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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Critical measurement issues/challenges in assessing aerobic capacity in youth.
Res Q Exerc Sport
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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We discuss current measurement issues related to tests of aerobic capacity in the FITNESSGRAM. Interpretation of tests of aerobic capacity is difficult because the criterion measure of aerobic capacity, maximal rate of oxygen uptake (VO2(max)) expressed relative to body weight, is inversely related to body fatness and body mass index (BMI). This association cannot be easily be eliminated in a way that maintains the units commonly used to express aerobic capacity (i.e., mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and is understandable to typical test users. Requiring the measurement of BMI to predict VO2(max) creates practical problems for users by: (a) uncoupling the relation of predicted VO2(max) to physical performance on the 1-mile run/walk (MRW) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) tests, (b) making explicit the influence of body composition on the ability of children to achieve the aerobic capacity healthy fitness zone, and (c) creating a barrier for users who cannot measure height and weight. The use of test equating improved classification agreement between the MRW and PACER tests but required measurement of BMI to estimate aerobic capacity from the PACER. A new equation to predict aerobic capacity that does not require BMI was recently introduced to address user concerns. This change will improve ease of use of the Fitnessgram with little effect on prediction accuracy but will likely result in poorer classification agreement between the MRW and PACER tests. Although considerable progress has been made in addressing issues related to assessment of aerobic capacity in youth, future work is needed to carefully balance the issues of prediction accuracy, test feasibility, and test agreement.
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Comparison of responses to two high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Gist, NH, Freese, EC, and Cureton, KJ. Comparison of responses to two high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols. J Strength Cond Res 28(11): 3033-3040, 2014-The purpose of this study was to compare peak cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and perceptual responses to acute bouts of sprint interval cycling (SIC) and a high-intensity intermittent calisthenics (HIC) protocol consisting of modified "burpees." Eleven (8 men and 3 women) moderately trained, college-aged participants (age = 21.9 ± 2.1, body mass index = 24.8 ± 1.9, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak = 54.1 ± 5.4 ml·kg·min) completed 4 testing sessions across 9 days with each session separated by 48-72 hours. Using a protocol of 4 repeated bouts of 30-second "all-out" efforts interspersed with 4-minute active recovery periods, responses to SIC and HIC were classified relative to peak values. Mean values for %V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and %HRpeak for SIC (80.4 ± 5.3% and 86.8 ± 3.9%) and HIC (77.6 ± 6.9% and 84.6 ± 5.3%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Effect sizes (95% confidence interval) calculated for mean differences were: %V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak Cohen's d = 0.51 (0.48-0.53) and %HRpeak Cohen's d = 0.57 (0.55-0.59). A low-volume, high-intensity bout of repeated whole-body calisthenic exercise induced cardiovascular responses that were not significantly different but were ?1/2SD lower than "all-out" SIC. These results suggest that in addition to the benefit of reduced time commitment, a high-intensity interval protocol of calisthenics elicits vigorous cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses and may confer physiological adaptations and performance improvements similar to those reported for SIC. The potential efficacy of this alternative interval training method provides support for its application by athletes, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals.
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Effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia: an updated quantitative review.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG) can lower the risk for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analytic review of the literature to estimate the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia. A total of 121 effects were found from 76 studies for the total TG response and 70 effects from 44 studies for the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) TG response. The weighted mean effect was moderate for the total TG response, Cohens d = -0.60 (P < 0.0001), and for the iAUC response, Cohens d = -0.59 (P < 0.0001). Moderator analysis revealed women exhibited a larger reduction (P < .01) in the total TG response following exercise (d = -0.96) than men (d = -0.57); high-intensity interval training induced a larger reduction (P < .05) in the iAUC response (d = -1.49) than aerobic (d = -0.58) or resistance (d = -0.13) exercise, and participants maintaining an energy deficit following exercise exhibited a greater reduction in the iAUC response (d = -0.67) compared with participants in energy balance (d = -0.28). We conclude that prior acute exercise reduces postprandial lipemia, with the magnitude of effect influenced by sex, type of exercise, and energy deficit following exercise.
