cycle defect, using the argininosuccinate synthetase deficient mouse. Lethal neonatal hyperammonemia was prevented by prenatal and early postnatal vector delivery; however, hyperammonemia subsequently recurred limiting survival to no more than 33 days despite vector readministration. Antivector antibodies acquired in milk from vector-exposed dams were subsequently shown to be blocking vector readministration, and were avoided by crossfostering vector-treated pups to vector-naive dams. In the absence of passively acquired antivector antibodies, vector redelivery proved efficacious with mice surviving to adulthood without recurrence of significant hyperammonemia. These data demonstrate the potential of AAV vectors in the developing liver, showing that vector readministration can be used to counter growth-associated loss of transgene expression provided the challenge of antivector humoral immunity is addressed.
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Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Staurojoenina mulleri sp. nov. (Trichonymphida, Parabasalia) from the hindgut of the kalotermitid Neotermes jouteli.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Staurojoenina is a large and structurally complex genus of hypermastigont parabasalians found in the hindgut of lower termites. Although several species of Staurojoenina have been described worldwide, all Staurojoenina observed to date in different species of North American termites have been treated as the same species, S. assimilis. Here, we characterize Staurojoenina from the North American termite Neotermes jouteli using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and phylogenetic analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA, and compare it with S. assimilis from its type host, Incisitermes minor. The basic morphological characteristics of the N. jouteli symbiont, including its abundant bacterial epibionts, are similar as far as they may be compared with existing data from S. assimilis, although not consistently identical. In contrast, we find that they are extremely distantly related at the molecular level, sharing a pairwise similarity of SSU rRNA genes comparable to that seen between different genera or even families of other parabasalians. Based on their evolutionary distance and habitat in different termite genera, we consider the N. jouteli Staurojoenina to be distinct from S. assimilis, and describe a new species, Staurojoenina mulleri, in honor of the pioneering parabasalian researcher, Miklos Muller.
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Direct chemical evidence for sphingolipid domains in the plasma membranes of fibroblasts.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Sphingolipids play important roles in plasma membrane structure and cell signaling. However, their lateral distribution in the plasma membrane is poorly understood. Here we quantitatively analyzed the sphingolipid organization on the entire dorsal surface of intact cells by mapping the distribution of (15)N-enriched ions from metabolically labeled (15)N-sphingolipids in the plasma membrane, using high-resolution imaging mass spectrometry. Many types of control experiments (internal, positive, negative, and fixation temperature), along with parallel experiments involving the imaging of fluorescent sphingolipids--both in living cells and during fixation of living cells--exclude potential artifacts. Micrometer-scale sphingolipid patches consisting of numerous (15)N-sphingolipid microdomains with mean diameters of ?200 nm are always present in the plasma membrane. Depletion of 30% of the cellular cholesterol did not eliminate the sphingolipid domains, but did reduce their abundance and long-range organization in the plasma membrane. In contrast, disruption of the cytoskeleton eliminated the sphingolipid domains. These results indicate that these sphingolipid assemblages are not lipid rafts and are instead a distinctly different type of sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane domain that depends upon cortical actin.
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Maternal riboflavin deficiency, resulting in transient neonatal-onset glutaric aciduria Type 2, is caused by a microdeletion in the riboflavin transporter gene GPR172B.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, is a precursor to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) molecules, required in biological oxidation-reduction reactions. We previously reported a case of a newborn female who had clinical and biochemical features of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD), which was corrected by riboflavin supplementation. The mother was then found to be persistently riboflavin deficient, suggesting that a possible genetic defect in riboflavin transport in the mother was the cause of the transient MADD seen in the infant. Two recently-identified riboflavin transporters G protein-coupled receptor 172B (GPR172B or RFT1) and riboflavin transporter 2 (C20orf54 or RFT2) were screened for mutations. Two missense sequence variations, c.209A>G [p.Q70R] and c.886G>A [p.V296M] were found in GPR172B. In vitro functional studies of both missense variations showed that riboflavin transport was unaffected by these variations. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a de novo deletion in GPR172B spanning exons 2 and 3 in one allele from the mother. We postulate that haploinsufficiency of this riboflavin transporter causes mild riboflavin deficiency, and when coupled with nutritional riboflavin deficiency in pregnancy, resulted in the transient riboflavin-responsive disease seen in her newborn infant. This is the first report of a genetic defect in riboflavin transport in humans.
