Immune cells sense microbial products through Toll-like receptors (TLR), which trigger host defense responses including type 1 interferons (IFNs) secretion. A coding polymorphism in the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene is a susceptibility allele for human autoimmune and infectious disease. We report that Ptpn22 selectively regulated type 1 IFN production after TLR engagement in myeloid cells. Ptpn22 promoted host antiviral responses and was critical for TLR agonist-induced, type 1 IFN-dependent suppression of inflammation in colitis and arthritis. PTPN22 directly associated with TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and promotes TRAF3 lysine 63-linked ubiquitination. The disease-associated PTPN22W variant failed to promote TRAF3 ubiquitination, type 1 IFN upregulation, and type 1 IFN-dependent suppression of arthritis. The findings establish a candidate innate immune mechanism of action for a human autoimmunity "risk" gene in the regulation of host defense and inflammation.
The patient was a 61-year-old female with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, who was admitted to our hospital due to elevation of AFP.During the evaluation, both abdominal ultrasound and enhanced abdominal CT revealed a hepatocellular carcinoma measuring 4 cm in the S6-7 region, complicated with an arteriovenous shunt.Additionally, the lung CT examination showed 20 isolated bilateral lung tumors, all of which were less than 1.4 cm in diameter. Following the diagnosis, we performed a transcatheter arterial infusion chemotherapy of SMANCS at 3 mg through the right heptic artery. Thereafter, the AFP level returned to normal. Additionally, the tumors previously observed in both liver and lung, and exhibited by both lung CT and enhanced abdominal MRI, had disappeared.The patient has been in clinical remission more than 10 years to date.
Pep and CD45 are tyrosine phosphatases whose targets include the Src-family kinases, critical mediators of Ag receptor signaling. A polymorphism in PTPN22, the gene that encodes the human Pep orthologue Lyp, confers susceptibility to multiple human autoimmune diseases in the context of complex genetic backgrounds. However, the functional significance of the R620W risk allele is not clear. We report that misexpression of wild-type or R620W Pep/Lyp in Jurkat cells, in the context of its binding partner Csk, unmasks the risk allele as a hypomorph. It has been shown previously that although Pep-deficient mice on the B6 background have hyperresponsive memory T cells, autoimmunity does not develop. Mice containing a point mutation in the CD45 juxtamembrane wedge domain (E613R) develop a B cell-driven, lupus-like disease on the mixed 129/B6 background, but not on the B6 background. We studied the ability of Pep deficiency to act as a genetic modifier of the CD45 E613R mutation on the nonautoimmune B6 background to understand how complex susceptibility loci might interact in autoimmunity. In this study we report that double mutant mice develop a lupus-like disease as well as lymphadenopathy, polyclonal lymphocyte activation, and accelerated memory T cell formation. Following Ag receptor stimulation, peripheral B cells in the double mutant mice phenocopy hyperresponsive CD45 E613R B cells, whereas peripheral T cells respond like Pep(-/-) T cells. These studies suggest that Pep(-/-) T cells in the context of a susceptible microenvironment can drive hyperresponsive CD45 E613R B cells to break tolerance.
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