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Physiological responses to an acute bout of sprint interval cycling.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Sprint interval training has been shown to improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and health outcomes. However, the acute physiological responses to 4-7 maximal effort intervals have not been determined. To determine the V[Combining Dot Above]O2, cardiorespiratory responses, and energy expenditure during an acute bout of sprint interval cycling (SIC), health, college-aged subjects, 6 men and 6 women, completed 2 SIC sessions with at least 7 days between trials. Sprint interval cycling was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved a 5-minute warm-up followed by four 30-second all-out sprints with 4-minute active recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg·min) during the 4 sprints were 35.3 ± 8.2, 38.8 ± 10.1, 38.8 ± 10.6, and 36.8 ± 9.3, and peak heart rate (b·min) were 164 ± 17, 172 ± 10, 177 ± 12, and 175 ± 22. We conclude that an acute bout of SIC elicits submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses during each interval that are above 80% of estimated maximal values. Although the duration of exercise in SIC is very short, the high level of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses are sufficient to potentially elicit adaptations to training associated with elevated aerobic energy demand.
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Effects of acute sprint interval cycling and energy replacement on postprandial lipemia.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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High postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) levels increase cardiovascular disease risk. Exercise interventions may be effective in reducing postprandial blood TG. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sprint interval cycling (SIC), with and without replacement of the energy deficit, on postprandial lipemia. In a repeated-measures crossover design, six men and six women participated in three trials, each taking place over 2 days. On the evening of the first day of each trial, the participants either did SIC without replacing the energy deficit (Ex-Def), did SIC and replaced the energy deficit (Ex-Bal), or did not exercise (control). SIC was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min active recovery. In the morning of day 2, responses to a high-fat meal were measured. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. There was a trend toward a reduction with treatment in fasting TG (P = 0.068), but no significant treatment effect for fasting insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate (P > 0.05). The postprandial area under the curve (mmol·l(-1)·3 h(-1)) TG response was significantly lower in Ex-Def (21%, P = 0.006) and Ex-Bal (10%, P = 0.044) than in control, and significantly lower in Ex-Def (12%, P = 0.032) than in Ex-Bal. There was no treatment effect (P > 0.05) observed for area under the curve responses of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate. SIC reduces postprandial lipemia, but the energy deficit alone does not fully explain the decrease observed.
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Development of youth aerobic-capacity standards using receiver operating characteristic curves.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Cardiovascular fitness has important implications for current and future health in children.
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Effects of 6 weeks of quercetin supplementation on energy, fatigue, and sleep in ROTC cadets.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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To investigate the effects of 6 weeks of quercetin supplementation on energy, fatigue, and sleep quality in young persons conducting military physical training.
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Effect of sprint interval training on circulatory function during exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese women.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
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Very high-intensity, low-volume, sprint interval training (SIT) increases muscle oxidative capacity and may increase maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), but whether circulatory function is improved, and whether SIT is feasible in overweight/obese women is unknown. To examine the effects of SIT on [Formula: see text] and circulatory function in sedentary, overweight/obese women. Twenty-eight women with BMI > 25 were randomly assigned to SIT or control (CON) groups. One week before pre-testing, subjects were familarized to [Formula: see text] testing and the workload that elicited 50% [Formula: see text] was calculated. Pre- and post-intervention, circulatory function was measured at 50% of the pre-intervention [Formula: see text], and a GXT was performed to determine [Formula: see text]. During the intervention, SIT training was given for 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 4-7, 30-s sprints on a stationary cycle (5% body mass as resistance) with 4 min active recovery between sprints. CON maintained baseline physical activity. Post-intervention, heart rate (HR) was significantly lower and stroke volume (SV) significantly higher in SIT (-8.1 and 11.4%, respectively; P < 0.05) during cycling at 50% [Formula: see text]; changes in CON were not significant (3 and -4%, respectively). Changes in cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) and arteriovenous oxygen content difference [(a - v)O(2) diff] were not significantly different for SIT or CON. The increase in [Formula: see text] by SIT was significantly greater than by CON (12 vs. -1%). Changes by SIT and CON in HR(max) (-1 vs. -1%) were not significantly different. Four weeks of SIT improve circulatory function during submaximal exercise and increases [Formula: see text] in sedentary, overweight/obese women.
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Effects of six weeks of quercetin supplementation on physical performance in ROTC cadets.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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To investigate the effects of 6 weeks of quercetin supplementation on physical performance during military physical training.