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Symbiosis, morphology, and phylogeny of Hoplonymphidae (Parabasalia) of the wood-feeding roach Cryptocercus punctulatus.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Anaerobic cellulolytic flagellate protists of the hindguts of lower termites and the wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus are essential to their hosts ability to digest lignocellulose. Many have bacteria associated with their surfaces and within cytoplasmic vesicles-likely important symbioses as suggested by molecular and other data. Some of the most striking examples of these symbioses are in the parabasalid family Hoplonymphidae, but little or no data exist on the structural aspects of their symbioses, their relationships with bacteria through different life-cycle stages, or their diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Cryptocercus. We investigated these areas in the hoplonymphid genera Barbulanympha and Urinympha from Cryptocercus punctulatus using light and electron microscopy, and analysis of small subunit rRNA. Microscopy reveals variation in density of bacterial surface symbionts related to life-cycle stage, a glyococalyx possibly important in bacterial adhesion and/or metabolite exchange, and putative viruses associated with bacterial surface symbionts. Patterning of surface bacteria suggests protists emerging from the resistant (dormant) stage are colonized by a small population of bacterial cells, which then divide to cover their surface. Additionally, cytoplasmic protrusions from the protist are covered by bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis rejects the monophyly of Hoplonymphidae, suggesting multiple origins or losses of these bacterial symbioses.
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Homocysteine measurement in dried blood spot for neonatal detection of homocystinurias.
JIMD Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Expanded newborn screening (NBS) leads to an increased number of false positive results, causing parental anxiety, greater follow-up costs, and the need for further metabolic investigations. We developed and validated a second-tier approach for NBS of homocystinurias by measuring the total homocysteine (tHcy) on the initial dried blood spot (DBS) samples to reduce the need for further investigation, and investigated newborn DBS homocysteine values in patients with homocystinuria. Total DBS homocysteine was measured in normal newborns, and retrospectively in newborns with established disorders, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with stable isotope-labelled internal standards for homocysteine. Analytes were separated using reverse phase chromatography with a total run time of 3 min. The method was linear over the range of 10-100 ?mol/L of tHcy and showed excellent precision; intra-batch CV was 4% and inter-batch precision 6.5%. Comparison of 59 plasma values with DBS for tHcy taken at the same time showed excellent correlation, (r (2)>0.97). The reference range for current neonatal samples was 5.4-10.7 ?mol/L (n=99), and for the stored neonatal samples (stored dry, sealed in plastic at room temperature for 10 years) was 1.7-5.5 ?mol/L, (n=50), both being normally distributed. The clinical utility of this method was checked by retrospective analysis of stored NBS samples from patients with different forms of homocystinuria, including four different remethylating disorders. All had clear elevations of tHcy.
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Induction and prevention of severe hyperammonemia in the spfash mouse model of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency using shRNA and rAAV-mediated gene delivery.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Urea cycle defects presenting early in life with hyperammonemia remain difficult to treat and commonly necessitate liver transplantation. Gene therapy has the potential to prevent hyperammonemic episodes while awaiting liver transplantation, and possibly also to avert the need for transplantation altogether. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, the most prevalent urea cycle disorder, provides an ideal model for the development of liver-targeted gene therapy. While we and others have successfully cured the spf(ash) mouse model of OTC deficiency using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, a major limitation of this model is the presence of residual OTC enzymatic activity which confers a mild phenotype without clinically significant hyperammonemia. To better model severe disease we devised a strategy involving AAV2/8-mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to specifically knockdown residual endogenous OTC messenger RNA (mRNA). This strategy proved highly successful with vector-treated mice developing severe hyperammonemia and associated neurological impairment. Using this system, we showed that the dose of an AAV rescue construct encoding the murine OTC (mOTC) cDNA required to prevent hyperammonemia is fivefold lower than that required to control orotic aciduria. This result is favorable for clinical translation as it indicates that the threshold for therapeutic benefit is likely to be lower than indicated by earlier studies.
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Molecular and morphological analysis of the family Calonymphidae with a description of Calonympha chia sp. nov., Snyderella kirbyi sp. nov., Snyderella swezyae sp. nov. and Snyderella yamini sp. nov.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2010
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Calonymphids are a group of multinucleate, multiflagellate protists belonging to the order Cristamonadida (Parabasalia) that are found exclusively in the hindgut of termites from the family Kalotermitidae. Despite their impressive morphological complexity and diversity, few species have been formally described and fewer still have been characterized at the molecular level. In this study, four novel species of calonymphids were isolated and characterized: Calonympha chia and Snyderella yamini spp. nov., from Neotermes castaneus and Calcaritermes nearcticus from Florida, USA, and Snyderella kirbyi and Snyderella swezyae, spp. nov., from Calcaritermes nigriceps and Cryptotermes cylindroceps from Colombia. Each of these species was distinguished from its congeners by residing in a distinct host and by differences at the molecular level. Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit (SSU) rDNA indicated that the genera Calonympha and Stephanonympha were probably not monophyletic, though the genus Snyderella, previously only represented by one sequence in molecular analyses, appeared with these new data to be monophyletic. This was in keeping with the traditional evolutionary view of the group in which the morphology of the genus Snyderella is considered to be derived, while that of the genus Stephanonympha is ancestral and therefore probably plesiomorphic.
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Perinatal hypophosphatasia presenting as neonatal epileptic encephalopathy with abnormal neurotransmitter metabolism secondary to reduced co-factor pyridoxal-5-phosphate availability.
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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We describe two neonates presenting with perinatal hypophosphatasia and severe epileptic encephalopathy resulting in death. Both had increased levels of urinary vanillactate, indicating functional deficiency of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, a pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme required for dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis. Clinical findings and results of subsequent metabolic investigations were consistent with secondary pyridoxine-deficient encephalopathy. These patients highlight the importance of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase in the neuronal PLP-dependent metabolism of neurotransmitters. In addition, the disturbance of PLP metabolism appears to underlie the predominant neurological presentation in our patients. We recommend the measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) during the assessment of perinatal seizures.
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Expanded newborn screening: outcome in screened and unscreened patients at age 6 years.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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Tandem mass spectrometry is widely applied to routine newborn screening but there are no long-term studies of outcome. We studied the clinical outcome at six years of age in Australia.
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Morphology, phylogeny, and diversity of Trichonympha (Parabasalia: Hypermastigida) of the wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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Trichonympha is one of the most complex and visually striking of the hypermastigote parabasalids-a group of anaerobic flagellates found exclusively in hindguts of lower termites and the wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus-but it is one of only two genera common to both groups of insects. We investigated Trichonympha of Cryptocercus using light and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission), as well as molecular phylogeny, to gain a better understanding of its morphology, diversity, and evolution. Microscopy reveals numerous new features, such as previously undetected bacterial surface symbionts, adhesion of post-rostral flagella, and a distinctive frilled operculum. We also sequenced small subunit rRNA gene from manually isolated species, and carried out an environmental polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey of Trichonympha diversity, all of which strongly supports monophyly of Trichonympha from Cryptocercus to the exclusion of those sampled from termites. Bayesian and distance methods support a relationship between Trichonympha species from termites and Cryptocercus, although likelihood analysis allies the latter with Eucomonymphidae. A monophyletic Trichonympha is of great interest because recent evidence supports a sister relationship between Cryptocercus and termites, suggesting Trichonympha predates the Cryptocercus-termite divergence. The monophyly of symbiotic bacteria of Trichonympha raises the intriguing possibility of three-way co-speciation among bacteria, Trichonympha, and insect hosts.