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Dietary quercetin supplementation is not ergogenic in untrained men.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Quercetin supplementation increases muscle oxidative capacity and endurance in mice, but its ergogenic effect in humans has not been established. Our study investigates the effects of short-duration chronic quercetin supplementation on muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, perceptual, and neuromuscular determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; and cycling performance in untrained men. Using a double-blind, pretest-posttest control group design, 30 recreationally active, but not endurance-trained, young men were randomly assigned to quercetin and placebo groups. A noninvasive measure of muscle oxidative capacity (phosphocreatine recovery rate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy), peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)), metabolic and perceptual responses to submaximal exercise, work performed on a 10-min maximal-effort cycling test following the submaximal cycling, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss following cycling were measured before and after 7-16 days of supplementation with 1 g/day of quercetin in a sports hydration beverage or a placebo beverage. Pretreatment-to-posttreatment changes in phosphocreatine recovery time constant, Vo(2peak,) substrate utilization, and perception of effort during submaximal exercise, total work done during the 10-min maximal effort cycling trial, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss were not significantly different (P > 0.05) in the quercetin and placebo groups. Short duration, chronic dietary quercetin supplementation in untrained men does not improve muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, neuromuscular and perceptual determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; or cycling performance. The null findings indicate that metabolic and physical performance consequences of quercetin supplementation observed in mice should not be generalized to humans.
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Effect of intensity of resistance exercise on postprandial lipemia.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The purpose of this study is to determine whether moderate-intensity resistance exercise (MOD) lowers postprandial lipemia (PPL) as much as high-intensity resistance exercise (HI) of equal work. Ten healthy men performed three trials, each conducted over 2 days. On day 1 of each treatment, they either did not exercise (CON), performed 3 sets of 16 repetitions of 10 exercises at 50% of 8 repetitions maximum (MOD), or performed 3 sets of 8 repetitions of 10 exercises at 100% of 8 repetitions maximum (HI). On the morning of day 2 at 15.5 h postexercise, participants ate a high-fat meal. Venous blood samples were collected, and metabolic rate was measured at rest and 3 h postprandial. HI reduced fasting triglyceride (TG) and TG area under the curve (AUC) (36%, P = 0.011 and 35%, P = 0.014) compared with CON. MOD tended to reduce fasting TG and TG AUC (21%, P = 0.054 and 26%, P = 0.052) compared with CON, but MOD and HI did not differ in fasting TG or TG AUC. Incremental TG AUC did not differ among treatments. MOD and HI did not change resting metabolic rate. HI increased fat oxidation at rest (21%, P = 0.021) and at 3 h postprandial (39%, P = 0.009) relative to CON. MOD tended to increase fat oxidation at rest (18%, P = 0.060) relative to CON. Fat oxidation and metabolic rate did not differ in MOD and HI. MOD and HI increased the fasting quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (4%, P = 0.001 and P = 0.004) relative to CON. As MOD and HI resulted in similar reductions in PPL and increases in fat oxidation, resistance exercise intensity does not influence PPL.
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Grape Consumptions Effects on Fitness, Muscle Injury, Mood, and Perceived Health.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
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Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO(2max), work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO(2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise.
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Cardiovascular drift and Vo2max during cycling and walking in a temperate environment.
Aviat Space Environ Med
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Different muscle recruitment patterns during cycling and walking may influence the magnitude of cardiovascular drift (CV drift) during these respective modes of exercise, but whether this also influences the magnitude of reduced maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) associated with CV drift is unknown.This study tested the hypothesis that cycling results in greater CV drift and a greater decrement in Vo2max than walking in a temperate environment.
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Cardiovascular drift during heat stress: implications for exercise prescription.
Exerc Sport Sci Rev
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Cardiovascular drift, the progressive increase in heart rate and decrease in stroke volume that begins after approximately 10 min of prolonged moderate-intensity exercise, is associated with decreased maximal oxygen uptake, particularly during heat stress. Consequently, the increased heart rate reflects an increased relative metabolic intensity during prolonged exercise in the heat when cardiovascular drift occurs, which has implications for exercise prescription.
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Sprint Interval Training Effects on Aerobic Capacity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Sports Med
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Sprint interval training (SIT) involving repeated 30-s "all out" efforts have resulted in significantly improved skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, maximal oxygen uptake, and endurance performance. The positive impact of SIT on cardiorespiratory fitness has far-reaching health implications.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.