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The inadequacy of morphology for species and genus delineation in microbial eukaryotes: an example from the parabasalian termite symbiont coronympha.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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For the majority of microbial eukaryotes (protists, algae), there is no clearly superior species concept that is consistently applied. In the absence of a practical biological species concept, most species and genus level delineations have historically been based on morphology, which may lead to an underestimate of the diversity of microbial eukaryotes. Indeed, a growing body of molecular evidence, such as barcoding surveys, is beginning to support the conclusion that significant cryptic species diversity exists. This underestimate of diversity appears to be due to a combination of using morphology as the sole basis for assessing diversity and our inability to culture the vast majority of microbial life. Here we have used molecular markers to assess the species delineations in two related but morphologically distinct genera of uncultivated symbionts found in the hindgut of termites.
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AAV2/8-mediated correction of OTC deficiency is robust in adult but not neonatal Spf(ash) mice.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, the most common urea cycle disorder, is associated with severe hyperammonemia accompanied by a high risk of neurological damage and death in patients presenting with the neonatal-onset form. Contemporary therapies, including liver transplantation, remain inadequate with considerable morbidity, justifying vigorous investigation of alternate therapies. Clinical evidence suggests that as little as 3% normal enzyme activity is sufficient to ameliorate the severe neonatal phenotype, making OTC deficiency an ideal model for the development of liver-targeted gene therapy. In this study, we investigated metabolic correction in neonatal and adult male OTC-deficient Spf(ash) mice following adeno-associated virus (AAV)2/8-mediated delivery of the murine OTC complementary DNA under the transcriptional control of a liver-specific promoter. Substantially supraphysiological levels of OTC enzymatic activity were readily achieved in both adult and neonatal mice following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, with metabolic correction in adults being robust and life-long. In the neonates, however, full metabolic correction was transient, although modest levels of OTC expression persisted into adulthood. Although not directly testable in Spf(ash) mice, these levels were theoretically sufficient to prevent hyperammonemia in a null phenotype. This loss of expression in the neonatal liver is the consequence of hepatocellular proliferation and presents an added challenge to human therapy.
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Phylogenetic position and morphology of spirotrichosomidae (parabasalia): new evidence from Leptospironympha of Cryptocercus punctulatus.
Protist
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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Parabasalia are a large, diverse clade of anaerobic flagellates, many of which inhabit the guts of wood-feeding insects. Because most are uncultivable, molecular data representing the true diversity of Parabasalia only became possible with the application of single-cell techniques, but in the last decade molecular data have accumulated rapidly. Within the Trichonymphida, the most diverse lineage of hypermastigote parabasalids, molecular data are now available from five of the six families, however, one family, the Spirotrichosomidae, has not been sampled at the molecular level, and is very little studied with electron microscopy. Here we examine a representative of Spirotrichosomidae--Leptospironympha of the wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus--with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and analyze its small subunit rRNA gene to infer its phylogenetic position. Phylogenetic analyses place Leptospironympha as sister to a clade comprising Eucomonymphidae and Teranymphidae with moderate support. Examination with scanning and transmission electron microscopy reveals new classes of previously undetected symbiotic surface bacteria, a glycocalyx, granular particles on flagella, and putative phagocytosed bacteria. The range of flagellar patterns in Spirotrichosomidae is quite wide, and the possibility that some members may be more closely related to Eucomonymphidae or Teranymphidae is addressed.
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Overexpression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in skeletal muscle is sufficient to enhance fatty acid oxidation and improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with lipid accumulation, but whether insulin resistance is due to reduced or enhanced flux of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria is both controversial and unclear. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of the muscle isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the enzyme that controls the entry of long-chain fatty acyl CoA into mitochondria, would enhance rates of fatty acid oxidation and improve insulin action in muscle in high-fat diet insulin-resistant rats.
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A pilot study of the effect of (e, e)-2, 4-undecadienal on the offensive odour of trimethylamine.
JIMD Rep
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Introduction: Trimethylaminuria is a malodour syndrome caused by a functional defect of flavin-containing monoxygenase 3 (FMO3), resulting in accumulation of trimethylamine in body secretions. Recently, (E, E)-2, 4-undecadienal has been shown to deodorize the offensive odour of cooked porcine intestines (chitlins). We tested the deodorizing effect of commercially available (E, E)-2, 4-undecadienal on the odour of trimethylamine (TMA) in solution. Study Participants: Eleven volunteers among staff of the Childrens Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia. Methods: This was a study in three stages. In the first stage,12 volunteers sniffed and graded a commercially available trimethylamine at variable concentrations (12.5-10,000 ?mol/L). Those who could smell trimethylamine scored the odour of mixtures of (E, E)-2, 4-undecadienal and trimethylamine. Finally, the odour of trimethylamine was graded with increasing concentrations of (E, E)-2, 4-undecadienal (0.1-100 ppm). Results: All except one could detect the characteristic trimethylamine odour at varying concentrations (12.5-10,000 ?mol/L) and reported the odour as offensive and fish like. There was a dose response effect of the ability of (E, E)-2, 4-undecadienal to deodorize the odour of trimethylamine. (E, E)-2, 4-undecadienal at 10 ppm appeared to deodorize the odour of trimethylamine at 1,000 ?mol/L without making the formers odour obvious. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that (E, E)-2, 4-undecadienal has a deodorizing effect on the offensive odour of trimethylamine in solution. The mechanism of action for this effect and potential for treatment of affected individuals needs further research.
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Human Variome Project country nodes: documenting genetic information within a country.
Hum. Mutat.
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The Human Variome Project (http://www.humanvariomeproject.org) is an international effort aiming to systematically collect and share information on all human genetic variation. The two main pillars of this effort are gene/disease-specific databases and a network of Human Variome Project Country Nodes. The latter are nationwide efforts to document the genomic variation reported within a specific population. The development and successful operation of the Human Variome Project Country Nodes are of utmost importance to the success of Human Variome Projects aims and goals because they not only allow the genetic burden of disease to be quantified in different countries, but also provide diagnosticians and researchers access to an up-to-date resource that will assist them in their daily clinical practice and biomedical research, respectively. Here, we report the discussions and recommendations that resulted from the inaugural meeting of the International Confederation of Countries Advisory Council, held on 12th December 2011, during the 2011 Human Variome Project Beijing Meeting. We discuss the steps necessary to maximize the impact of the Country Node effort for developing regional and country-specific clinical genetics resources and summarize a few well-coordinated genetic data collection initiatives that would serve as paradigms for similar projects.
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Fluorinated colloidal gold immunolabels for imaging select proteins in parallel with lipids using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry.
Bioconjug. Chem.
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The local abundance of specific lipid species near a membrane protein is hypothesized to influence the proteins activity. The ability to simultaneously image the distributions of specific protein and lipid species in the cell membrane would facilitate testing these hypotheses. Recent advances in imaging the distribution of cell membrane lipids with mass spectrometry have created the desire for membrane protein probes that can be simultaneously imaged with isotope labeled lipids. Such probes would enable conclusive tests to determine whether specific proteins colocalize with particular lipid species. Here, we describe the development of fluorine-functionalized colloidal gold immunolabels that facilitate the detection and imaging of specific proteins in parallel with lipids in the plasma membrane using high-resolution SIMS performed with a NanoSIMS. First, we developed a method to functionalize colloidal gold nanoparticles with a partially fluorinated mixed monolayer that permitted NanoSIMS detection and rendered the functionalized nanoparticles dispersible in aqueous buffer. Then, to allow for selective protein labeling, we attached the fluorinated colloidal gold nanoparticles to the nonbinding portion of antibodies. By combining these functionalized immunolabels with metabolic incorporation of stable isotopes, we demonstrate that influenza hemagglutinin and cellular lipids can be imaged in parallel using NanoSIMS. These labels enable a general approach to simultaneously imaging specific proteins and lipids with high sensitivity and lateral resolution, which may be used to evaluate predictions of protein colocalization with specific lipid species.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.